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--r|  THE 




"^^  LL.  D.,  F.  R.  S. 

1  &C.  &C.  &C. 






JOHN    BARON,   M.D.,    F.R.S. 




VOL.  II. 








V,  A 

'•   B.    .NICHOLS    AND    SON,   25,    PAEHAMENT 




Those  who  have  done  me  the  favour  of  perusing 
the  former  Volume,  are  aware  of  the  inducements 
which  prompted  me  to  publish  it  before  the  com- 
pletion of  the  work.  The  part  now  brought  forth 
finishes  my  undertaking.  It  has  been  in  manu- 
script for  several  years.  The  reasons  which  have 
retarded  the  publication  are  so  much  of  a  private 
and  personal  nature  as  to  render  it  unnecessary  to 
specify  them.  This  delay  has  been  irksome  to  my- 
self;  but  I  hope  it  has  not  been  injurious,  either 
to  the  cause  of  vaccination,  or  to  the  character  of 
its  author. 

The  feelings  avowed  in  the  first  volume  have 
never  been  absent  from  my  mind  during  any  part 
of  the  progress  of  the  work.  I  am  deeply  con- 
scious of  its  many  imperfections,  and  should  have 
been  well  contented  to  have  seen  the  whole  subject 
handled  by  some  one  possessed  of  more  leisure  and 
greater  powers  than  belong  to  me.  The  labour  has 
been  carried  on  amid  many  hindrances;  and  had  not 
the  kind  individuals  whose  names  I  have  mentioned 


in  the  introduction,  given  me  their  aid,  I  must  have 
abandoned  it  entirely.  I  have  great  pleasure  in  again 
recording  their  good  offices,  especially  those  of 
Richard  Gamble,  my  oldest  friend,  whose  attach- 
ment to  me  has  been  '^  closer  than  that  of  a  brother  :" 


He  laboured  with  me  in  the  examination  of  the 
voluminous  papers  with  a  devotion  to  the  name  of 
Jenner  that  well  deserves  to  be  had  in  remem- 
brance :  but,  above  all,  he  enabled  me  to  give  those 
illustrations  of  the  views  of  pestilence  which  I 
deemed  it  necessary  to  present  in  the  Fifth  and 
Sixth  Chapters  of  the  first  volume.  Every  succeed- 
ing day  seems  to  have  confirmed  the  truth  of 
these  views ;  and  it  was  a  notion,  perhaps  an  un- 
founded one,  that  the  dissemination  of  them  would 
tend  to  augment  the  confidence  in  vaccination,  which 
tempted  me  to  commit  them  to  the  press  before 
the  whole  work  was  ready.  In  these  conclusions 
I  may  have  erred,  but  the  sincerity  of  my  purpose 
will  not,  on  that  account,  I  trust,  be  called  in  ques- 



Consequences  of  the  first  Parliamentary  Grant — Jenner 
resident  in  London — his  Anticipations  disappointed — 
Progress  of  Vaccination  abroad,  and  of  Opposition  at 
home — The  Napoleon  Medal,  and  other  Honours — His 
alleged  Distrust  of  Vaccination  in  the  case  of  his  own 
Son    .  .  .  .  .  .1 


Continued  Progress  of  Vaccination  abroad — Vaccinations 
at  Cheltenham — Arrangements  for  farther  Discussion 
in  Parliament — Second  Grant — Interview  with  Mr. 
Perceval  with  a  View  to  limit  the  Diffusion  of  Small- 
Pox  by  Inoculation         .  .  ,  .50 


Domestic  Life — Worgan — Return  of  the  Spanish  Vaccine 
Expedition — Various  Honours  —  Presents  from  the 
Presidencies  in  India        .  .  .  .71 




General  View  of  the  State  of  Vaccination — Address  of 
the  Five  Indian  Nations — Influence  of  Jenner  with 
foreign  States — Formation  of  the  National  Vaccine 
Establishment — Causes  of  his  withdrawing  from  it — 
Death  of  his  eldest  Son  .  .  .98 


Case  of  the  Honourable  Robert  Grosvenor — Jenner's 
Sentiments  on  that  Subject — His  Attempts  to  liberate  a 
French  Prisoner — Elected  Foreign  Associate  of  the 
National  Institute — Sir  Joseph  Banks  and  the  original 
Paper  on  Vaccination — Poems  in  honour  of  Vaccina- 
tion  ......     155 


Libels — Progress  of  Vaccination — Degree  of  M.  D.  by 
Diploma  conferred  upon  Dr.  Jenner  by  the  University 
of  Oxford — Discussions  in  the  College  of  Physicians — 
Lord  Roringdon's  Bill  to  restrain  Small-Pox — Jenner's 
Occupations  in  the  Country — His  Interviews  with  the 
Duchess  of  Oldenburgh  and  the  Allied  Sovereigns — 
Address  from  Brunn  in  Moravia — Letter  of  Soemmer- 
ing, with  Diploma,  from  Munich     .  .  .     181 


Death  of  Mrs.  Jenner — Epidemic  at  Edinburgh — Publica- 
tion of  Sir  Gilbert  Blane's  Tract — Varioloid  Epidemics     219 


Summary  of  Facts  relating  to  Vaccination — Its  Influence 
on  the  Mortality  of  Infants,  and  on  Population — Publi- 
cation of  the  Circular — Letter  to  Dr.  Charles  Parry — 
Paper  on  the  Migration  of  Birds    .  .  .     242 



Domestic  Habits    and   personal    Character — Death    and 
Funeral  .....     277 


From  Dr.  Jenner  to  various  Individuals,  &c.  &c.  .     323 


No.  I.  List  of  Diplomas,  Honours,  &c.  conferred  on 
Dr.  Jenner        .....  449 

No.  II.  Reference  to  the  Madrid  Gazette,  and  to  Dr. 
Sacco's  Paper  on  the  Varioloid  Disease — The  Ben- 
gal Epizootic — A  similar  Disease  in  England — Grease 
and  the  Variolte  Equinae  .  .  .     455 

No.  III.  List  of  Medals  struck  in  honour  of  Vaccina- 
tion .  ....     456 

Index  .  ....     459 


VOL.  I. 

Page     63,  line  12  from  bottom, /or  principal,  I.  principle. 

Page  239,  line  2  from  top, /or  Gunning,  /.  Dunning. 

Page  376,  line  7  from  top, /or  delineates,  I.  delineate. 

Page  429,  /.  Dr.  De  Carro  to  Dr.  Jenner,/or  to  Dr.  De  Carro,  Vienna. 

Page  606,  line  6  from  top,  for  successfully,  I.  successively. 


Pages   10,  52,  53,  for  Frank,  /.  Franck. 

Page     56,  line  2  from  top, /or  he,  I.  she. 

Page  106,  line  2  from  top, /or  Valentine,  /.  Valentin. 

Page  108,  line  last,/or  astonished,  I.  enraged. 

Page  168,  line  19  from  top,  dele  to. 






The  discussion  in  parliament,  and  the  very  in- 
adequate grant  which  was  the  result  of  it,  by  no 
means  produced  the  effects  that  Jenner's  friends 
anticipated.  It  stirred  up  greater  hostility  and 
envy,  and  materially  added  to  his  own  responsi- 
bility, without  giving  him  the  strength  and  inde- 
pendence which  might  better  have  enabled  him  to 
cope  with  his  antagonists.     He  was  left  with  the 

VOL.  II.  B 

2  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

whole  weight  of  a  most  momentous  undertaking 
upon  his  own  shoulders.  Those  who  were  jealous 
of  his  fame  waxed  more  bold  ;  his  friends  became 
lukewarm ;  his  enemies  more  united  and  cla- 
morous ;  the  demands  upon  his  time  and  attention 
were  increased ;  his  private  resources  were  dimi- 
nished ;  and  he  could  not  devote  himself  to  his 
practice  as  a  physician.  Crippled  and  chstressed 
though  he  was  by  the  very  means  which  some 
fondly  imagined  would  have  proved  most  bene- 
ficial to  him,  he,  nevertheless,  took  his  station  and 
kept  it  firmly.  He  fixed  his  mind  upon  the  great 
object  which  he  was  called  upon  to  fulfil,  and  re- 
solved at  all  hazards  to  persevere,  and  never  to 
desert  the  cause  while  he  had  power  to  labour  in 
it.  In  this  attitude  we  shall  ever  find  him.  Had 
he  been  more  selfish,  more  ambitious,  more  desi- 
rous of  pursuing  objects  of  personal  emolument  or 
aggrandizement,  he  certainly  had  the  fairest  op- 
portunities of  doing  so  ;  and  no  one  could  justly 
say  that  any  distinction,  which  such  a  man  might 
have  acquired,  was  unmerited. 

The  people  of  England  seemed  to  think  that  the 
fee-simple  both  of  his  body  and  mind  had  been 
purchased  by  the  ten  thousand  pounds  ;  and 
many  an  unjust  and  ungenerous  intimation  of  this 
feeling  was  conveyed  to  him.  To  a  mind  like  his, 
this  was  no  small  annoyance.  He  was  called  upon 
for  explanations,  for  opinions,  by  every  person  who 
thought  a  direct  communication  with  the  author 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  3 

of  Vaccination  an  honour  worth  seeking ;  when 
they  might  have  obtained  all  the  information  they 
wanted  from  his  published  writings. 

It  is  likewise  to  be  remembered  that  a  more 
formidable  and  rancorous  resistance  than  had  yet 
appeared,  began  to  show  itself ;  and  had  he  not 
been  constantly  cheered  and  animated  by  the  con- 
viction that  the  knowledge  of  his  discovery  was 
rapidly  extending  itself  over  the  earth,  and  that  the 
unceasing  opposition  of  his  enemies  could  not 
interfere  with  the  real  and  substantial  benefits 
which  it  was  actually  conferring,  he  would  have 
had  many  reasons  to  regret  the  conspicuous  eleva- 
tion on  which  it  had  placed  him. 

Influenced  by  the  remarks  of  some  of  his  parlia- 
mentary advocates,  he  was  induced  to  fix  himself 
in  Hertford-street,  May  Fair.  The  result  of  this 
plan  by  no  means  corresponded  with  their  antici- 
pations. "  Elated  and  allured,"  he  observes,  "  by 
the  speech  of  the  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer,  I 
took  a  house  in  London  for  ten  years,  at  a  high 
rent,  and  furnished  it ;  but  my  first  year's  practice 
convinced  me  of  my  own  temerity  and  impru- 
dence, and  the  falsity  of  the  minister's  prediction. 
My  fees  fell  off  both  in  number  and  value ;  for, 
extraordinary  to  tell,  some  of  those  families  in 
which  I  had  been  before  employed,  now  sent  to 
their  own  domestic  surgeons  or  apothecaries 
to  inoculate  their  childi-en,  alleging  that  they 
could  not  think  of  troubling  Dr.  Jenner  about  a 

B  2 

4  LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER. 

thing  executed  so  easily  as  vaccine  inoculation. 
Others,  who  gave  me  such  fees  as  I  thought  my- 
self entitled  to  at  the  first  inoculation,  reduced 
them  at  the  second,  and  sank  them  still  lower  at 
the  third."  The  truth  is,  that  Jenner,  in  publish- 
ing his  discovery  as  he  did,  effectually  prevented 
the  fulfilment  of  Mr.  Addington's  prechctions  ;  and 
it  was  scarcely  befitting  the  representatives  of  a 
great  nation  to  speculate  on  a  contingency  of  this 
nature,  in  calculating  the  reward  due  to  such  a 
benefactor.  He  himself  remarks  to  one  of  his 
correspondents,  "  I  have  now  completely  made  up 
my  mind  respecting  London.  I  have  done  with 
it,  and  have  again  commenced  village-doctor.  I 
found  my  purse  not  equal  to  the  sinking  of  a  thou- 
sand pounds  annually  (which  has  actually  been 
the  case  for  several  successive  years,)  nor  the  gra- 
titude of  the  public  deserving  such  a  sacrifice. 
How  hard,  after  what  I  have  done,  the  toils  I  have 
gone  through,  and  the  anxieties  I  have  endured  in 
obtaining  for  the  world  a  greater  gift  than  man 
ever  bestowed  on  them  before  (excuse  this  burst 
of  egotism),  to  be  thrown  by  with  a  bare  remu- 
neration of  my  expenses !"  * 

*  That  some  estimate  may  he  formed  of  the  nature  of 
the  treatment  which  he  received,  I  suhjoin  the  foHowing  ex- 
tracts from  letters  written  hy  liim  to  an  intimate  friend. 

June  3,  1804.  "  The  Treasury  still  withholds  the  pay- 
ment of  what  was  voted   me  two  years  ago  ;  and  now  there 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER.  5 

Independently  of  these  causes  of  distress,  his 
mind  was  much  agitated  by  anxiety  respecting  the 
health  of  Mrs.  Jenner.  She  had  been  seized  with 
spitting  of  blood,  and  this  occurrence  was  the 
source  of  painful  solicitude  to  him  during  the  re- 
mainder of  her  life.  It  was  deemed  by  his  friends 
in  London  very  desirable  that  he  should  be  in 
town  during  the  course  of  this  spring  (1804),  to 
attend  the  anniversary  of  the  Royal  Jennerian 
Society,  celebrated  on  his  birth-day — the  l/th  of 
May.  In  declining  a  pressing  invitation  on  this 
subject,  he  observes,  "though  ft  post-chaise  or  a 
mail-coach  might  bring  up  my  body,  my  mind 
would  be  left  behind.  One  cause  of  my  absence, 
among  many  others,  is  the  sad  state  of  Mrs. 
Jenner's  health.  I  cannot  leave  her  even  for  a 
day  with  any  comfort  to  my  feelings.  My  friends, 
who  honour  the  glorious  cause  of  vaccination  by 
assembling  on  the  l/th,  will,  I  trust,  admit  my 
apology.     It   is   my   intention   to    collect   a    few 

are  new  officers,  the  time  may  be  very  long  before  a  guinea 
reaches  me  from  that  quarter." 

Nov.  2,  1804.  "  The  London  smoke,  I  have  observed,  is 
too  apt  to  cloud  our  best  fticulties.  I  don't  intend  to  risk  the 
injury  of  mine  in  this  way ;  except  it  may  be  occasionally, 
merely  for  the  transaction  of  business.  That  the  public  has 
not  the  smallest  right  to  expect  it  of  me,  no  one  will  deny. — 
I  have  received  no  reward  for  showing  them  how  to  remove 
one  of  the  greatest  olistacles  to  human  happiness  ;  but,  on 
the  contrary,  am  loaded  with  a  tax  of  more  than  £400  a 
year ! " 

6  LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER. 

Staunch  vaccinists  on  that  day  at  my  cottage.  I 
shall  give  them  some  roast  beef,  not  forgetting  a 
horn  or  two  of  good  October.  We  shall  close  the 
day  with  bumpers  of  milk-punch  to  the  health  of 
the  friends  of  humanity  at  the  Crown  and  Anchor ; 
and  if  it  were  not  for  the  indisposition  of  my  poor 
wife,  we  should  roar  like  bulls." 

The  facts  above  recorded  relative  to  remunera- 
tion, induced  many  of  Dr.  Jenner's  friends  to  turn 
their  eyes  to  other  portions  of  the  globe,  which 
were  benefiting  largely  by  the  vaccine  discovery ; 
with  the  hope  that  they  would  testify  their  grati- 
tude by  some  substantial  token.  Our  rich  pos- 
sessions in  the  East  were  first  looked  to  on  this 
occasion.  The  ever-active  and  benevolent  Dr. 
Lettsom  started  the  idea,  and  wrote  to  Jenner  on 
the  subject.  His  reply  drew  forth  the  following 
expression  from  another  friend,  the  late  Benjamin 
Travers,  esq. 

London,  Feb,  18/A,  1804. 

My  dear  Doctor, 

I  have  just  read  your  interesting  letter  of  the  8th  inst. 
to  Dr.  Lettsom.  It  does  you  the  greatest  honour;  and  I 
shall  make  the  best  use  of  it  tliat  lies  in  my  power.  I 
wish  I  had  had  the  happiness  of  your  acquaintance  a  few 
years  ago :  you  should  not  liave  acted  in  the  manner  you 
liave :  your  liberality  and  disinterestedness  every  one  must 
admire  and  extol ;  but  you  are  sadly  deficient  in  w'orldly 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER.  7 

I  shall  do  the  little  which  lies  in  my  power  to  impress 
the  minds  of  those  whose  influence  may  prove  serviceable, 
was  it  merely  to  save  the  character  of  the  nation  from 
being  blasted  with  ingratitude  to  a  man  to  whom  the 
WORLD  has  been  so  greatly  indebted. 

I  am,  my  dear  Doctor, 
with  the  most  unfeigned  esteem  and  regard, 

yours  truly, 
Benjamin  Travers. 

In  another  letter,  the  same  judicious  corre- 
spondent observes,  "  If  you  had  undertaken  the 
extinction  of  the  small-pox  yourself,  with  coad- 
jutors of  your  ow^n  appointment,  I  am  confident  you 
might  have  put  £100,000  in  your  pocket ;  and  the 
glory  be  as  great,  and  the  benefit  to  the  commu- 
nity the  same." 

This  excellent  individual  was  not  more  mindful 
of  Jenner's  private  affairs  than  he  was  of  vaccina- 
tion itself.  As  a  member  of  the  Jennerian  Society, 
he  was  endeavouring  to  effect  an  object,  which 
(one  would  have  imagined)  might  have  been 
accomplished  without  difficulty  ;  I  mean  the  aban- 
donment of  variolous  inoculation  at  the  Small  Pox 
Hospital.  But,  strange  to  say,  this  act  of  justice 
and  of  mercy  was  delayed  till  nearly  twenty  years 
after  the  period  of  which  I  now  write. 

The  Directors  of  the  Vaccine  Board,  soon  after 
this  period,  felt  themselves  called  upon,  in  conse- 
quence of  the  peculiar  situation  of  Dr.  Jenner,  to 
deviate  somewhat  from  the  ostensible  purposes  of 

8  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

their  appointment,  and  to  take  some  charge  of  his 
private  concerns,  as  well  as  of  the  subject  of  vacci- 
nation. Sufficient  evidence  has  been  already  given 
that  the  "  amor  sceleratus  habendi  "  did  not  in- 
fluence his  actions  ;  but,  free  as  he  himself  was 
from  all  taint  of  this  kind,  his  friends  could  not 
bear  the  reflection  that  his  disinterestedness  should 
actually  lead  to  his  personal  loss  at  the  very  time 
that  he  was  the  instrument  of  conveying  unheard- 
of  benefits  to  mankind.  A  committee  was  ap- 
pointed, in  consequence  of  a  reference  from  the 
Board  of  Directors,  to  enquire  whether  Dr.  Jenner 
was  not  a  sufferer  in  his  income  and  pecuniary 
circumstances,  "  in  consequence  of  the  time  which 
he  had  devoted  to  his  valuable  discovery  of  vaccine 
inoculation,  and  of  the  various  expenses  incident 
thereto,  notwithstanding  the  parliamentary  grant 
of  £10,000,"  This  investigation  could  not  but  be 
interesting  to  Dr.  Jenner  himself,  and  will  of  course 
justify  me  in  dwelling  upon  it  for  a  short  time.  The 
detail  which  I  am  about  to  subjoin,  certainly  does 
not  afford  any  great  encouragement  to  scientific 
men  to  divulge  the  result  of  their  labours  ;  but  we 
have  now  this  one  great  consolation,  that  in  the 
exact  proportion  of  the  neglect  which  Jenner 
experienced  from  his  contemporaries,  did  the  pu- 
rity,  and  firmness,  and  generosity  of  his  principles 
shew  themselves. 

The  account  between  him  and  the  public  stood 
thus  : — Without  entering  into  minute  calculations. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  9 

or  referring  to  other  countries,  it  may  be  stated 
that  Dr.  Jenner  made  known  a  discovery,  which 
has  already  materially  increased  the  mean  duration 
of  human  hfe,  and  which  was  capable  of  rescuing 
annually  between  thirty  and  forty  thousand  of 
our  own  population  from  a  pestilential  and  fatal 
disease.  To  put  the  world  fully  in  possession 
of  these  blessings  he  abandoned  almost  entirely 
the  emoluments  of  his  profession  as  a  physician  in 
the  country.  He  incurred  great  additional  expense 
by  keeping  up  an  establishment  in  London ;  and  was 
constantly  exposed  to  much  cost  from  printing, 
postage,  &c.  &c.  without  the  possibility  of  a  return. 
His  emoluments  from  vaccine  inoculation,  contrary 
to  the  glowing  anticipations  of  his  parliamentary 
eulogists,  were  not  on  an  average  more  than  £350 
per  annum ;  so  that  there  is  clear  proof  that  the 
gross  deficit  of  capital  in  the  four  years  imme- 
diately subsequent  to  his  removal  to  London, 
amounted  nearly  to  £6000.  In  compensation  for 
all  this.  Dr.  Jenner  was  voted  the  sum  of  £10,000 
by  Parliament,  from  which  were  deducted,  in  the 
shape  of  official  fees,  &c.  nearly  £1000,  without 
taking  into  account  the  tedious  delay  in  the  pay- 

Under  such  circumstances  his  friends  thought 
it  necessary  that  he  should  again  repair  to  Lon- 
don. But  before  we  follow  him  thither,  it  may  be 
proper  to  notice  the  contemporary  advancement  of 

10  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

vaccination  abroad,  and  the  opposition  it  encoun- 
tered at  home. 

Excepting  in  the  British  metropoHs,  and  some 
of  the  large  provincial  towns,  no  formidable  inter- 
ruption occurred  to  its  progTess.  Almost  all  the 
communications  from  foreign  countries  were  grati- 
fying in  the  extreme.  Dr.  Frank,  who  had  re- 
cently gone  to  Wilna  as  Professor  of  Pathology, 
on  the  13th  of  January  announced  to  Jenner  that 
that  university,  wishing  to  confer  a  distinguished 
mark  of  its  esteem,  had  chosen  him  an  honorary 
member,  and  transmitted  the  diploma.  About  the 
same  time.  Dr.  Barboza  informed  him  of  the  suc- 
cessful progress  of  vaccination  in  the  Brazils  ;  all 
the  civil  authorities  assisting  his  efforts.  The 
manner  in  which  he  procured  his  vaccine  lymph 
deserves  to  be  recorded ;  it  shows  an  energy  in  the 
Brazilian  government  highly  creditable.  He  had 
carried  vaccine  matter  from  England  in  1803.  He 
reproduced  it  in  Lisbon ;  but  it  failed  when  car- 
ried across  the  Atlantic.  It  was  therefore  resolved 
to  send  some  boys  to  Lisbon,  who  were  succes- 
sively vaccinated  on  their  homeward  passage. 

A  letter  from  Dr.  Scott  of  Bombay  contains  in- 
telligence equally  cheering  regarding  the  conti- 
nent of  Asia.  The  stock  of  vaccine  virus  had  been 
kept  up  with  perfect  success.  About  the  same 
period  Dr.  De  Carro  transmitted  intelligence  from 
other  parts  of  our   Indian  possessions.     He   had 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  11 

already  received  authentic  information  of  upwards 
of  35,000  persons  being  vaccinated  in  the  Mysore. 
This  letter,  amidst  a  great  deal  of  valuable  and  in- 
teresting matter,  contains  a  statement  from  Dr. 
Auban  of  Constantinople,  which  seems  to  prove 
that  the  Arabians  had  been  long  acquainted  with 
cow-pox.  This  rests  on  the  authority  of  Dr.  Gem- 
mini  of  Constantinople,  who  found  in  an  Arabian 
MS.  wi'itten  five  or  six  hundred  years  ago,  an  ac- 
count of  this  affection  of  the  cows.  The  same 
work  also  notices  an  eruptive  disease  of  sheep. 
I  know  not  where  to  find  any  account  of  this  Ara- 
bian MS.,  but  the  facts,  so  far  as  they  go,  confirm 
and  illustrate  the  historical  evidence  touching  the 
eruptive  diseases  of  the  inferior  animals  given  in 
the  preceding  volume.  Dr.  De  Carro  continued  to 
prosecute  his  investigations  on  these  subjects  with 
great  zeal  and  intelligence.  He  suggested  to  all 
his  correspondents  in  the  East  inquiries  respect- 
ing the  diseases  of  horses  and  cows  particularly. 
One  of  his  friends,  Mr.  Barker,  the  British  Consul 
at  Aleppo,  gave  him  very  valuable  intelligence 
with  regard  to  a  disease  prevalent  amongst  the 
horses  of  Arabia,  which  seems  to  spread  through 
the  stud,  much  in  the  same  way  that  cow-pox  does 
through  the  dairies  in  England. 

Tidings  were  likewise  received  of  the  introduction 
of  vaccination  into  the  Isle  of  France  from  the 
Coromandel  coast.  In  Bengal,  notwithstanding  the 
encouragement    afforded   by  government,    it   was 

12  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

found  very  difficult  to  overcome  the  obstacles 
against  the  practice.  This  year,  however,  the  chief 
of  the  Mahratta  Empire,  Dowrat  Row  Scindia,  order- 
ed his  only  child  to  be  vaccinated.  "  This  sensible 
act  of  the  head  of  the  Mahrattas  (says  Dr- 
Shoolbred  in  his  letter  to  Dr.  Jenner,  announcing 
the  fact),  who  are  all  Hindoos  of  high  caste,  shews 
that  it  is  on  no  essential  point  of  religion  that  they 
object  to  the  new  practice.  The  Brahmins,  it  ap- 
peared, who  are  in  the  habit  of  inoculating  for 
small-pox,  and  were  interested  in  continuing  the 
practice,  contrived  to  excite  prejudices  in  the  minds 
of  the  people,  on  grounds  which  it  was  imagined 
at  the  outset  would  have  facilitated  the  adoption 
of  it.  Its  origin  from  the  cow,  instead  of  impress- 
ing them  in  its  favour,  as  was  supposed  it  would 
do,  was  converted  by  the  Brahmins  into  an  argu- 
ment against  its  use,  as  they  contended  it  was 
thereby  rendered  impure  to  them." 

The  alleged  power  of  vaccination  in  controlling 
the  plague,  attracted  at  this  period  a  considerable 
degree  of  public  attention.  Jenner  received  let- 
ters on  the  subject  from  many  quarters.  The  cir- 
cumstance having  been  made  known  to  the 
Spanish  Consul  at  Morocco,  a  communication  was 
transmitted  to  Sir  Joseph  Banks  on  that  subject, 
and  from  him  to  Jenner.  His  sentiments  on  this 
point  were  thus  communicated  to  another  corres- 

"  I  never  was  so  sanguine  in  my  hopes  of  seeing 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  13 

the  plague  extinguished  by  vaccine  inoculation  as 
some  of  my  friends  were,  as  you  may  have  seen  by 
the  few  introductory  lines  which  accompanied  Dr. 
De  Carro's  letter  in  the  public  papers."  "  I  will 
just  drop  a  hint :  the  vaccine  disease,  in  my  opinion, 
is  not  a  preventive  of  the  small-pox,  but  the  small- 
pox itself ;  that  is  to  say,  the  horrible  form  under 
which  the  disease  appears  in  its  contagious  state  is 
(as  I  conceive)  a  malignant  variety.  Now,  if  it 
should  ever  be  discovered  that  the  plague  is  a  va- 
riety of  some  milder  disease  generated  originally 
in  a  way  that  may  ever  elude  our  research, 
and  the  source  should  be  discovered  from  whence 
it  sprang,  this  may  be  applied  to  a  great  and  grand 
purpose.  The  phenomena  of  the  cow-pox  open 
many  paths  for  speculation,  every  one  of  which  I 
hope  may  be  explored." 

From  about  1804,  the  reports  of  failures  in  vac- 
cination had  begun  to  multiply.  The  fears  of 
some  of  his  friends  had  been  thereby  excited  to 
rather  an  immoderate  degree.  Jenner  certainly 
deplored  the  ignorance  that  gave  occasion  to  such 
rumours,  but  he  felt  no  anxiety  concerning  his 
great  and  fundamental  position.  Writing  to  the 
late  Lord  Berkeley  on  this  subject  he  says,  "  I  ex- 
pect that  cases  of  this  sort  will  flow  in  upon  me  in 
no  inconsiderable  numbers ;  and  for  this  plain 
reason — a  great  number,  perhaps  the  majority,  of 
those  who  inoculate  are  not  sufficiently  acquainted 
with  the  nature  of  th*^  disease  to  enable  them  to 

14  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

discriminate  with  due  accuracy  between  the  per- 
fect and  imperfect  pustule.  This  is  a  lesson  not 
very  difficult  to  learn,  but  unless  it  is  learnt,  to 
inoculate  the  cow-pox  is  folly  and  presumption." 

Another  correspondent,  who  was  seriously 
alarmed  for  Jenner's  reputation^  wrote  him  a  long 
letter  full  of  doleful  anticipations  of  the  ill  effects 
likely  to  arise  from  the  sinister  rumours  propa- 
gated by  the  anti-vaccinists,  and  advised  him  to 
come  forward  and  vindicate  his  doctrines.  This 
was  the  response. — "  The  post  is  just  come  in, 
and  I  have  been  entertaining  Mrs.  Jenner  and 
my  family  with  your  dream.  Some  kind  friend 
had  perhaps  thrown  your  stomach  into  disorder 
by  tempting  you  to  go  too  deep  into  an  oyster- 
barrel;     or    had   our   friend  P seduced  you 

with  the  fumes  of  one  of  his  favourite  supper 
dishes?  A  devil,  or  a  something,  had  certainly 
disordered  your  stomach ;  and  your  stomach 
shewed  its  resentment  on  your  head;  and  your 
letter  is  the  consequence.  However,  I  will  reason 
on  it  for  a  moment  as  if  it  were  not  a  dream. 
You  are  imposed  upon,  and  so  is  my  friend  Fox. 
Vaccination  never  stood  on  more  lofty  ground 
than  at  present.  I  know  very  well  the  opinion 
of  the  wise  and  great  upon  it;  and  the  foolish 
and  the  little  I  don't  care  a  straw  for.  Why 
should  we  fix  our  eyes  on  this  spot  only  ?  Let 
them  range  the  world  over,  and  they  must  con- 
template with  delight  and  exultation  what  they 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  16 

behold  on  the  great  Continents  of  Europe  and 
America  ;  in  our  settlements  in  India,  where  all 
ranks  of  people,  from  the  poor  Hindoo  to  the  Go- 
vernor-General, hail  Vaccina  as  a  new  divinity.  In 
the  island  of  Ceylon  my  account  states  that  up- 
wards of  thirty  thousand  had  been  vaccinated  a 
twelvemonth  ago.  I  could  march  you  round  the 
globe,  and  wherever  you  rested  you  should  see 
scenes  like  these.  There  I  have  honour,  here  I 
have  none  :  and  let  me  tell  you,  whatever  my  feel- 
ings may  have  been  on  this  subject,  they  are  now 
at  rest.  What  I  have  said  on  this  vaccine  subject  is 
true.  If  properly  conducted,  it  secures  the  coristitu- 
tion  as  much  as  variolous  inoculation  possibly  can. 
It  is  the  small-pox  in  a  purer  form  than  that  which 
has  been  current  among  us  for  twelve  centuries  2)ast." 
"  You  and  my  city  friend  suppose  me  idle — that 
I  no  longer  employ  my  time  and  my  thoughts  on 
the  vaccine  subject.  So  very  opposite  is  the  real 
state  of  the  case,  that  were  you  here  (where  I 
should  be  very  glad  to  see  you),  you  would  see 
that  my  whole  time  is  nearly  engrossed  by  it.  On 
an  average  I  am  at  least  six  hours  daily  with  my 
pen  in  my  hand,  bending  over  writing-paper,  till  I 
am  grown  as  crooked  as  a  cow's  horn  and  tawny 
as  whey-butter  ;  and  you  want  to  make  me  as 
mad  as  a  bull :  but  it  won't  do,  Mr.  D. ;  so  good 
night  to  you.  I'll  to  my  pillow,  not  of  thorns, 
believe  me,  nor  of  hops ;  but  of  poppies,  or  at 
least  of  something  that  produces  calm  repose." 

16  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

Dr.  Moseley's  conjectural  arguments  against 
vaccination  have  been  already  mentioned.  The 
next  person  of  any  name  who  appeared  on  the 
same  side  of  the  question  was  Mr.  Goldson  of 
Portsea.  He  was  a  man  of  some  character  in  his 
neighbourhood ;  and  this  circumstance,  together 
with  the  title  of  his  pamphlet  and  the  important 
disclosures  which  it  was  said  to  contain,  gave  it 
much  more  consequence  than  it  really  merited. 
He  was  evidently  a  prejudiced  witness,  and  almost 
as  ignorant  of  the  subject  on  which  he  wrote  as 
his  great  prototype.  It  is  to  be  feared,  likewise, 
that  he  allowed  personal  feelings  to  interfere 
with  his  judgment.  He  complained  that  Dr. 
Jenner  had  slighted  a  private  communication  of 
his ;  but  even  if  this  had  been  true  (which  it  cer- 
tainly was  not),  it  would  not  justify  hasty  and 
inaccurate  statements,  or  hostile  representations 
concerning  a  practice  which  had  for  its  sole  object 
the  mitigation  of  human  misery.  Jenner  never 
permitted  any  irritation  which  might  have  arisen 
from  occurrences  of  this  kind  to  interfere  with  his 
own  conduct.  At  a  subsequent  period  he  wrote 
to  Mr.  Goldson,  and  endeavoured  to  remove  his 
errors.  He  even  invited  him  to  his  house,  hoping 
by  personal  intercourse  and  discussion  to  explain 
any  points  which  he  evidently  did  not  understand. 
All  these  overtures  were  rejected;  but  whether 
Mr.  Goldson  continued  in  his  opposition  to  vacci- 
nation, I  cannot  tell. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  1/ 

I  thought  it  worth  while  to  mention  these  inci- 
dents, not,  certainly,  from  the  importance  of  Mr. 
Goldson's  pamphlet  itself,  but  because  the  discus- 
sion which  arose  from  it  was  really  of  considerable 
interest,  and  brought  out  many  facts  which  ought 
to  have  been  remembered  when  the  reputed 
failures  of  vaccination  attracted  so  much  notice 
some  years  ago.  He  was  quite,  wrong  himself, 
and  his  vaccinations  were  evidently  imperfect ; 
but  the  possibility  of  failure,  and  the  circumstances 
under  which  it  may  occur,  drove  men  to  examine 
more  closely  the  history  of  small-pox,  as  well  as 
the  affinity  between  that  disease  and  cow-pox  ; 
and  had  the  information  which  was  then  acquired 
been  duly  considered,  some  recent  occurrences  of 
an  unsatisfactory  nature  might  have  been  easily 

In  former  chapters  I  have  endeavoured  both  to 
shew  how  Dr.  Jenner  felt  on  this  subject,  and  to 
corroborate  his  opinions.  The  only  successful 
attempts  that  have  been  made  to  explain  the 
nature  of  the  Variolse  Vaccinae  have  proceeded 
from  those  who  have  followed  his  steps.  Some 
injudicious  friends  of  vaccination  were  at  great 
pains  to  impress  the  public  mind  with  other  sen- 
timents ;  and  represented  vaccination  as  so  dif- 
ferent in  all  respects  from  small-pox  inoculation  as 
to  render  any  attempt  to  trace  affinities  between 
them  unphilosophical  and  absurd.  The  cause  they 
meant  to  serve  by  this  conduct  was  not  advanced 

VOL.  II.  c 

18  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

by  it.  Had  they  been  accurately  acquainted  with 
the  past  history  of  small-pox,  such  reasoning  would 
never  have  been  adopted.  It  has  been  fully  shewn, 
that  in  the  inoculation  for  that  disease,  the  miti- 
gation of  the  symptoms  depended  very  much  on 
the  number  of  pustules  produced ;  and  that  even 
one  pustule  could  afford  protection  from  subse- 
quent attacks.  To  moderate  the  eruption  and  to 
subdue  the  fever  was  the  object  of  all  the  en- 
lightened physicians  who  treated  small-pox.  Ino- 
culation most  materially  aided  these  intentions ; 
vaccination  carried  them  into  full  effect.  So  com- 
plete, indeed,  and  so  wonderful,  were  the  results  of 
this  practice,  that  all  past  experience  was  neglected 
or  overlooked ;  and  notions  of  a  very  extravagant 
kind  were  adopted,  and  the  facts  themselves, 
which  had  been  accumulated,  were  rendered  less 
convincing,  if  not  altogether  inconclusive,  by  being 
mixed  up  with  false  theory. 

It  ought  ever  to  be  borne  in  mind,  that  the 
laws  which  govern  the  Variolae  Vaccinae  were  dis- 
covered by  Jenner  through  the  medium  of  his 
knowledge  respecting  small-pox.  The  same  know- 
ledge enabled  him  to  trace  the  deviations  in  the 
former ;  and  the  same  kind  of  information  has 
supplied  us  with  the  only  means  of  explaining  the 
difficulties  that  recent  epidemics  have  presented. 

The  year  1 804,  in  his  estimation,  formed  an  era 
in  the  history  of  the  Variolse  Vaccinae.  The 
assertion,  that  the  cow-pox  afforded  only  a  tem- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  19 

porary  security  was  then  insisted  on.  Had  it 
been  correct,  it  would  have  deprived  the  discovery 
of  nearly  all  its  value.  This  assertion  was  very 
easily  made ;  and,  in  the  infancy  of  the  practice, 
could  not  be  well  disproved.  To  these  circum- 
stances it  was  owing,  that  the  crude  and  unsup- 
ported statements  of  Mr.  Goldson  acquired  any 
influence.  Dr.  Jenner  himself,  from  the  com- 
mencement, perceived  that  in  his  cases  of  failure, 
cow-pox  had  never  properly  taken  place. 

The  real  merits  of  the  question  were  also  de- 
tected by  Mr.  Dunning.  This  venerable  indivi- 
dual was,  as  I  have  already  mentioned,  one  of  the 
first  British  surgeons  who  stood  forward  to  recom- 
mend vaccination  soon  after  the  practice  was  pro- 
mulgated; and  from  that  period  to  the  present 
time  he  has  upheld  the  accuracy  and  justness  of 
Jenner's  views.  His  little  tract,  published  about 
this  time,  under  the  title  of,  "  A  short  Detail  of 
some  circumstances  connected  with  Vaccine  Ino- 
culation," &c.  &c.  contains  some  of  the  soundest 
opinions  with  regard  to  the  nature  of  Variolse  and 
of  Variolae  Vaccinse  that  have  ever  appeared.  The 
steps  by  which  he  was  enabled  to  extricate  him- 
self from  the  difficulties  of  new  and  perplexing 
occurrences,  were  the  same  that  conducted  Jen- 
ner through  the  mazes  of  his  first  investigation, 
and  continued  to  guide  him  to  the  last. 

It  was  by  studying  small-pox  that  he  became 
thoroughly  acquainted  both  with  the  benefits  con- 

c  2 

20  LIFE    OF    DR     JENNER. 

ferred  by  vaccination,  and  the  principles  that 
ought  to  direct  the  practice.  His  mind  seems  to 
have  harmonized  pecidiarly  with  Jenner's  on  all 
these  points.  He  was  not  a  servile  imitator  ;  the 
same  spirit  of  knowledge  and  of  truth  which  en- 
lightened Jenner,  seems  to  have  been  at  once 
communicated  to  Mr.  Dunning.  There  was  a 
moral  sympathy,  as  well  as  an  intellectual  affinity, 
which  enabled  him,  on  the  instant,  to  perceive  and 
to  enter  into  the  peculiarities  of  the  character  and 
the  value  of  the  discoveries  of  Jenner. 

These  statements  are  supported  by  the  expe- 
rience of  nearly  five  and  thirty  years,  during  which 
time  the  efficacy  of  cow-pox  has  been  put  to  the 
severest  trials.  The  result  of  the  whole  has  shewn, 
that  all  who  cordially  and  honestly  embraced  the 
opinions  of  Jenner,  have  advanced  without  waver- 
ing or  uncertainty  ;  and  have  found  by  ample  tes- 
timony, that  in  so  doing  they  had  chosen  a  safe 
leader.  Some  of  the  points  which  have  been  mat- 
ter of  discussion  even  within  these  few  years,  were 
very  fully  explained  at  the  period  just  referred  to. 
It  was  then  clearly  ascertained,  that  there  were 
deviations  from  the  usual  course  of  small-pox, 
which  were  quite  as  common,  and  infinitely  more 
disastrous,  than  those  which  took  place  in  vacci- 
nation. These  deviations  regarded  two  apparently 
different  states  of  the  constitution.  In  the  one,  the 
susceptibility  of  small-pox  was  not  taken  away  by 
previous  infection ;  while,  on  the  other  hand,  some 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER,  21 

constitutions  seem  to  be  unsusceptible  of  small- 
pox infection  altogether.  It  was  found,  that  simi- 
lar occurrences  took  place  in  the  practice  of  vac- 
cination ;  but  as  the  security  which  the  latter 
afforded  was  more  likely  to  be  interfered  with  by 
slight  causes  than  the  former,  it  became  abso- 
lutely necessary  that  great  care  should  be  shown 
in  watching  the  progress  and  character  of  the 
pustule.  Dr.  Jenner  had  from  the  beginning  felt 
the  propriety  of  this  watchfulness  ;  and  had  dis- 
tinctly announced,  that  it  was  possible  to  propagate 
an  affection  by  inoculation  conveying  different  de- 
grees of  security,  according  as  that  affection  ap- 
proached to,  or  receded  from,  the  full  and  perfect 
standard.  He  also  clearly  stated,  that  the  course  of 
the  vaccine  pustule  might  be  so  modified  as  to  de- 
prive it  of  its  efficacy ;  that  inoculation  from  such 
a  source  might  communicate  an  inefficient  protec- 
tion, and  that  all  who  were  thus  vaccinated  were 
more  or  less  liable  to  subsequent  small-pox.  His 
directions  for  obviating  occurrences  of  this  kind 
regarded,  first,  the  character  of  the  pustule  itself, 
the  time  and  quality  of  the  lymph  taken  for  ino- 
culation, and  all  other  circumstances  that  might 
go  to  affect  the  complete  progress  of  the  disorder. 
He  attached  great  importance  to  this  last  point ; 
and  in  the  course  of  this  year  published  his  tract, 
"  On  the  Varieties  and  Modifications  of  the  Vac- 
cine Pustule,  occasioned  by  an  herpetic  state  of 
the  Skin."    I  cannot  refer  to  this  publication  with- 

22  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

out  calling  the  attention  of  my  reader  to  the  fol- 
lowing sentence  in  the  introduction :  "I  shall 
here  just  observe,  that  the  most  ample  testimonies 
now  lie  before  me,  supporting  my  opinion  that 
the  herpetic,  and  some  other  irritative  eruptions, 
are  capable  of  rendering  variolous  inoculation  im- 
perfect, as  well  as  the  vaccine." 

Besides  the  instructions  which  Dr.  Jenner  himself 
had  published,  for  the  purpose  of  securing  perfec- 
tion in  the  vaccine  process,  Mr.  Dunning  has  the 
merit  of  establishing  a  canon,  which  is  now,  I 
believe,  universally  adopted,  namely,  that  one  pus- 
tule at  least  should  remain  undisturbed.  Dr.  Jen- 
ner most  candidly  admitted  the  propriety  of  Mr. 
Dunning' s  remarks.  In  a  letter  to  that  gentleman, 
dated  July  29th,  1805,  he  says,  "  From  what  you 
have  already  said  and  observed  on  the  subject,  I 
inculcate  every  where  the  propriety  of  observing 
gTcater  precaution,  and  I  found  it  entirely  on  your 
observations  in  conducting  the  process  of  vacci- 
nation. I  recommend  invariably  two  pustules,  and 
that  one  should  remain  unmolested." 

With  equal  candour  he  gives  his  testimony  to 
the  accuracy  of  Mr.  Dunning  on  another  point 
which  bears  upon  this  question.  In  a  letter  to 
Dr.  Willan,  dated  Feb.  23,  1806,  he  says,  "  It 
strikes  me  that  the  constitution  loses  its  suscepti- 
bility of  small-pox  contagion,  and  the  capability 
of  producing  the  disease  in  its  ordinary  state,  in 
proportion  to  the  degree  of  perfection  which  the 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  23 

vaccine  vesicle  has  put  on  in  its  progress  ;  and  that 
the  small-poXj  if  taken  subsequently,  is  modified 
accordingly."  And  he  then  adds,  "  This  opinion 
was  first  published  by  Mr.  Dunning  of  Plymouth." 

It  is  of  considerable  consequence  to  recall  these 
facts  at  this  time,  because  they  may,  perhaps, 
teach  a  lesson  of  practical  wisdom  which  ought 
not  to  be  lost  sight  of.  The  information  then  ac- 
quu-ed,  doubtless  might  have  prevented  many  of 
the  disasters  which  have  since  occurred,  had  those 
who  were  chiefly  concerned  studied  vaccination  as 
it  merited. 

As  a  commentary  on  the  preceding  remarks,  I 
subjohi  a  long  and  valuable  letter  written  by  Dr. 
Jenner  to  Mr.  Dunning.  For  the  same  reason  I 
mean  to  put  on  record  several  other  extracts  illus- 
trative of  his  doctrines.  They  had  not  fallen  into 
my  hands  when  the  former  volume  of  this  work 
was  preparing  for  the  press,  otherwise  they  would 
have  formed  most  interesting  additions  to  the  train 
of  argument  which  was  then  put  forth  with  re- 
spect to  the  nature  of  the  Variolee  Vaccinae. 

Berkeley,  Dec.  23,  1804. 
My  dear  Friend, 
I  thank  you  for  your  obliging  attention.  Your  com- 
munication of  this  evening  aifords  me  great  pleasure ;  I 
mark  in  it  the  determination  of  wise  and  good  men  to 
overcome  that  prejudice  and  obstinacy  which  has  kept 
afloat  the  fatal  poison  in  your  neighbourhood.  My  best 
wishes  will  ever  attend  the  philanthropic  nine. 

24  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

Foreigners  hear   with    the   utmost  astonishment,  that 
*'  in  some  parts  of  England  there  are  persons  who  still 
inoculate  for  small-pox."     It  must,   indeed,  excite   their 
wonder,   when    they    see    that  disease  in  some    of  their 
largest  cities,  and  in  wide-extended  districts  around  them, 
totally  exterminated.     Let  us  not,  my  friend,  vex  our- 
selves too  much  at  what  we  see  here ;  let  us  consider  this 
but  a  speck,  when  compared  with  the  wide  surface  of  our 
planet,  over  which,  thank  God  !  Vaccina  has  every  where 
shed  her  influence.     From  the  potentate  to  the  peasant, 
in   every  country  but  this,  she  is  received  with  grateful 
and  open  arms.     What  an  admirable  arrangement   was 
that  I  sent  you  in  my  last  letter,  made  by  the  Marquis 
Wellesley,  the  Governor  General  of  India,  for  extermi- 
nation of  the  small-pox  in  that  quarter  of  the  globe,  con- 
trasted with  our  efforts  here  !     What  pigmies  we  look  like  ! 
Did  you  see  the  Quarterly  Report  of  the  Royal  Jennerian 
Society  ?     It  was  published  in  some  of  the  evening  papers 
a  few  days  ago.     As  far  as  regards  the  progress  of  vacci- 
nation in  the  metropolis,  and  its  influence  on  the  mor- 
tality occasioned  by  the  small-pox,  it  is  very  good  ;  but 
how  shameful  to  see  a  society,  constituted  for  such  a  pur- 
pose, and  of  which  the  Royal  Family  of  England  bears  a 
part,  begging  a  few  guineas   of  the  community  for   the 
support  of  its  expenses  !     This  is  literally  the  case,  while 
horses  are  protected  from  diseases  and  death  by  national 
munificence*.     Shame  on  it!     T   must  drop  the  subject, 
or  I  shall  grow  as  warm  as  my  friend  John  Ring. 

You  speak  of  Ring  and  Goldson.  Recollect  there  was 
not  time  to  be  cool.  What  lover  of  vaccination — what 
man  well  acquainted  with  its  nature,  and  that  of  the  small- 

*  This  refers  to  the  establishment  of  the  Royal  Vctcriuary 

LIFK    OF    DR.    JENNER.  25 

pox,  could  read   Goldson's  book,  and  lay  it  down  coolly  ? 
Ring,  the  moment  he  read  it,  and  that^  indeed,  which  was 
infinitely  worse  than  the  book  itself,  the  murderous  har- 
binger— the  advertisement,  instantly  charged  his  blunder- 
buss, and  fired  it  in  the  face  of  the  author.     I  must  freely 
confess,  I  do  not  feel  so  cool  about  this  Mr.  Goldson,  as 
you  do.     His  book  has  sent  many  a  victim  to  a  premature 
grave;   and   would  have   sent  many  more,   but    for   the 
humanity  and  zeal   of  yourself  and   others  who  stepped 
forward  to  counteract  its  dreadful  tendency.   Had  Goldson 
but  written  a  simple  letter  to  me,  stating  those  occurrences 
in   his  practice  which  ap])eared  extraordinary,   I  should 
with  the  greatest  pleasure  have  told  him  where  the  mis- 
takes lay,  and  made  him  a  good  vaccinist.     By  the  way, 
it   has  been  represented  to  me,  that  Mr.  Goldson  once 
wrote  to  me,  and  that  I  did  not  answer  his  letter.     This 
is  not  true.     He  wrote  a  very  civil  letter  to  me  during  the 
sitting  of  the  committee  on  the  affair  of  Clarke  the  marine, 
so  malignantly  taken  up  by  Hope.   This  letter  I  answered 
almost  immediately ;  and  inclosed  one   of  my  papers  of 
instructions  for  vaccine  inoculation.     I  am  almost  certain, 
too,  my  letter  was  franked  by  the  chairman  of  the  com- 
mittee. Admiral  Berkeley  ;  and  now  respecting  that  point, 
which  seems  to  give  you  so  much  uneasiness — Hitchins's 
child.     In  my   last  letter  I   really  gave  you  the  result, 
though  it  lay  in  a  small  compass,  of  my  deliberations. 
In  such  a  case,  there  is  nothing  but  the  fact  before  you. 
Conjecture  may  be  endless  as  to  the  cause  and  conse- 
quence ;  with  regard  to  the  latter,  I  ventured  to  go  a  little 
way  by  surmising,   that   the  mild   innoxious  small-pox, 
which  appeared  in  this  country  some  years  ago,  might 
have  had  its  origin  from  a  case  similar  to  that  of  Mr.  Hit- 
chins's child.     There  is  a  medical  gentleman,   surgeon  of 
the  South  Gloucestershire  Militia,  who  tells  me,  that  he 

26  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

is  so  susceptible  of  the  contagion  of  the  small-pox,  that  he 
never  attends  a  patient  with  that  disease  without  catching 
it,  evident  marks  of  which  appear  upon   his  skin.     Mr. 
Shrapnell's  countenance  shews  the  signs  of  his  having  had 
the  disease  rather  Adolently  in  the  first  instance.     As  we 
have    such   abundant  testimonies  of  persons  having  the 
small-jDox  a  second  time,  why  may  there  not  be  excep- 
tions to  the  cow-pox  giving  security  in  every  instance  of 
inoculation  *  ?     The  number  of  our  inoculations  is    now 
incalculable;    yet   how   few   have    been   the    exceptions. 
When  they  happened  in  variolous  inoculation,  there  was 
no  one  ready  to  come  forth  and  IjIow  the  hostile  trumpet. 
But  to  return.     There  may  be  peculiarities  of  constitu- 
tion favourable  to  this  phenomenon.     My  opinion  still  is, 
that  the   grand  interference  is  from  the  agency  of   the 
herpes,  in  some  form  or  another ;  for  I  have  discovered 
that  it  is   a  very  Proteus,  assuming,  as  it  thinks  fit,  the 
character  of  the  greater  part  of  the  irritative  eruptions 
that  assail  us.     I  shall  have  much  to  say  on  this  disease 
one  of  these  days.     My  paper  in  the  Medical  Journal 
seems  not  to  have  excited  the  smallest  interest,  though  I 
venture   to  predict   it  will  be   found  highly  interesting. 
There  is  no  getting  a  line  from  your  medical  neighbour, 

*  The  child  of  a  cousin  of  mine,  who  was  vaccinated  in 
India,  and  apparently  with  success,  had  the  operation  re- 
peated after  he  arrived  in  England,  and  again  received  the 
infection.  This  child  was  subsequently  inoculated  for  the 
small-pox,  and  received  the  disease.  But  this  is  not  all; 
he  was  recently  exposed  to  the  influence  of  this  contagious 
disorder,  and  took  it  in  a  casual  way.  Could  a  stronger  illus- 
tration be  adduced  of  the  doctrine  laid  down  in  these  volumes 
touching  the  identity  of  the  diseases  in  question,  with  rela- 
tion to  their  protecting  power? — J.  B. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  2/ 

Mr.  Embling.     Will  you  be  so  good  as  to  send  him  the 
inclosed  note  ? 

I  cannot  conclude  my  letter,  long  as  it  is  already,  with- 
out telling  you  that  I  have  lately  received  from  the  sur- 
geon-general, Mr.  Christie,  in  the  Island  of  Ceylon,  a 
most  charming  account  of  the  progress  of  vaccination 
there.  Notwithstanding  the  impediments  arising  from  a 
state  of  warfare,  upwards  of  thirty  thousand  persons  had 
been  vaccinated.  The  desolation  which  the  small-pox 
occasioned  when  it  broke  out  among  the  inhabitants, 
almost  exceeds  credibility.  Variolous  inoculation  proved 
so  unfavourable,  that  the  people  would  not  be  prevailed 
upon  to  receive  it ;  indeed,  that  must  be  the  same  all  the 
world  over.  Where  it  is  put  in  practice,  the  disease  must 
necessarily  spread.  Of  this  truth  you  have  lately  seen 
some  examples.  I  am  much  pleased  to  find  that  the 
resolution  of  the  worthy  nine  is  going  to  the  papers.  If 
these  were  better  guarded,  the  enemy  would  not  make 
such  frequent  irruptions. 

Believe  me,  with  great  respect. 
Yours  very  faithfully, 

Edward  Jenner. 

Extracts  of  Letters  from  Dr.  Jenner  to 
Mr.  Dunning. 

July  5  th,  1804. 
There  is  not  a  single  case,  nor  a  single  argument,  that 
puts  the  weight  of  a  feather  in  the  scale  of  the  anti- 
vaccinist.  That  which  seems  to  be  the  heaviest,  becomes 
light  as  air,  when  we  consider  that  the  human  constitu- 
tion is  at  one  time  susceptible  of  variolous  contagion, 
at  another,  not  so;  and  this  insusceptibility  sometimes 

28  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

continues  to  a  late  period  of  life.  Elizabeth  Everet  was  a 
small-pox  nurse  in  this  neighbourhood  for  forty  years. 
She  supposed  she  had  had  the  small-pox  when  a  child. 
A  few  years  since  she  was  sent  for  to  Bristol  to  nurse  a 
patient,  caught  the  disease,  and  died. 

Mr.  Long,  surgeon  of  St.  Bartholomew's,  had  a  similar 
instance  in  his  own  family. 

A  thousand  thanks  to  you  and  Dr.  Remmet  for  your 
investigation  of  the]  Exmouth  case.  Never  mind ;  you 
will  hear  enough  of  small-pox  after  cow-pox.  It  must  be 
so.  Every  bungling  vaccinist  who  excites  a  pustule  on 
the  arm  will  swear  like  G.  it  was  correct,  without  knowing 
that  nicety  of  distinction  which  every  man  ought  to  know, 
before  he  presumes  to  take  up  the  vaccine  lancet. 

March  1st,  1805. 
The  security  given  to  the  constitution  by  vaccine  inocu- 
lation, is  exactly  equal  to  that  given  by  the  variolous.  To 
expect  more  from  it  would  be  wrong.  As  failures  in  the 
latter  are  constantly  presenting  themselves^  nearly  from 
its  commencement  to  the  present  time,  we  must  expect  to 
find  them  in  the  former  also.  In  my  opinion,  in  either 
case,  they  occur  from  the  same  causes ;  one  might  name 
for  example,  among  others,  some  peculiarity  of  constitu- 
tion which  prevents  the  virus  from  acting  properly,  even 
when  properly  applied ;  from  inattention,  or  want  of  due 
knowledge  in  the  inoculator;  particularly  in  not  being 
able  to  discriminate  between  the  correct  and  incorrect 

March  9th,  1805. 
Think  for  a  moment  of  my  situation  before  you  censure 
me   for   tardiness — the  correspondence  of   the  world  to 
attend  to.     The  pressure  is  often,  I   do  assure  you,  so 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  29 

great,  that  it  is  more  than  either  my  body  or  mind  can 
well  endure.  You  say,  "  let  vaccination,  for  God's  sake, 
rest  on  its  own  foundation."  My  dear  sir,  that  is  exactly 
what  I  want,  and  the  course  I  have  been  pursuing. 
Neither  the  impudence  of  Pearson,  the  folly  of  Gold  son, 
nor  the  baseness  of  Moseley  and  Squirrel,  to  which  I  may 
add  the  stupid  absurdity  of  Birch,  has  put  me  out  of  my 
way  in  the  least, — and  why  ?  I  placed  it  on  a  rock,  where  I 
knew  it  would  be  immoveable,  before  I  invited  the  public 
to  look  at  it. 

Extracts  from  a  Letter  of  Dr.  Jenner's  to 
Dr.  Evans,  Ketley-Bank. 

How  Httle  he  (Mr.  Cartwright)  must  have  known  of 
the  agency  of  variolous  matter,  to  have  argued  as  he  has 
done.  Wonderful  as  it  is,  yet  there  are  abundant  facts  to 
prove,  that  the  insertion  of  variolous  matter  into  the  skin 
has  produced  a  virus  fit  for  the  purpose  of  continuing  the 
inoculation  ;  and  yet  the  person  who  has  borne  it,  and  on 
whose  skin  it  was  generated,  has  subsequently  been  in- 
fected with  the  small-pox,  on  exposure  to  its  influence. 
Just  so  \\ath  the  vaccine. 

Again,  in  the  same  letter,  he  (Dr.  J.)  adds  : — 
"  Vaccine  inoculation  has  certainly  unveiled  many 
of  the  mysterious  facts  attendant  upon  the  small- 
pox and  its  inoculation.  How  often  have  we  seen 
(apparently)  the  full  effect  on  the  arm  from  the 
insertion  of  variolous  matter,  indisposition,  and 
even  eruptions  following  it,  and  its  termination  in 
an  extensive  and  deep  cicatrix ;  and  yet,  on  expo- 
sure, the  person  who  underwent  this,  has  caught 

30  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

the  small-pox.  Your  practice  in  the  populous 
neighbourhood  you  reside  in,  was  formerly,  I  be- 
lieve, very  extensive  in  variolous  inoculation.  Did 
you  ever  perceive  any  connexion  between  the  state 
of  the  skin  and  the  progress  of  the  pustule  on  the 
arm  ?  I  can  scarcely  flatter  myself  with  the  hope 
of  finding  much  accurate  information  on  this 
point,  as  the  ar7n  became  a  secondary  object  in 
inoculating  the  small-pox,  our  sohcitude  being 
directed  to  the  number  of  pustules." 

In  one  of  his  Journals  he  has  left  the  following 
notes  upon  the  same  subject. 

"  The  origin  of  small-pox  is  the  same  as  that  of 
cow-pox;  and  as  the  latter  was  probably  coeval 
with  the  brute  creation,  the  former  was  only  a  va- 
riety springing  from  it." 

"There  are  certainly  more  forms  than  one, 
(without  considering  the  common  variation  between 
the  confluent  and  distinct)  in  which  the  small-pox 
appears  in  what  is  called  the  natural  way." 

"  It  will  be  inquired  (if  the  foregoing  reasoning 
be  a  priori  correct)  in  what  way  can  the  action 
of  cow-pox  (or  the  equine  pock)  in  preventing 
subsequent  small-pox  be  reconcilable  with  the  es- 
tabhshed  laws  of  the  animal  economy  ?  My  reply 
is,  for  the  reasons  which  I  have  stated  on  the  basis 
of  facts,  that  they  were  not  bond  fide  dissimilar  in 
their  nature ;  but,  on  the  contrary,  identical.  On 
this  ground  I  gave  my  first  book  the  title  of  '  An 
Inquiry  into  the  causes  and  eff"ects  of  the  Variolce 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  31 

VaccirKU ' — a  circumstance  which  has  since  been  re- 
garded l)y  many  as  the  happy  foresight  of  a  con- 
nexion, which  was  destined  by  future  e\idence  to 
become  more  warranted." 

How  admirably  subsequent  investigations  have 
confirmed  these  most  sagacious  remarks  ! 

The  Medical  Society  of  London  having  voted 
Dr.  Jenner  a  gold  medal  in  honour  of  his  discovery, 
he  was  incited  by  the  President,  Dr.  Sims,  to  attend 
their  anniversary  festival  on  the  8th  of  March,  on 
which  day  an  oration  is  usually  delivered.  The 
gentleman  appointed  to  this  office  had  unfortu- 
nately been  taken  ill,  and  could  not  attend.  In 
this  dilemma  the  Society  applied  to  Dr.  Lettsom, 
who  chose  for  his  subject  the  Jennerian  discovery, 
and  the  delivery  of  the  gold  medal.  He  pronounced 
a  very  eloquent  and  impressive  discourse,  which 
was  afterwards  printed  in  the  European  Magazine 
for  1804.  Dr.  Jenner  could  not  appear  personally 
to  receive  this  mark  of  respect.  Dr.  Lettsom,  how- 
ever, very  ably  supplied  his  place  in  the  Metropo- 
lis. He  likewise  fought  his  battles,  and  often  sig- 
nally vanquished  his  opponents.  An  account  of  a 
scene  of  this  kind  is  very  descriptive,  and  not 
without  interest  from  the  character  of  the  parties 

August  \st. 
Although  after  writing  the  preceding  letter,  super  strata 
viarum,  I  arrived  home  soon  enough  to  catch  the  post. 

32  LIFE    OF    DR    JENNER. 

I  was  so  pulled  away  professionally  that  I  had  not  time 
to  seal  it.     I  received  an  invitation  to  dine   with  a  party ; 
but  could  not  attend   till  past  eight.     When  arrived,   I 
found   Mr.    Alexander,    M.  P.  Chairman    of   Ways    and 
Means ;    the   Bishop  of  Cloyne,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Parr,  Dr* 
Pearson,  Dr.  Shaw  of  the  British  Museum,  Mr.  Planta  of 
the  Royal  Society,    Rev.   Mr.   Maurice,  author  of  Indian 
Antiquities.     Somehow,  Pearson  introduced  the  House  of 
Commons — their  Committees — when  he  made  a  Philippic 
of  half  an  hour's  abuse  of   that  Committee  which  recom- 
mended Dr.    Jenner's  discovery,  as  a  rascally,  ignorant 
business  for  what  was  no  discovery,   and  concluded  with 
severe    animadversions    on    Dr.    Jenner.     After   he    had 
finished.  Dr.  Parr  seemed  persuaded  of  Dr.  Jenner's  un- 
worthiness  ;  and  Mr.  Alexander  said,  had  it  depended  upon 
his  casting  vote,  as  he  was  Chairman,  he  would  have  given 
it  against  Dr.  Jenner.     1  then  requested  to  be  heard  for 
an  absent  friend.  I  went  over  the  whole  ground  with  a  pers- 
picuity I  never  possessed  before.     I  exposed  the  conduct 
and  mistakes  of    Pearson  and  Woodville  in  so  strong  a 
manner,  that  after  listening  to  me  half  an  hour,  every  per- 
son seemed  electrified  but  Pearson.     One  divine  started 
up,  took  me  by  the  hand,  clapped  me  on  the  back,  and 
embraced  me,  and  declared  that  I  had    incontrovertibly 
proved  Jenner,  not  merely  the  promulgator,  but  inventor 
and  discoverer.     Parr  exclaimed,  I  would  have  voted  Jen- 
ner ten  times  ten  thousand  pounds.     Alexander  declared 
that  he  now  saw  the  matter  in  a  new  and  convincing  point 
of  view.     Pearson  then   made  a  reply  of  above  half  an 
hour,  and  when  he  had  concluded.  Dr.  Parr  was  appointed 
to  decide  upon  the  facts ;  and  these  were  his  words — "  Dr. 
Lettsom  has  convinced  me  that  Dr.  Jenner  is  the  disco- 
verer, and  Dr.  Pearson's  defence  has  confirmed  me  in  that 
conviction."  I  asked  Dr.  Pearson  if  he  had  any  thing  more 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  33 

to  say.  He  said  he  had  done,  and  now  I  trust  he  will  never 
again  venture,  at  least  in  the  presence  of  the  company,  or 
any  one  of  them,  to  broach  his  unfounded  invectives  ;  and  I 
think  he  has  now  received  his  quietus.  He  little  expected 
that  I  could  have  explained  his  mistakes  and  Woodville's 
so  clearly.  I  mentioned  facts  which  thunderstruck  him? 
of  which  even  you  are  ignorant,  respecting  this  base  coali'- 
tion  against  you.  He  seemed  confounded.  His  friend 
Maurice  and  his  devotee  ran  about  the  room — "  Lettsoni 
has  conquered,  Lettsom  has  conquered.'^  Parr  said  he 
would  come  and  see  me,  and  Mr.  Alexander  proposes  me 
the  same  honour.  I  know  that  Maurice  will  talk  of  this 
rencounter  every  where. 

J.  C.  L. 

Jenner  continued  to  receive  from  many  public 
bodies  marks  of  distinction,  all  which  he  valued 
most  highly,  not  only  because  they  were  grateful 
to  his  own  heart,  but  because  they  materially  con- 
tributed by  the  sanction  attached  to  them  to  extend 
the  practice  which  he  had  the  happiness  to  disco- 
ver. In  this  spirit  he  obtained  the  intelligence  of 
a  degree  conferred  on  him  by  the  Harvardian 
University  of  Cambridge,  in  Massachusetts.  The 
Diploma  was  transmitted  by  his  friend  Dr.  Water- 
house,  and  it  arrived  in  England  during  the  spring 
of  1805. 

The  Corporation  of  Dublin,  about  the  same  time, 
unanimously  voted  him  the  freedom  of  that  city. 
In  announcing  this  to  Dr.  Jenner,  the  officers  of 
that  respectable   civic  body  transmitted  a  charge 

VOL.  II.  D 

34  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

of  somewhat  about  five  pounds  sterling  for  his  ad- 
mission fees.  This  mode  of  making  him  open  his 
purse  strings  for  a  gratuitous  honour  used  often  to 
excite  a  good-natured  smile  on  his  countenance 
when  he  adverted  to  the  transaction. 

In  mentioning  these  honours,  it  is  gratifying  to 
observe  that  they  proceeded  not  only  from  persons 
devoted  to  science,  but  from  men  associated  to- 
gether of  every  denomination,  from  the  municipal 
authorities  of  imperial  cities  to  the  humbler  cor- 
porators of  smaller  towns.  The  magistrates  of 
Edinburgh  took  the  lead,  in  this  respect,  of  its  own 
College  of  Physicians,  and  voted  him  the  freedom 
of  their  ancient  metropolis.  The  City,  in  announ- 
cing this  honour  to  Dr.  Jenner,  availed  itself  of  the 
kindness  of  one  of  the  most  venerable  and  distin- 
guished of  its  learned  Professors,  Dr.  Andrew  Dun- 
can, senior.  I  cannot  mention  this  individual  with- 
out expressing  my  thankfulness  for  his  goodness  in 
directing  my  early  studies.  His  indefatigable  in- 
dustry, his  active  benevolence,  and  his  great  ac- 
quirements, must  cause  his  name  to  be  respected  by 
every  enlightened  physician.  He  was  one  of  the  first 
to  promote  the  practice  of  vaccination  in  Scotland. 
In  doing  so,  he  illustrated  that  principle  which 
guided  him  in  all  his  duties.  He  was  constantly 
alive  to  the  progress  of  scientific  truth,  and  omitted 
no  opportunity  of  diffusing  it.  Since  these  re- 
marks were  written,  I  have  received  the  melan- 
choly tidings  of  the  death  of  this  estimable  and 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  35 

venerable  man.  All  my  early  professional  recol- 
lections are  associated  with  him  as  mv  adviser  and 
instructor ;  and  I  should  be  guilty  of  deep  ingra- 
titude were  I  not  to  seize  this  opportunity  of  an- 
nouncing my  past  obligations  for  his  kindness  and 
generosity,  and  my  unfeigned  respect  for  his  me- 

In  1 804,  one  of  the  most  beautiful  of  the  Napo- 
leon series  of  medals  was  struck  commemorative  of 
the  Emperor's  estimate  of  the  value  of  vaccination. 
It  has  been  said,  that  it  was  at  the  same  time  in- 
tended as  a  mark  of  personal  honour  to  Jenner,  by 
appropriating  one  side  of  the  medal  to  his  bust. 
Whether  this  really  was  the  design,  I  cannot  say ; 
but  it  is  certain  that  the  obverse  of  some  of  the 
early  medals  was  left  blank.  Subsequently  it  was 
occupied  by  the  head  of  the  Emperor. 

He  who  flushed  with  victory  and  at  the  head  of 
the  revolutionary  army  of  France  had  spared  the 
university  of  Pavia,  out  of  respect  to  the  genius 
of  Spallanzani,  when  the  city  itself  was  given  up 
to  plunder,  proved  that  the  claims  of  science  were 
not  forgotten  amid  the  astonishing  events  which 
carried  him  forward  to  the  highest  pinnacle  of  am- 
bition. His  animosity  to  England  had  been  shown 
in  that  vehement  and  decided  manner  which 
marked  all  his  actions  ;  yet  there  was  one  chord 
of  sympathy  unbroken,  and  which,  when  duly 
touched,  showed  that  his  intoxicating  success  had 
not  raised  his  proud  spirit  beyond  some  of  the 

D  2 

36  LIFE    OF    DR.    .TENNER. 

calls  of  justice  and  humanity,  and  that  he  could 
still  be  moved  by  the  peaceful  arguments  of  truth 
and  science. 

His  unjust  detention  of  the  inhabitants  of  Great 
Britain,  who  were  quietly  sojourning  in  his  domi- 
nions  after   the  peace   of  Amiens,  was  in  direct 
opposition  to  the  usages  of  modern  warfare.     Dr. 
Jenner's  efforts  to  release  some  distinguished  in- 
dividuals who  had  been  so   detained,   have  been 
already  mentioned.     He  was  now  called  upon  to 
exert  himself  in  a  different  way,   and  his  efforts 
brought  him  more  immediately  into  contact  with 
Napoleon  himself.     Dr.  Wickham,  who  was  one  of 
the  travelling  fellows  of  the  University  of  Oxford, 
was  at  Paris  in  the  first  years  of  his  travels,  when 
the  command  for  the  detention  of  the  English  was 
issued.     He  was  permitted  to  retire  to  Geneva  on 
his  parole.     Another  young  Englishman,    of  the 
name  of  Williams,  was  also  detained.   The  situation 
of  both  of  these  gentlemen  had  been  particularly 
submitted  to  the  consideration  of  Dr.  Jenner :  that 
of  Dr.  Wickham  presented  peculiar  claims.     He 
was   travelling  in  compliance  with  the  generous 
purposes   of  the  founder  of  his    fellowship ;    he 
was  pursuing  those  objects  which  in  all  wars  have 
been  held  sacred,  and  on  that  account  alone  might 
have  claimed  exemption  from  the  ruthless  decree. 
Mr.  Williams,  too,  was  travelling  for  improvement, 
though   not   under   the   immediate  sanction   and 
the  special  commission  of  a  learned  body.     His 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  37 

health  had  suffered  materially,  and  it  was  an  object 
of  the  gTeatest  consequence  both  to  him  and  to 
Dr.  Wickham,  to  be  hberated  from  their  harassing 

Dr.  Jenner,  in  the  first  instance,  directed  his 
applications  for  the  accomphshment  of  this  object 
through  the  Central  Committee  of  Vaccination  at 
Paris ;  but  they  all  failed.  Under  these  circum- 
stances, the  Committee  recommended  that  he 
should  immediately  avail  himself  of  his  great  cele- 
brity in  France,  and  directly  appeal  to  the  Em- 
peror himself.  He  profited  by  this  advice,  and 
addressed  the  following  letter  to  his  Imperial 
Majesty,  of  which  both  the  French  and  English 
copies  have  been  found  among  his  papers. 

Dr.  Jexner  to  Napoleon. 


Having  by  the  blessing  of  Providence  made  a  discovery 
of  which  all  nations  acknowledge  the  beneficial  effects,  I 
presume  upon  that  plea  alone,  with  great  deference,  to  re- 
quest a  favour  from  your  Imperial  Majesty,  who  early 
appreciated  the  importance  of  vaccination  and  encouraged 
its  propagation,  and  who  is  universally  admitted  to  be  the 
patron  of  the  arts. 

My  humble  request  is  that  your  Imperial  Majesty  will 
graciously  permit  two  of  my  friends,  both  men  of  science 
and  literature,  to  return  to  England :  one,  Mr.  William 
Thomas  Williams,  residing  at  Nancy;  the  other.  Dr.  Wick- 
ham,  at  present  at  Geneva.  Should  your  Imperial  Majesty 

38  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

be  jileased  to  listen  to  the  prayer  of  my  petition,  you  will 
impress  my  mind  with  sentiments  of  gratitude  never  to  be 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  with  the  most  profound  defer- 
ence and  respect, 

Your  Imperial  Majesty's 

Most  obedient  and  humble  servant, 

E.  J. 

Berkeley,  Gloucestershire, 

February,  1805, 

When  this  letter  was  despatched,  Napoleon  was 
in  Italy,  but  Mr.  Williams  had  an  opportunity  of 
delivering  a  copy  of  it  into  his  Majesty's  hands  as 
he  passed  through  Nancy.*  A  duplicate  was  pre- 
sented by  Baron  Corvisart,  the  Emperor's  physi- 
cian, in  the  month  of  June  1806.  Early  in  the  fol- 
lowing July  Mr.  Williams  received  an  intimation 
from  Corvisart  that  the  Emperor  had  listened  to 
Dr.  Jenner's  petition,  and  had  granted  liberty  both 
to  himself  and  to  Dr.  Wickham. 

Dr.  Trotter,  who  took  so  active  a  part  in  pro- 
moting subscriptions  for  the  medal  presented  to  Dr. 
Jenner  by  the  medical  officers  of  the  Navy,  dedi- 

*  It  was  either  on  this  or  some  similar  occasion,  when  Na- 
poleon was  a])out  to  reject  the  proferred  petition,  tliat  Jose- 
phine uttered  the  name  of  Jenner,  The  Emperor  paused 
for  an  instant,  and  exclaimed,  "Jenner  !  ah,  we  can  refuse 
liolhing  to  that  man." 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  39 

cated  to  him  the  "  Essay  on  Drunkenness."  After 
expressing  his  thanks,  Dr.  Jenner  observes,  "  I  sin- 
cerely hope  the  mirror  you  have  held  up  may  re- 
flect the  face  of  many  a  drunkard  in  such  a  hideous 
shape  as  may  terrify  and  reform.  I  think  it  will 
prove  of  great  use  to  young  men  launching  into 
the  vice  of  ebriety.  The  habitual  drunkard — the 
man  engulfed  in  alcohol,  I  fear,  will  scarcely 
be  able  to  get  out.  I  have  in  the  course  of  my 
life  known  one  instance,  and  I  think  that  is  all." 

Jenner  had  a  peculiarly  graceful  manner  of  in- 
dicating the  respect  which  he  entertained  for  inch- 
viduals  who  had,  in  any  way,  exerted  themselves 
in  promoting  vaccination.  I  have  already  men- 
tioned Robert  Bloomfield  as  having  struck  his  lyre 
in  favour  of  that  cause.  The  Poem  was  dedicated 
to  Jenner  and  his  brethren  of  the  Royal  Jennerian 
Society.  In  writing  to  the  author  he  says,  "  I 
trust  it  will  be  as  well  received,  and  gain  as  high 
commendation,  as  the  Farmer's  Boy.  It  need  not 
obtain  more.  You  must  allow  me  to  fix  upon  some 
mark  of  my  esteem.  Do  me  the  favour,  then,  to 
accept  a  silver  ink-stand,  into  which  the  enclosed 
may  be  converted  if  you  will  call  upon  Rundell 
and  Bridge,  Ludgate  Hill,  and  use  my  name.  I 
should  like  the  following  plain  engraving  on  it. — 
'  Edward  Jenner,  M.D.  to  Robert  Bloomfield.'  " 

The  name  of  the  Reverend  James  Plumptre, 
M.A.  is  now  to  be  added  to  the  list  of  those  clergy- 
men of  the  Established  Church  who  advocated  the 

40  THE    LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

cause  of  vaccination  from  the  pulpit.  In  the  year 
1805  this  gentleman  had  to  preach  before  the 
University  of  Cambridge  at  St.  Mary's.  On  this 
occasion  he  deemed  it  a  fit  opportunity  to  lay 
before  the  members  of  that  celebrated  seat  of 
learning  a  scriptural  view  of  pestilence,  but  par- 
ticularly of  sraall-pox,  together  with  reflections  on 
the  nature  of  cow-pox.  On  the  third  of  March  of 
the  same  year  he  preached  in  the  parish  church  of 
Hinxton,  Cambridgeshire,  another  discourse  on  the 
same  subject.  It  was  designed  for  a  country  con- 
gregation ;  and  afforded  an  opportunity  to  the 
preacher  of  addressing  to  his  parishioners  many  of 
those  arguments  in  favour  of  vaccine  inoculation 
which  were  well  calculated  to  remove  some  of  the 
prejudices  that  had  been  artfully  instilled  into  the 
minds  of  the  lower  classes. 

He  took  his  text  for  both  discourses  from  the 
60th  Chapter  of  Numbers,  48th  verse,  "And  he 
stood  between  the  dead  and  the  living ;  and  the 
plague  was  stayed."  As  became  his  high  and  holy 
calling,  he  pointed  out  the  invariable  connexion 
between  sin  and  suffering,  and  shewed  that  many 
of  the  most  signal  and  afflictive  dispensations  of 
Divine  wrath  came  in  the  shape  of  disease  and 

This  trut\i,  illustrated  by  the  whole  history  of 
man,  naturally  induced  him  to  apply  it  to  elucidate 
the  origin  of  the  most  universal  pestilence  known 
to  our  species.     The  opinions  which  he  expressed 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  41 

on  that  subject  arose  from  the  behef  that  the 
small-pox  was  comparatively  a  new  disease,  and 
that  the  sudden  appearance  of  it  at  the  time  of  the 
rise  of  the  Mahometan  imposture  pointed  it  out  as 
a  visitation  foretold  by  prophecy,  and  illustrated 
the  pouring  out  of  the  first  phial  upon  the  earth 
when  "  there  fell  a  noisome  and  grievous  sore  upon 
the  men  who  had  the  mark  of  the  beast,  and  upon 
them  which  worshipped  his  image."  It  would  not 
become  me  to  pronounce  upon  the  accuracy  of  this 
interpretation.  Although  the  view  taken  in  the 
former  volume  sustains  the  reverend  author's 
general  position,  it,  nevertheless,  does  not  accord 
with  his  specific  interpretation,  inasmuch  as  it 
renders  it  probable  that  small-pox  first  \dsited  our 
race  at  a  period  long  antecedent  to  that  assigned 
to  it  in  this  discourse.  It  was  elucidated  by 
copious  and  useful  notes,  many  of  them  containing 
valuable  information  of  a  practical  nature,  and  the 
whole  written  in  a  manner  calculated  to  instruct 
both  the  divine  and  the  physician.  The  dedica- 
tion to  Dr.  Jenner  was  singularly  appropriate,  and 
expressed  in  warm  and  becoming  terms  the  writer's 
veneration  and  attachment.* 

*  TO  EDWARD  JENNER,  M.D.  F.R.S.  &C.  &C. 

"  The  instrument  in  the  hands  of  a  gracious  Providence 
of  discovering  vaccine  inoculation,  and  the  disinterested 
divulger  of  that  salutary  blessing  for  the  benefit  of  the  whole 
human  race.  This  discourse,  intended  to  connect  the  prac- 
tice of  medicine  with  religion,  and  to  set  forth  the  just  wrath 

42  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

This  benevolent  clergyman  did  not  confine  him- 
self to  his  efforts  in  the  pulpit.  He  took  active 
measures  to  meet  the  progress  of  small  pox,  when- 
ever it  appeared  in  his  vicinity.  Sometimes  he 
employed,  at  his  own  cost,  a  medical  man  to  vac- 
cinate the  poor ;  at  others  he  took  that  office  upon 
himself.  He  likewise  printed  and  circulated  largely 
songs  and  ballads  calculated  to  impress  the  minds 
of  the  lower  orders  with  the  benefit  of  vaccina- 

and  power,  and  more  particularly  the  infinite  goodness,  of  our 
Almighty  Father,  is  inscribed  as  a  small  token  of  that  vene- 
ration and  gratitude  due  from  an  admiring  world,  by  his  obe- 
dient and  humble  servant, 

"  James  Plumptre." 
"  Clare  Hall,  Cambridge,  Feb.  25th,  1805. 

*  Since  the  publication  of  the  former  volume,  Mr.  Plump- 
tre has  had  the  kindness  to  transmit  to  me  the  following 
memorandum.  It  is  a  curious  and  not  unimportant  testi- 
mony in  favour  of  the  doctrine  which  I  have  endeavoured  to 
establish  respecting  the  nature  of  tlie  variola  and  the  variola 

"  Among  my  memoranda  on  vaccination,  I  find  the  fol- 
lowing :  '  In  the  public  library  at  Lausanne  there  is  a  curious 
manuscript  by  St.  Maire,  the  fourth  christian  bishop  of  Lau- 
sanne, who  died  A.  D.  GOl,  which  he  calls  a  chronicle  of  his 
own  times.  Among  other  things  which  this  chronicle  con- 
tains is  the  account  of  a  visitation  of  the  small-pox,  which  he 
says  made  great  ravages,  and  he  notices  particularly  that  it 
proved  very  fatal  to  the  coivs.^ 

•'  This  memorandum  is  in  the  handwriting  of  my  late  sister 
Mrs.  Anne  Plumptre,  who  translated  Bertram's  account  of 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  43 

Others  acted  a  very  different  part.  A  calumny 
which  was  directed  both  against  Dr.  Jenner's 
moral  and  professional  character  issued  from  one 
of  our  universities  ;  it  was  whispered  in  the  courts 
of  our  palaces  ;  circulated  by  the  periodical  press  ; 
and  I  have  reason  to  know  that  the  effect  of  the 
misrepresentation  is  still  felt.  This,  among  num- 
berless instances,  proves  what  hard  measure 
truth  receives  in  this  world.  In  order  that  I  may 
refute  this  unworthy  attempt  to  injure  both  vac- 
cination and  its  author,  I  will  meet  it  as  it  comes 
from  the  pen  of  a  reverend  divine.  Dr.  Ramsden, 
rector  of  Grundisburgh,  Suffolk,  in  a  note  to  a 
sermon  preached  before  the  university  of  Cam- 
bridge on  May  15th  1803,  states  that  he  heard 
with  his  own  ears  in  the  physic  school  of  the  uni- 
versity, the  king's  reader  of  physic  say  that  Dr.  Jen- 
ner  had,  after  the  discovery  of  vaccination,  inocu- 
lated his  own  son  with  the  small-pox.  This  ser- 
mon, together  with  the  note,  was  reprinted  in  1827. 

The  king's  reader  on  physic,  Sir  Isaac  Penning- 
ton, was  a  violent  opposer  of  vaccination ;  and  he 
put  forward  his  statement  with  a  view  to  prove 
that   Dr.   Jenner,  though   he   recommended   the 

the  Plague  at  Marseilles,  and  published  many  other  works : 
but  she  does  not  mention  where  she  got  it.  I  do  not  recol- 
lect reading  it  in  your  work,  nor  do  I  find  it  by  your  Index, 
nor  on  referring  back  to  the  work." 

I  regret  to  add  that  this  excellent  clergyman  has  not  lived 
to  witness  the  insertion  of  this  in  the  present  volume. 

44  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

practice  to  others,  was  distrustful  of  it,  and  had 
abandoned  it  in  his  own  family.  It  was  for  the 
purpose  of  representing  Jenner  in  this  light  that 
the  statement  was  uttered,  and  printed,  and  cir- 
culated throughout  the  kingdom.  I  do  not  blame 
the  rector  of  Grundisburgh  for  repeating  in  1803 
what  he  may  have  heard  from  the  king's  reader  in 
physic ;  but  before  giving  a  second  ecUtion  of  the 
tale  in  1827,  it  would  not  have  been  unworthy  of 
his  station  and  his  calling,  to  have  ascertained 
whether  the  information  he  had  heard  was  founded 
in  truth,  or  rested  on  a  basis  of  a  different  de- 
scription ;  whether  Dr.  Jenner  or  his  friends  had 
published  any  explanation  of  the  alleged  delin- 
quency ;  and  whether,  in  short,  the  real  state  of 
the  case  was  not  in  direct  opposition  to  the  in- 
ferences which  were  drawn  from  it. 

The  facts  were  these  :  On  the  14th  of  May,  1796, 
Jenner  vaccinated  his  first  patient,  Phipps.  On 
the  12th  of  April,  1798,  he  vaccinated  his  son 
Robert,  together  with  several  other  children.  It 
is  particularly  specified  in  his  first  pubHcation  that 
his  son  Robert  "  did  not  receive  the  infection^  He 
was,  therefore,  as  much  liable  to  the  influence  of 
small-pox  contagion  as  if  he  had  never  been  vac- 
cinated. Under  these  circumstances,  while  the 
infant  was  with  his  parents  at  Cheltenham,  the  late 
Mr.  Cother  of  that  place  came  into  Jenner  s  house, 
and  took  the  child  in  his  arms,  saying  that  he  had 
just   left   a    family   labouring    under    small-pox. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  45 

Jenner  immediately  exclaimed,  "  Sir,  you  know 
not  what  you  are  doing.  That  child  is  not  pro- 
tected. He  was  vaccinated ;  but  the  infection 
failed."  Believing  that  the  natural  small-pox 
would  certainly  follow  this  exposure,  he  w^as  greatly 
distressed  and  alarmed.  He  had  no  vaccine  mat- 
ter. He  resolved,  therefore,  to  adopt  the  next 
best  expedient,  and  immediately  had  the  child 
inoculated  with  small-pox  virus,  preferring  the 
mitigation  which  that  practice  affords  to  the  vio- 
lence and  danger  which  generally  accompany  the 
casual  disease. 

This  simple  occurrence,  when  related  as  it  actually 
took  place,  so  far  from  leading  to  the  conclusions 
that  were  built  upon  it,  did  not  afford  the  slightest 
ground  for  them.  It  was  a  clear  case  of  professional 
duty  ;  and,  under  like  circumstances,  every  medi- 
cal man  would  have  been  called  on  to  act  as  Jen- 
ner did.  He  had  no  vaccine  matter;  his  child 
was  exposed  to  small-pox  contagion  ;  and  what, 
therefore,  did  he  do  ?  Small-pox,  in  some  shape, 
seemed  inevitable ;  and  he  sought  for  that  abate- 
ment of  its  virulence  which  inoculation  is  known 
to  afford. 

At  the  time  the  deed  was  perpetrated,  every 
one  who  knew  the  truth  was  so  perfectly  satisfied 
with  the  soundness  and  propriety  of  Jenner' s  deci- 
sion, that  it  never  was  imagined  it  could  be  ques- 
tioned. The  bare  fact,  however,  that  Dr.  Jenner 
had   employed  small-pox  inoculation  in  his   own 

46  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

family,  after  the  publication  of  his  work  on  the 
Variolse  Vaccinse,  was  an  incident  too  important 
to  be  lost  sight  of  by  those  who  were  unfriendly 
to  him  and  to  vaccination.  "  Dr.  Jenner  may  say 
what  he  likes  about  vaccination,  but  we  know  for 
certain  that  he  has  inoculated  his  own  son  with 
small-pox."  Another  repeated  this  statement  with 
this  addition,  that  he  had  done  so  because  he 
mistrusted  vaccination.  A  third  added  another 
tint  to  deepen  the  colouring,  affirming  that  he 
knew  that  Dr.  Jenner  had  abandoned  his  con- 
fidence in  vaccination,  and  the  proof  is  incon- 
testible,  as  he  has  inoculated  his  own  child  with 
small-pox.  These  stories  were  passed  from  mouth 
to  mouth,  and  made  a  considerable  impression  on 
the  public  mind  before  he  heard  of  them,  and 
were  unwittingly  uttered  by  a  noble  lord  in  Jen- 
ner's  presence  at  St.  James's,  whom,  on  the  in- 
stant, he  rebuked  in  the  manner  that  I  shall  else- 
where state.  They  afterwards  appeared  in  print, 
and  were  circulated  with  every  malignant  inter- 
pretation. They  were  promptly  met  by  an  autho- 
ritative statement  of  the  facts  given  above.  That 
statement  appeared  in  several  of  the  periodical  pub- 
lications ;  and  I  myself  was  instrumental  in  sending 
it  to  more  than  one  in  the  year  1811,  when /or 
the  first  time  I  heard  of  this  calumnious  misrepre- 
sentation. Dr.  Jenner  likewise,  both  in  conver- 
sation and  in  writing,  gave  the  truth  as  it  actually 
occurred ;  and  there  was  not  a  man  in  the  king- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  47 

dom  who  had  access  to  the  common  sources  of 
information,  who  might  not  have  acquainted  him- 
self with  the  facts. 

Is  there  not,  therefore,  some  reason  to  complain 
of  a  gentleman  of  respectable  station  and  charac- 
ter, who  reprints  a  most  injurious  report  without 
having  given  himself  the  trouble  to  inquire  whether 
the  king's  reader  in  physic  might  not  have  been 
in  error  when  he  proclaimed  it  in  the  University 
of  Cambridge  more  than  thirty  years  ago  ?  I  sub- 
join the  letter  addressed  to  myself  in  reference  to 
this  matter. 

My  dear  Doctor, 

While  my  embarrassments  thicken  upon  me,  't  is  a  very 
pleasant  thing  to  have  so  able  a  friend  as  you  to  converse 
with  in  this  way.  I  am  thrown  into  a  little  fresh  per- 
plexity, by  a  letter  addressed  to  me  in  one  of  the  London 
papers  of  yesterday,  from  Mr.  Brown  of  Musselburgh. 
Pray  look  it  over,  and  tell  me  what  course  I  should  pur- 
sue. Some  notice  must  be  taken  of  it ;  but  if  Mr.  Brown 
thinks  he  shall  be  able  to  draw  me  into  a  controversy  by 
such  a  measure  as  this,  in  a  public  newspaper,  he  will  be 
mistaken.  His  letter  under  the  veil  of  candour  and  libe- 
rality is  full  of  fraud  and  artifice ;  for  he  knows  that  every 
insinuation  and  argument  he  has  advanced,  have  been 
refuted,  both  by  the  first  medical  characters  in  Edinburgh 
and  Dublin ;  and,  indeed,  by  many  others.  But  the  mild, 
gentle,  complaisant  antagonist,  is  a  character  more  difficult 
to  deal  with  than  one  who  boldly  shews  his  ferocity.  I 
shall  avoid  further  comments  till  you  have  seen  his  pro- 

48  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

From  my  knowledge  of  some  of  the  Gloucester  vacci- 
nators, I  am  confident  the  practice  has  been  very  heed- 
lessly conducted  there.  The  patients  themselves,  and 
the  parents  of  some  of  the  vaccinated  children,  have  in 
some  instances  been  very  culpable.  I  speak  this  rather 
feelingly ;  as  I  have  vaccinated  children  myself  brought 
from  Gloucester  to  this  place,  whose  arms  I  never  inspected 
after  the  operation. 

You  request  me  to  give  you  the  history  of  my  son's 
inoculation.  I  do  it  with  pleasure,  and  beg  you  to  make 
any  use  you  please  of  it. 

My  two  eldest  children  were  inoculated  for  the  small- 
pox before  I  began  to  inoculate  for  the  cow-pox.  My 
youngest  child  was  born  about  the  time  my  experiments 
commenced,  and  was  among  the  earliest  I  ever  vaccinated. 
By  referring  to  the  first  work  I  published  on  the  subject 
in  the  spring  of  the  year  1798,  page  40,  you  will  find  his 
name,  Robert  F.  Jenner,  and  you  will  observe  it  noticed, 
that  on  his  arm  the  vaccine  lymph  did  not  prove  infec- 
tious. It  advanced  two  or  three  days,  and  then  died 
away.  In  a  short  time  after  I  was  necessitated  to  go  with 
my  family  to  Cheltenham  for  a  few  months,  wdiere  I  did 
not  think  it  prudent  to  resume  my  operations,  from  a 
supposition  that  the  people  assembled  at  a  public  watering 
place  might  conceive  the  disease  (then  so  little  known) 
to  be  contagious,  and  that  it  might  excite  a  clamour. 
However,  during  my  stay  there,  this  boy  was  accidentally 
exposed  to  the  small-pox,  and  in  such  a  way  as  to  leave 
no  doubt  on  my  mind  of  his  being  infected.  Having  at 
this  time  no  vaccine  matter  in  my  possession,  there  was 
no  alternative  but  his  immediate  inoculation,  which  was 
done  by  Mr.  Cother,  a  surgeon  of  this  place,  who  is  since 
dead ;  but  this  history  is  well  known  to  many  who  are  living. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  49 

You  now  see  on  what  a  baseless  foundation  the  insinu- 
ations which  have  been  published  respecting  these  facts 

Believe  me. 

My  dear  Doctor, 

with  much  affection, 
truly  yours, 
Edward  Jenner. 
6th  November,  1810. 

VOL.  II.  E 

50  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 



The  hostility  in  England  continued  to  be  hap- 
pily counterbalanced  by  multiplied  evidence  of 
the  benefits  of  vaccination  from  other  parts 
of  the  world.  A  letter  from  Dr.  Friese  of  Bres- 
laUj  dated  June  9th,  1805.  and  addressed  to 
Mr.  Ring,  commences  thus, — "  The  unremitting 
zeal  with  which  you  have  endeavoured  to  promote 
the  Jennerian  discovery  in  your  country,  and  the 
interest  you  have  so  philanthropically  shewn  on 
hearing  of  its  first  providential  introduction  into 
Silesia,  will,  I  hope,  excuse  me  when  I  take  the 
liberty  to  trouble  you  with  some  farther  account 
of  the  successful  progress  which  that  invaluable 
prophylactic  has  since  made  in  this  part  of  the 
Prussian    dominions."      After   adverting    to    the 

LIFE    OF    DR.    .TENNER.  51 

pamphlets  of  Messrs.  Goldson  and  Squirrel,  the 
learned  writer  adds^  "  At  any  rate,  I  am  convinced 
the  new  doctrine  which  they  promulgate,  will  find 
but  few  proselytes  in  Germany,  where  both  the  go- 
vernments and  the  people  are  moreandmore  sensible 
of  the  advantages  of  the  new  practice  ;  and  where 
similar  equivocal  arguments,  advanced  some  years 
ago  by  the  late  Dr.  Herz,  Mr.  Erhman  of  Frank- 
fort, and  Dr.  Matterskher  of  Prague,  have  been 
silenced  by  time  and  experience. 

"  You  remember,  perhaps,  by  my  former  letter, 
that  there  was  also  an  adversary  of  some  celebrity 
in  Silesia,  who  rose  up  against  the  vaccine  inocu- 
lation at  its  first  introduction  into  this  country. 
His  name  is  Mayalla,  a  physician  known  in  Ger- 
many by  his  very  valuable  writings  on  the  several 
mineral  waters  and  bathing-places  of  Silesia,  and 
by  some  other  works  on  the  veterinary  art :  but 
I  have  the  pleasure  to  inform  you,  that  this  re- 
spectable practitioner  has  been  converted  by  reason 
and  evidence  into  one  of  the  warmest  friends  and 
supporters  of  vaccination.  I  must  add,  that  it 
was  particularly  by  his  assistance  we  are  now  in 
possession  of  two  public  vaccine  institutions  at 
Breslau  and  Glogau,  which  are  to  be  regarded  as 
the  centres  from  which  the  practice  is  spread,  and 
continues  to  be  spread,  through  every  quarter  of 
the  province." 

Dr.  Friese  mentions  that,  during  the  past  year 
(1804)  the  number  of  vaccinations  in  all  the  dis- 

E  2 

52  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

tricts  of  the  Breslau  department,  had  much  ex- 
ceeded those  of  all  the  preceding  years  smce  1800. 
In  the  department  of  Glogau  more  than  10,000 
persons  were  vaccinated.  The  gross  nmnber 
successfully  inoculated  with  cow-pox,  amounted 
to  34,000  in  the  two  departments  above  mentioned. 
Small  premiums  were  given  to  such  poor  parents 
as  brought  back  their  children  at  the  proper  time 
for  re-examination.  Clergymen,  likewise,  were  in- 
structed in  the  new  practice  ;  and  exercised  it 
judiciously  and  skilfully,  to  the  great  benefit  of 
their  parishioners. 

Intelligence  equally  pleasing  was  conveyed  from 
other  parts  of  Germany.  Jenner  received  a  letter 
from  Mr.  B.  Levi  of  London,  a  gentleman  who  had 
just  returned  from  extensive  travels  in  Poland, 
stating,  that  in  the  Russian  and  Prussian  divisions 
of  that  country  vaccination  was  making  rapid 
progress  ;  in  the  former,  under  the  auspices  of  the 
Emperor  of  Russia,  and  the  zealous  patronage  of 
the  benevolent  Empress  Dowager  Maria,  seconded 
by  the  indefatigable  exertions  of  Lobenwein,  Pro- 
fessor of  Anatomy  at  Wilna.  In  Austrian  Poland, 
however,  the  vaccine  inoculation  was  reported  to 
be  in  a  backward  state,  owing  to  a  very  malignant 
kind  of  false  cow-pox,  propagated  by  ignorant  vil- 
lage matrons  and  barbers. 

By  the  same  conveyance.  Dr.  Jenner  had  the 
satisfaction  of  receiving  accounts  from  Dr.  Frank, 
Professor  at  Wilna,  whose  letter  ran  thus :  "  Vac- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER,  53 

cination  is  thriving  apace  here ;  and  its  i)rogTess  is 
in  a  very  great  degree  owing  to  our  Professor  of 
Anatomy,  Mr  Lohenwein,  whose  indefatigable  ex- 
ertions and  philanthropy  have  surmounted  many 
difficulties  naturally  to  be  expected  in  a  (^ountry 
like  this." 

Another  short  extract  from  this  letter  of  Dr. 
Frank  will  not  be  unacceptal)le.  "  Though  so  far 
distant  from  London,  we  did  not  forget  yesterday 
(l/th  of  May),  to  join  with  the  many  thousands 
of  other  countries,  in  celebrating  the  anniversai-y 
of  a  day  so  valuable  to  every  well-wisher  of  science 
and  philanthropy." 

Besides  being,  as  Jenner  often  expressed  it, 
vaccine  clerk  to  the  world,  and  attending  to 
his  duties  as  a  physician,  his  vaccinations  were 
often  most  numerous,  especially  after  any  alarm 
from  small-pox  in  his  neighbourhood.  He  con- 
stantly inoculated  all  who  chose  to  come  ;  and 
sometimes  he  had  nearly  three  hundred  per- 
sons at  his  door.  Nothing  gratified  him  more 
than  offices  of  this  kind ;  and  when,  in  the 
course  of  his  practice,  any  striking  proofs  of  the 
efficacy  of  vaccination  presented  themselves,  his 
satisfaction  was  increased.  An  occurrence  of  this 
kind  happened  at  Cheltenham,  which  he  used  to 
relate  with  great  glee.  "  A  poor  widow  and  her 
four  children  chanced  to  be  under  the  same  roof 
with  a  labouring  man  who  had  caught  the  small- 
pox. They  had  been  exposed  five  days  to  the  in- 
fection, when   an  humble   neighbour  happened  to 

54  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

step  in.  The  poor  woman,  it  appears,  had  made  up 
her  mind  to  her  fate,  not  seeing  the  possibihty  of 
escape  from  the  calamity  that  threatened  her. 
However,  her  wise  friend  prevailed  on  her  to  come 
to  Cheltenham  to  know  what  was  to  be  done  in 
such  a  case  ;  she  instantly  complied.  I  happened 
to  be  from  home  ;  but  my  servant  Richard,  who  has 
lived  with  me  many  years,  exercised  his  judgment 
very  properly.  He  soon  found  out  an  arm  with  a 
fine  eighth  day  pustule,  and  inoculated  the  whole 
group.  They  have  since  all  been  with  me  full  of 
rejoicing  at  the  consequence.  All  escaped  the 
contagion  except  one  of  the  children,  on  whom 
appeared  a  few  scattered  pocks,  or  rather  pimples, 
for  they  did  not  exceed  hemp-seeds  in  size ;  nor 
was  the  eruption  attended  with  any  perceptible 
indisposition.  I  have  frequently  before  this  dis- 
armed the  small-pox  of  its  power  on  those  who 
had  been  exposed  three  days  to  its  contagion  ;  but 
this  fact,  with  all  its  circumstances,  I  own  de- 
lighted me." 

We  have  another  picture  of  his  feelings  at  the 
same  period  in  a  letter  to  a  friend.  "  I  sincerely 
hope  that  you  are  well  and  happy,  and  so  does  my 
dear  Mrs.  Jenner,  who,  thank  God,  though  not  in 
high  health,  has  gone  on  better  than  I  once  could 
have  expected.  As  for  myself,  I  bear  the  fatigues 
and  worries  of  a  public  character  better  by  far 
than  those  who  know  the  acuteness  of  my  feehngs 
could  liave  anticipated.      Happy  should  I    be  to 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  55 

give  up  my  laurels  for  the  repose  of  retirement, 
did  I  not  feel  it  to  be  my  duty  to  be  in  the  world. 
I  certainly  derive  the  most  soothing  consolation 
from  my  labours,  the  benefits  of  which  are  felt  the 
world  over  ;  but  less  appreciated,  perhaps,  in  this 
island  than  in  any  other  part  of  the  civilized 
world." — '•  Cheltenham  is  much  improved  since 
you  saw  it.  It  is  too  gay  for  me.  I  still  like  my 
rustic  haunt,  old  Berkeley,  best ;  where  we  are  all 
going  in  about  a  fortnight.  Edward  is  growing 
tall,  and  has  long  looked  over  my  head.  Catha- 
rine, now  eleven  years  old,  is  a  promising  girl ; 
and  Robert,  eight  years  old,  is  just  a  chip  of  the 
old  block." 

In  order  to  prosecute  the  object  referred  to  in 
the  former  chapter,  relative  both  to  his  present 
affairs  and  the  progress  of  vaccination,  he  left 
Berkeley  on  the  9th  of  May  1805,  and  arrived  in 
London  on  the  10th.  On  the  following  day  he  had 
an  interview  with  Lord  Egremont.  On  this  occa- 
sion different  measures  were  canvassed.  They  all 
referred  to  the  establishment  of  vaccination  and 
the  advancement  of  his  private  fortune,  which  had 
been  so  much  injured  by  what  promised  to  be 
beneficial  to  him.  The  result  of  the  whole  was, 
that  another  application  should  be  made  to  Par- 
hament.  This  application  was  brought  about  in 
the  following  manner :  "  During  my  residence  in 
town,"  he  observes,  "  in  the  summer  of  1805,  Lady 
Crewe  happened  in  conversation  to  tell  me  how 

56  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER, 

much  Lord  Henry  Petty  wished  for  a  conference 
with  me  on  the  vaccine  subject;  and  that  he 
would  Hke  to  bring  us  together.  We  met  at  her 
villa  at  Hampstead ;  and  went  so  fully  into  the 
matter,  that  his  Lordship,  convinced  of  the  injury 
I  had  sustained,  expressed  his  determination  to 
bring  something  forward  in  the  ensuing  session. 
Before  this  session  arrived,  Mr.  Pitt  died;  and 
Lord  Henry  Petty  became  Chancellor  of  the  Ex- 
chequer. In  the  early  part  of  the  present  year 
(1806),  I  again  saw  his  Lordship;  and  found  that 
his  ardour  in  my  cause  had  suffered  no  abatement. 
This  was  soon  after  proved  by  his  Lordship's  motion 
in  the  House." 

That  other  great  personages  took  an  interest  in 
this  matter  may  be  gathered  from  what  follows  : 
"  I  had  not  forgot  your  kind  interest  about  Jenner. 
I  spoke  to  the  Duke,  the  Prince,  and  Morpeth, 
and  they  will  all  do  what  }  ou  think  best ;  but  Mor- 
peth has  undertaken  to  make  inquiries  whether  it 
is  not  possible  to  bring  it  again  before  Parliament. 
He  thinks  if  that  could  be  done,  it  would  be  more 
satisfactory  than  any  subscription.  I  desired  him 
to  find  out  how  Mr.  Pitt  was  really  inclined  on  the 
subject,  and  I  only  waited  the  result  of  these  in- 
quiries to  write  to  you  *." 

On  the  second  of  July  1806,  Lord  Henry  Petty 
brought    the    subject   of   vaccination    before   the 

*  Extract  of  a  letter  from  the  Duchess  of  Devonshire  to 
J.  J.  Angerstein,  Esq. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  57 

House  of  Commons.  This  measure  was  particu- 
larly called  for  at  this  period,  both  on  Dr.  Jenner's 
account,  and  the  cause  of  vaccination  itself.  Its 
progress  had  been  much  obstructed  in  our  own 
country  in  consequence  of  the  numerous  preju- 
dices which  had  been  excited  against  it ;  and 
small-pox  was  again  becoming  prevalent.  Such 
being  the  case,  his  Lordship  thought  that  the 
affair  demanded  the  most  serious  attention  of  the 
legislature.  He  therefore  proposed,  that  an  ad- 
dress to  his  Majesty  should  be  voted  by  the  House, 
praying  "  that  his  Royal  College  of  Physicians  be 
requested  to  inquire  into  the  progress  of  vaccine 
inoculation,  and  to  assign  the  causes  of  its  suc- 
cess ha\4ng  been  retarded  throughout  the  United 
Kingdom,  in  order  that  their  report  may  be  made 
to  this  House  of  Parliament ;  and  that  we  may 
take  the  most  proper  means  of  publishing  it  to  the 
inhabitants  at  large." 

"  If,"  continued  his  Lordship,  "  the  result  of 
such  proposed  inquiry  turn  out  (as  I  am  strongly 
disposed  to  think  it  will),  a  corroboration  of  the 
beneficial  effects  which  other  nations  seem  con- 
vinced are  derived  from  vaccine  inoculation,  it 
will  satisfy  the  people  of  this  country  of  the  many 
evils  which  arise  from  the  rapid  progress  of  this 
fatal  species  of  the  disorder.  It  will  prove  to  them, 
that  the  bad  effects  which  have  been  ascribed  to 
vaccination  have  been  dreadfully  exaggerated ;  and 
that  the  temporary  duration  of  its  benefits  in  a  few 

58  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

cases  have  been  owing  to  some  kind  of  misma- 

"  If  such  shall  be  the  result  of  the  proposed  in- 
quiry, I  have  no  hesitation  in  saying,  that  it  ought 
afterwards  to  be  for  this  House  to  consider  whether 
or  not  any  reward  has  been  bestowed  on  the  ori- 
ginal discoverer  of  vaccine  inoculation,  which  is  in 
any  degree  adequate  to  its  real  im]iortance ;  and, 
as  such,  consistent  with  the  general  character  and 
liberality  of  this  country. 

''  This,  however,  is  a  subject  for  after  considera- 
tion ;  but  in  the  meantime  the  House  will  agree 
with  me  as  to  the  propriety  of  collecting  opinions 
relative  to  the  general  effects  of  this  mode  of  ino- 
culation ;  and  to  show  to  the  world  that,  if  there  be 
any  truth  as  to  its  benefits,  we  shall  not  be  the 
first  to  reject  them ;  but  that,  on  the  contrary, 
we  shall  use  every  means  to  encourage  its  pro- 
gress, and  this  in  a  manner  consistent  with  the 
character  and  dignity  of  our  nation." 

The  motion  was  seconded  by  Dr.  Matthews,  in 
a  judicious  and  elegant  speech.  He  at  that  time 
sat  in  Parliament  as  one  of  the  representatives  for 
the  city  of  Hereford.  The  other  speakers  were 
Mr.  Wilberforce,  Mr.  Secretary  Windham,  Mr. 
Bankes,  Mr.  Wilham  Smith,  and  Mr.  Paull.  The 
sentiments  of  every  speaker  were  in  favour  of  the 
motion  ;  and  the  whole  tone  of  the  debate  indi- 
cated a  state  of  feeling  highly  respectful  towards 
Dr.  Jenner,  and  alive  to  the  value  of  his  disco- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  59 

very.  Mr,  Wilberforce,  in  his  observations,  alluded 
to  a  branch  of  the  subject  which,  though  it  has 
been  repeatedly  canvassed  in  Parliament,  has  not 
hitherto  met  with  the  consideration  and  support 
that  it  so  evidently  demands.  His  object  was  not 
to  force  vaccine  inoculation,  but  to  impose  certain 
rules  on  those  who  practised  small-pox  inocula- 
tion, in  order  that  the  public  might  be  secured 
from  the  effects  of  that  contagion  in  the  same 
manner  as  is  done  in  the  case  of  the  plague. 
These  suggestions  were  not  relished  by  the  House. 
Just  and  moderate  though  they  were,  they  seemed 
to  have  too  much  the  aspect  of  compulsion ;  and 
the  liberty  of  doing  wrong  was  still  left  among  the 
privileges  of  free-born  Englishmen. 

A  measure  much  less  comprehensive  than  that 
contemplated  by  Mr.  Wilberforce,  should  Parlia- 
ment in  its  wisdom  see  fit  to  enact  it,  would,  even 
thus  late,  be  of  incalculable  service  in  sa\dng  hu- 
man life,  and  could  scarcely  (one  would  think)  be 
objected  to  by  the  most  determined  advocate  of 
liberty.  The  practice  of  small-pox  inoculation  has 
been  abandoned  by  almost  every  respectable  medical 
man .  It  has  been  lately  taken  up  by  a  set  of  un- 
principled, unfeeling,  and  ignorant  persons.  These, 
reckless  of  the  miseries  w^hich  they  spread  abroad, 
extort  from  the  prejudiced  parent  a  pittance  suffi- 
cient to  excite  their  cupidity ;  and  to  show  how 
small  a  price,  even  in  this  Christian  land,  is  set 
upon     human     health    and    existence,     there     is 

60  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

scarcely  a  portion  of  the  country  where  indivi- 
duals of  this  stamp  may  not  be  traced  by  the  me- 
lancholy and  fatal  consequences  of  their  practices. 
Were  it  therefore  merely  enacted,  that  no  one 
should  practise  small- pox  inoculation  who  had  not 
received  a  testimonial  of  his  qualifications  from 
some  of  the  legally  constituted  authorities, —  this 
enactment,  together  with  one  declaring  and  en- 
forcing what  has  been  already  pronounced  by  the 
King's  Bench  to  be  the  common  law  of  the  land, 
would  probably  soon  banish  small-pox  inoculation 
from  the  kingdom  ;  but  as  another  occasion  will 
occur  of  referring  to  the  topic,  I  shall  not  dwell  on 
it  here. 

Sentiments  of  a  similar  kind  were  strongly  ex- 
pressed by  some  of  the  most  devoted  lovers  of 
freedom  in  this  country.  His  Grace  the  Duke  of 
Bedford,  who  then  held  a  highly  dignified  and 
responsible  public  station,  that  of  Lord  Lieute- 
nant of  Ireland,  conveyed  to  Dr.  Jenner  a  very 
decided  opinion  as  to  the  restrictions  which  ought 
to  be  adopted  touching  small-pox  inoculation. 

Phoenix  Park,  Dublin,  July  18,  1806. 
Dear  Sir, 
I  am  happy  to  perceive  that  Lord  Henry  Petty  has  in- 
troduced the  subject  of  vaccine  inoculation  once  more  to 
the  notice  of  Parliament,  though  I  much  doubt  whether  a 
bare  inquiry  into  the  merits  of  the  practice,  or  its  efficacy 
against  the  small-pox,  will  prove  of  any  essential  use^ 
unless    compulsory  means    are    resorted    to,    or   at   least 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  61 

measures  of  regulation  to  prevent  the  small-pox  spreading 
its    destructive  ravages    over  the   empire,    and   sweeping 
thousands   annually  from  the  population   of  the  country. 
We  have  already  sufficient  evidence   of  the   superior  and 
incontrovertible    advantages    of   the    cow-pox    to   satisfy 
every  rational  and  candid   mind  ;  and  any  additional  tes- 
timony, however  sanctioned  by  the  College  of  Physicians, 
or  by  Parliament,  will,  I  fear,  have  but  little  weight  in 
convincing  the  obstinate,  the  interested,  or  the  prejudiced. 
Some    legislative  restraint  must  be  adopted    (as   I  took 
occasion  to  tell  you,  when  I  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing 
you  last  summer)  against  that  pernicious   and  fatal  error, 
which  permits  a  man  with  impunity  to  spread  the  contagion 
of  a  loathsome  and  cruel  disorder  around  his  neighbour- 
hood, and  to  carry  the  seeds  of  disease  and  death  through 
the  streets  of  the  metropolis,  or  through  towns  and  vil- 
lages in  the  country.     This  surely  cannot  be  consistent 
with  the  principles  of  a  wise  government,  or  even  of  a  free 
one  ;  and  without  it,  I  fear,  we  shall  never  effect  the  great 
object  the  Jennerian  Society  has  in  view,  the  extermina- 
tion of  the  small-pox.     I  have  written  my  sentiments  to 
Lord  Grenville  freely  on  the  subject ;   and  took  occasion 
to  mention  my  anxious  hope,  that  you  would  at  length 
receive  that  just  reward  from  the  public,  which  in  my 
ojoinion  has  been  too  long  withheld  from  you.     I  trust 
the  inquiry  will  be  extended  to  Ireland.     With  the  assist- 
ance  of  Dr.  Yeates,   (whose  zeal  in  the  cause  you  well 
know),  I  am  endeavouring  to  obtain  some  information  on 
the  progress  vaccination  has    made  in   this    part  of  the 
United  Kingdom,  which  I  hope  may  be  useful ;  and  I  am 
naturally  anxious  that  Ireland  should  have  her  full  share 
of  the  benefits  resulting  from  this  important  discovery. 

I  should  apologise  for  not  having  earlier  thanked  you 
for  the  letter  I  received  from  you  just  before  I  left  Eng- 

62  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

land.  The  pressure  of  public  business,  and  the  hurry  of 
preparations  for  my  departure,  prevented  my  then  assuring 
you,  what  I  trust  you  will  always  believe,  that  I  am, 
dear  sir, 

Your  very  sincere  well-wisher 

and  faithful  servant. 

To  Dr.  Jenner.  Bedford. 

Though  the  conduct  of  the  anti-vaccinists  was 
in  every  respect  unworthy  of  any  notice  in  Par- 
Hament,  it  is  certain  that  the  influence  of  their 
writings  tended  to  produce  those  results  which 
rendered  parliamentary  interposition  necessary. 
The  renowned  trium\drate,  Drs.  Moseley,  Rowley, 
and  Squirrell  were  quite  aware  of  the  effect  of 
prejudice  when  duly  instilled  into  the  minds  of  the 
fond  many ;  and  they  availed  themselves  of  every 
engine  that  promised  in  the  least  to  aid  their  pur- 
pose. Some  of  their  contrivances,  indeed,  showed 
a  felicity  of  invention,  which  would  have  been 
quite  laughable,  had  they  not  been  altogether 
founded  in  falsehood,  and  applied  to  the  worst  pur- 
poses. They  actually  published  prints  represent- 
ing the  human  visage  in  the  act  of  transformation, 
and  assuming  that  of  a  cow.  There  was  a  Master 
Jowles,  the  cow-poxed,  ox-cheeked,  young  gentleman., 
and  Miss  Mary  Ann  Lewis,  the  cow-poxed,  the  cow- 
man ged  young  lady,  exhibited  in  all  the  touching 
simplicity  of  graphic  delineation,  by  Dr.  William 
Rowley,  a  learned  Member  of  the  University  of 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  63 

Oxford,  &c.  &c.  &c.  This  august  personage,  after 
collecting  together  the  most  extraordinary  tissue 
of  absurdities,  had  the  folly  to  characterise  his 
work  as  "  a  solemn  appeal,  not  to  the  passions  of 
7nan]iind,  hut  to  the  reason  and  judgment  of  all  who 
were  capable  of  deej)  refection."  The  voice  of  the 
respectable  part  of  the  profession  was  not  suf- 
ficient to  counteract  the  tide  of  passion  and 
prejudice  which  agents,  so  misguided,  had  been 
able  to  set  in  motion  ;  and  it  is  a  melancholy 
view  of  human  nature  to  be  obliged  to  con- 
fess, that  the  best  cause,  in  the  onset,  is  often 
foiled  by  such  opponents.  They  have  power 
enough  given  them  to  claim  and  secure  many 
victims  before  they  are  driven  from  the  field ; 
and  it  is  not  till  aroused  by  the  magnitude 
of  the  evil,  that  the  potency  and  energy  of  truth 
are  shown  in  annihilating  the  devices  of  falsehood 
and  error. 

Many  a  pang  did  Dr.  Jenner  suffer  when  he  per- 
ceived the  unhappy  success  which  attended  the 
schemes  of  the  enemies  of  vaccination.  Though 
the  abuse  poured  out  upon  himself  was  most  of- 
fensive, he  regarded  it  not.  A  serious  reply  to 
such  disgusting  observations  as  characterised  their 
productions  would  indeed  have  been  quite  un- 
worthy of  him  ;  but  he  thought  that  ridicule  was 
a  weapon  that  might  be  fairly  and  effectually 
wielded  against  them.     In  this  spirit  he  actually 

64  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

wrote  a  letter  to  one  of  the  chief  anti-vaccinists. 
It  was  never  published ;  but  it  contains  a  great 
deal  of  genuine  wit  and  polished  irony. 

The  motion  of  Lord  Henry  Petty,  "That  an 
address  be  presented  to  his  Majesty,  praying  that 
he  will  be  graciously  pleased  to  direct  his  Royal 
College  of  Physicians  to  inquire  into  the  state  of 
vaccine  inoculation  in  the  United  Kingdom,  and 
to  report  their  opinion  as  to  the  progress  which  it 
has  made,  and  the  causes  which  have  retarded  its 
general  adoption,"  was  carried  unanimously. 

The  Royal  College  of  Physicians  in  London 
having  received  his  Majesty's  commands,  in  com- 
pliance with  the  above  address,  applied  themselves 
diligently  to  the  business  referred  to  them.  They 
published  an  advertisement  in  the  newspapers, 
stating  that  they  were  ready  to  receive  informa- 
tion from  medical  practitioners  as  to  the  result  of 
their  experience  and  inquiries  upon  the  subject  of 
vaccination.  They  had  previously  applied  sepa- 
rately to  each  of  the  licentiates  of  the  college. 
They  corresponded  with  the  Colleges  of  Physicians 
of  Dublin  and  Edinburgh  ;  and  with  the  Colleges 
of  Surgeons  of  London,  Edinburgh,  and  Dublin. 
In  short,  they  took  every  possible  method  to  gain 
the  most  accurate  information,  whether  for  or 
against  the  practice. 

Dr.  Jenner  himself  viewed  the  whole  of  these 
proceedings  with  the  utmost  satisfaction.     A  fair, 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  65 

a  manly,  and  an  unreserved  investigation  was  what 
he  courted.  He  knew  that,  in  such  a  trial,  truth 
would  come  fof  tli  in  all  her  clearness  and  dignity, 
and  afford  the  most  triumphant  refutation  of  the 
calumnies  with  which  he  and  vaccination  had  been 
assailed.  The  inquiry,  though  it  involved  the  fate 
of  millions,  had  this  peculiarity,  that  it  was  to  de- 
cide in  like  manner  the  character,  both  moral  and 
professional,  of  Jenner  himself.  In  appearing  be- 
fore the  college  (which  he  did  on  the  19th  Fe- 
bruary 1807)  he  had  to  submit  to  them  both  testi- 
monies and  diplomas  gi'anted  to  him  by  almost 
every  learned  body  in  Europe,*  in  consequence  of 
the  ascertained  efficacy  of  the  discovery.  He  had 
to  lay  before  them  grateful  tokens  of  thankfulness 
and  esteem  from  the  less  polished  inhabitants  of 
other  quarters  of  the  globe ;  all  haihng  him  as 
their  greatest  benefactor.  Such  evidence  he  could 
present,  and  did  present,  but  he  said  "  trust  not  to 
these,  to  me  cheering  and  animating  documents ; 
go  to  my  enemies  ;  go  to  the  enemies  of  vaccina- 
tion ;  collect  the  evidence  that  they  have  to  offer 
look  at  their  industry  in  amassing  that  evidence 
look  at  the  spirit  in  which  it  has  been  put  forth 
bring  all  to  the  proof;  and  then  let  truth  prevail." 
The  college  most  assiduously  and  most  ably  per- 
formed the  duty  committed  to  them  ;  and,  in  re- 
porting their  opinions  on  the  testimony  adduced 

*  See  Appendix  No.  I.  for  a  list  of  these  honours, 
VOL.  II.  F 

66  LIFE    or    DR.    JENNER. 

in  support  of  vaccination,  they  stated  that  a  body 
of  evidence  so  large,  so  temperate,  and  so  consist- 
ent was,  perhaps,  never  before  cdllected  on  any 
medical   question.     They   strongly  recommended 
the  practice  of  vaccination,  this   conclusion  being 
formed   from   an  irresistible  weight  of  e\idence 
which  had  been  laid  before  them  ;  adding,  that 
"  when  the  number,  the  respectability,  the  disin- 
terestedness,  and  the   extensive  experience  of  its 
advocates  are  compared  with  the  feeble  and  im- 
perfect testimonies  of  its  few  opposers  ;  and  when 
it  is  considered  that  many  who  were  once  adverse 
to    vaccination    have   been   convinced  by  farther 
trials,  and  are  now  to  be  ranked  among  its  warmest 
supporters,  the  truth  seems  to  be  established  as 
firmly  as  the  nature  of  such  a  question  admits  ;  so 
that  the  college  of  physicians   conceive  that  the 
public   may   reasonably  look  forward  with  some 
degree  of  hope  to  the  time  when  all  opposition 
shall  cease,  and  the  general  concurrence  of  man- 
kind shall  at  length  be  able  to  put  an  end  to  the 
ravages  at  le^st,  if  not  to  the  existence,  of  small- 

On  the  29th  of  July,  180/,  the  Chancellor  of  the 
Exchequer,  the  late  Right  Honourable  Spencer 
Perceval,  moved  the  order  of  the  day  for  the  house 
to  go  into  a  committee  of  supply ;  and  stated  that 
it  was  referred  to  that  committee  to  consider  of  a 
farther  sum  to  be  allowed  to  Dr.  Edward  Jenner 
for  the  discovery  of  the  vaccine  inoculation,  and 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  67 

his  communication  of  it  to  the  world.  Tlie  house 
resolved  itself  into  a  committee  accordingly ;  the 
late  Sir  Benjamin  Hobhouse  being  in  the  chair. 

The  debate  which  arose  on  the  motion  of  the 
Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer  was  important ;  and 
evinced,  with  one  or  two  exceptions,  a  proper  esti- 
mate of  the  nature  of  the  question.  The  excellent 
report  of  the  College  of  Physicians  afforded  the 
ground  on  which  the  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer 
proposed  "that  a  sum  not  exceeding  £10,000  be 
granted  to  his  Majesty,  to  be  paid  to  Dr.  Edward 
Jenner,  as  a  reward  for  promulgating  his  discovery 
of  vaccine  inoculation  ;  and  that  the  same  be  issued 
without  any  fee  or  other  reward  whatever."  The 
last  recited  clause  was  a  very  considerate  one,  as 
in  the  case  of  the  former  grant  of  £10,000,  the 
fees  of  office,  and  other  charges,  took  nearly  one- 
tenth  from  the  sum  voted  by  parliament. 

The  anti-vaccinists  found  one  advocate  (Mr. 
Shaw  Lefe\Te)  in  the  House  of  Commons.  The 
honourable  member  first  affected  to  under-value 
the  merit  of  vaccination  itself;  and,  next,  at- 
tempted to  show  that  the  discovery  of  it  was  not 
due  to  Dr.  Jenner.  Another  honourable  member* 
(Mr.  Edward  Morris)  took  a  very  different  view  of 
the  subject.  Influenced  entirely  by  the  weight  of 
evidence,  he  made  a  powerful  appeal  to  the  house ; 
and   concluded   by    saying,    "after   what  I   have 

*  Member  for  Newport,  in  Cornwall. 

F    2 

68  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

seen  and  heard,  and  knew  to  have  been  proved 
upon  this  subject,  I  feel  myself  called  upon  to 
move  that  instead  of  £10,000,  £20,000  be  inserted 
in  this  resolution." 

Mr.  William  Smith  said,  that  "  every  person 
who  would  wish  to  give  Dr.  Jenner  a  reward  would 
first  allow  his  expenses ;  for,  until  that  be  done, 
you  cannot  talk  of  reward.  Since,  then,  the  gene- 
ral merit  of  the  discovery  is  admitted,  and  you 
are  about  to  remunerate  the  inventor ;  the  first 
thing  you  ought  to  do  is  to  give  him  back  the 
money  which  he  has  been  out  of  pocket  in  bringing 
to  perfection  his  discovery — a  discovery  which  has 
been  of  so  much  advantage  to  mankind."  He 
then  alluded  to  the  little  honour  which  Dr.  Jenner 
had  experienced  in  his  own  country,  and  recited 
part  of  the  valuable  information  that  had  just  been 
received  regarding  the  successful  termination  of 
the  Spanish  expedition  under  Balmis. 

After  various  remarks  from  other  members,  the 
question  was  put  that  £20,000  do  stand  part  of  the 
resolution  :  when  the  committee  di\TLded ;  ayes,  60  ; 
noes,  47;  majority,  13. 

I  have  thought  it  unnecessary  to  dwell  at 
greater  length  on  the  arguments  used  by  the 
respective  speakers  on  this  important  occasion. 
The  scientific  part  of  the  subject,  as  well  as  the 
character  of  Jenner,  was  treated  with  great  elo- 
quence and  effect ;  but  especially  by  the  Marquis 
of  Lansdowne,    then  Lord  Henry   Petty.      That 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  69 

noble  Lord  entered  fully  into  the  merits  of  the 
disco  v^er)'',  as  well  as  into  the  disinterestedness 
and  magnanimity  of  the  discoverer.  The  late  Mr- 
Windham,  and  the  late  Mr.  Whitbread,  spoke 
likewise  with  their  wonted  animation  and  deci- 
sion :  the  former  contending  that  a  sum  still 
larger  would  be  more  suitable  to  the  character  of 
the  country ;  the  latter  insisting  that  Dr.  Jenner 
should  be  remunerated  to  the  extent  proposed  by 
the  amendment,  the  extent  of  the  value  of  his 
services  being  totally  out  of  the  question.  Other 
gentlemen  alluded  to  the  disgraceful  practice 
which  was  still  carried  on  of  inoculating  out- 
patients with  small-pox,  at  the  Small-pox  Hospi- 
tal in  London.  "I  think  that  the  legislature," 
said  Mr.  Sturges  Bourne,  "  would  be  as  much 
justified  in  taking  a  measure  to  prevent  this  evil 
by  restraint,  as  a  man  would  be  in  snatching  a 
firebrand  out  of  the  hands  of  a  maniac  just  as  he 
was  going  to  set  fire  to  a  city." 

This  last  subject  preyed  deeply  on  the  mind 
of  Dr.  Jenner.  He  knew  that  vaccination  would 
be  comparatively  powerless  while  its  virulent  and 
contagious  antagonist  was  permitted  to  walk 
abroad  uncontrolled.  In  order  to  restrain  this 
enemy,  he  sought  an  audience  of  the  minister. 
He  gives  the  result  in  a  letter  to  Dr.  Lettsom, 
dated  July  1807- 

"  You  will  be  sorry  to  hear  the  result  of  my 
interview    with    the   Minister,    Mr.    Perceval.     I 

70  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

solicited  this  honour  with  the  sole  view  of  in- 
quiring whether  it  was  the  intention  of  govern- 
ment to  give  a  check  to  the  licentious  manner  in 
which  small-pox  inoculation  is  at  this  time  con- 
ducted in  the  metropolis.  I  instanced  the  mor- 
tality it  occasioned  in  language  as  forcible  as  I 
could  utter,  and  showed  him  clearly  that  it  was 
the  great  source  from  which  this  pest  was  dis- 
seminated through  the  country  as  well  as  through 
the  town.  But,  alas !  all  I  said  availed  nothing  ; 
and  the  speckled  monster  is  still  to  have  the 
liberty  that  the  Small-pox  Hospital,  the  delusions 
of  Moseley,  and  the  caprices  and  prejudices  of  the 
misguided  poor,  can  possibly  give  him.  I  cannot 
express  to  you  the  chagrin  and  disappointment  I 
felt  at  this  interview." 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  71 



Remote,  though  some  of  these  incidents  may 
appear,  from  the  occupations  of  a  private  indivi- 
dual, they  made  part  and  parcel  of  the  very  exist- 
ence of  Jenner.  Many  of  them  may  be  at  this 
hour  destitute  of  those  qualities  which  interest 
the  reader  ;  but  at  the  time  when  they  occurred 
they  possessed  a  power  to  touch  the  feelings  of 
every  one  ;  and  were,  in  an  especial  degree,  im- 
portant in  the  sight  of  Jenner.  It  is  needless, 
therefore,  to  assert  how  much  they  engrossed  his 
attention  and  occupied  his  time.  In  the  midst  of 
such  employments  we  can  trace  events  in  his 
domestic  history  which  stamp  the  character  of 
the  man,  and  bring  him  before  us  in  a  manner 
the  most  engaging  and  attractive. 

His  eldest  son,  Edward,  who  had  a  feeble  con- 
stitution and  other  infirmities  which  rendered  it 

72  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

inexpedient  to  send  him  to  a  public  school,  re- 
ceived all  his  education  under  his  father's  roof. 
To  assist  in  this  object  a  domestic  tutor  was  pro- 
cured. The  youth  who  was  selected  for  this 
purpose  was  but  little  older  than  his  pupil,  but 
though  tender  in  years,  he  was  old  in  wisdom 
and  knowledge.  This  extraordinary  boy,  John 
Dawes  Worgan,  became  an  inmate  of  Dr.  Jenner  s 
family  at  Berkeley  in  September  1806,  having  not 
then  completed  his  sixteenth  year.  He  was  en- 
dowed with  a  singular  maturity  of  judgment,  an 
uncommon  delicacy  of  perception,  a  quick  and 
vivid  imagination,  a  love  of  high  and  ennobling 
sentiments,  together  with  that  deep  and  heart- 
felt humility  which  checked  the  ardent  and  im- 
passioned feelings  of  his  nature,  and  at  last 
brought  all  the  fond  and  ambitious  imaginings 
of  his  aspiring  mind  under  the  sacred  influence 
of  piety  and  peace. 

The  feeble  texture  of  his  frame  and  his  early 
sorrows  laid  at  once  open  to  his  mind  the  real 
condition  of  man,  and  impressed  him  in  his  in- 
fancy with  those  truths  which  many  never  learn 
till  years  of  bitterness  and  disappointment  have 
reduced  all  earthly  objects  to  their  just  dimen- 
sions. Into  the  space  of  a  few  years  he  had 
crowded  the  experience  of  a  lifetime  ;  so  much  so, 
that  in  reading  some  of  his  "  Remains,"  the 
strength  and  the  confidence  of  an  aged  and  well- 
taught  pilgrim  may  be  discerned,  rather  than  the 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  73 

hesitating  and  crude  conceptions  that  for  the 
most  part  characterise  the  productions  of  a  youth 
of  seventeen.  I  speak  more  especially  of  his 
sentiments  on  those  questions  which  the  human 
mind  does  not  always  receive  with  favour.  His 
parents  were  distinguished  by  their  Christian  faith 
and  practice,  and  their  great  object  was  to  in- 
struct him  how  to  live  and  how  to  die.  These 
purposes  were  subsequently  much  promoted  by 
his  residence  at  a  school  in  the  village  of  Ful- 
neck,  near  Leeds,  under  the  direction  of  the 
United  Brethren.  His  parents  being  in  humble 
circumstances,  and  unable  to  bestow  upon  him  a 
learned  education,  he  was  designed  for  some  mer- 
cantile employment,  and  he  actually  assisted  his 
father  in  his  occupation  of  a  watchmaker.  After 
the  death  of  this  parent,  in  1803,  he  announced 
to  his  mother  a  design,  which  he  had  long  enter- 
tained, of  dedicating  himself  to  the  service  of  God, 
as  a  minister  of  the  Church  of  England.  The 
excellent  and  venerable  the  Rev.  T.  T.  Biddulph, 
of  Bristol,  who  had  been  his  friend  and  adviser, 
both  in  temporal  and  spiritual  matters,  and  who, 
to  the  most  unreserved  sincerity,  had  joined  the 
most  tender  and  affectionate  kindness,  was  con- 
sulted on  this  occasion.  The  direction  of  his 
studies  was  in  consequence  immediately  changed. 
He  now  began  to  devote  himself  to  the  learned 
languages  ;  and  the  felicity  of  his  genius  was  such, 
that  he  was  able  in  a  very  short  time  to  master  all 

74  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

difficulties,  to  pass  through  the  steps  that  lead 
to  sound  and  good  scholarship,  and  to  shew  at 
the  same  time  a  fidelity  of  memory,  an  expansion 
of  intellect,  and  a  delicacy  and  correctness  of 
taste,  that  were  rarely  to  be  met  with.  These 
qualities  brought  him  into  the  family  of  Dr.  Jen- 
ner :  here  his  genius  was  cherished,  his  sensitive 
nature  was  protected  from  many  evils  to  which 
the  hardness  of  his  fortune  and  the  roughness  of 
the  world  would  otherwise  have  exposed  him. 
Jenner  loved  to  hold  converse  with  such  beings, 
and  the  whole  atmosphere  of  his  domestic  circle 
was  at  that  time  in  unison  with  Worgan's  keen 
and  deep-toned  feelings.  Mrs.  Jenner  was  in 
very  delicate  health,  and  her  soul  was  devoted 
to  those  contemplations  which  most  delighted 

During  the  year  in  which  he  became  an  inmate 
in  Dr.  Jenner  s  house,  the  Spanish  vaccine  expedi- 
tion, under  Balmis,  had  returned  to  Europe :  his 
correspondent,  the  late  Mr.  Hayley,  had  suggested 
this  as  a  fit  subject  for  the  muse  of  Worgan,  who 
almost  from  his  infancy  had  shewed  a  decided 
taste  for  metrical  composition.  He  himself  had 
often  projected  such  a  work,  but  at  that  time  he 
did  not  feel  that  his  wing  was  strong  enough  to 
soar  into  the  regions  of  historic  verse.  He  wrote, 
however,  an  address  to  the  Royal  Jennerian  So- 
ciety, which  was  printed  and  presented  to  the 
members  at  their  annual  meeting,  in  1808. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  /O 

He  had  two  attacks  of  typhus  fever  while  under 
Dr.  Jenner's  roof,  and  he  was  finally  destroyed  by 
pulmonary  consumption  in  1809.  The  unceasing 
energy  of  his  mind  could  ill  bear  the  hours  of  list- 
lessness  and  inactivity  which  the  feebleness  of  his 
frame  needed ;  the  intensity  of  his  feelings,  and  the 
eagerness  of  his  nature,  hurried  him  on  to  exer- 
tions which  he  could  not  sustain.  The  flame  was 
burning  with  too  great  vehemence,  and  it  became 
extinguished  ere  it  had  acquired  all  its  brilliancy 
and  strength. 

Dr.  Jenner's  own  sentiments  may  be  gathered 
from  the  following  extract  of  a  letter  which  he 
wrote  to  a  friend  immediately  after  Worgan's 

"  Your  letter  of  course  came  too  late  for  me  to 
make  any  observations  upon  what  you  drew  up 
for  insertion  in  the  Bristol  paper,  respecting  our 
dear  departed  friend.  It  must  be  some  consola- 
tion to  his  surviving  relations  and  friends  that  his 
name  will  not  be  forgotten,  and  greater  still  to  those 
that  were  most  dear  to  him,  that  his  long  indispo- 
sition awakened  in  him  those  sentiments,  in  all 
their  purity,  from  which  alone  can  spring  true 
happiness  at  any  period  of  our  existence,  but 
particularly  at  '  the  awful  hour  of  death.' 

"  I  beg  you  will  present  my  best  wishes  to  Mrs. 
Worgan,  and  tell  her,  unless  she  particularly 
wishes  it,  I  should  be  sorry  to  put  her  to  the 
expense  of  a  ring ;  but  yet,  I  should  like  to  have 

76  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

something  in  remembrance  of  poor  John.  A  book 
would  be  acceptable.  The  editor  of  the  Chelten- 
ham Chronicle  (Mr.  Pruen),  who  was  the  intimate 
acquaintance  of  poor  Worgan,  has  paid  a  just 
tribute  to  his  memory,  in  the  paper  of  yester- 
day." * 

*  The  following  poetic  tribute  to  the  memory  of  this 
amiable,  accomplished,  and  pious  young  man,  is  the  heart- 
felt effusion  of  one  of  his  intimate  associates  in  friendly  and 
literary  intercourse;  and  who,  though  Worgan's  senior  by 
several  years^  has  candidly  acknowledged,  that  whatever 
refinement  and  polish  his  slender  vein  of  poetic  ore  has 
attained,  he  owes  to  his  young  friend's  superior  judgment  and 

To  the  memory  of  John  Dawes  Worgan,  who  died  on  the  25th  of 
July,  1809,  aged  19  years. 

While  Jenner's  fost'ring  hand  was  stretch'd  to  save 
Thy  genius,  Worgan,  from  th'  untimely  grave, — 
While  the  fond  Muse  thy  wit  and  fancy  shared. 
And  for  thy  brow  an  early  wreath  prepared, — 
Heav'n  claim'd  thy  heart ; — and,  to  assert  the  claim, 
Snatch'd  thee  from  dang'rous  paths  of  earthly  fame  ; 
Then  gave  thee — rich  exchange  for  such  renown  ! 
Immortal  bliss,  and  a  celestial  crown  ! 

J.  B.  Drayton. t 
Cheltenham,  1809. 

t  Mr.  D.  had  the  pi'ivilege  of  being  on  terms  of  friendly 
intercourse  and  correspondence  with  Dr.  Jenner,  and  having 
been  trained  as  a  professional  artist,  under  T.  Holloway,  Esq. 
the  celebrated  engraver  of  the  Cartoons  of  Raphael,  he,  in  the 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  17 

The  philanthropic  expedition  under  Balmis  has 
heen  ah'eady  more  than  once  alluded  to.  The 
tidings  of  its  safe  return  to  Spain  reached  this 
country  in  the  autumn  of  1806.  A  copy  of  the 
Madrid  Gazette,  which  announced  that  important 
event,  was  immediately  forwarded  to  Dr.  Jenner. 
This  document,  recording  one  of  the  most  re- 
markable incidents  in  the  history  of  vaccination, 
was  kindly  translated  by  the  Marquis  of  Lans- 
downe.  In  convepng  the  translation  to  Dr.  Jen- 
ner, his  lordship  accompanied  it  with  the  following 
gratifying  letter. 

The  Marquis  of  Lansdowxe  to  Dr.  Jenner. 

Cheltenham^  Nov.  18th,  1806. 

Dear  Sir, 

I  send  you  a  translation  of  the  official  account  *  of  the 
vaccine  expedition,  undertaken  by  command  of  his  Ca- 
tholic Majesty,  which  will,  I  hope,  be  found  to  possess 
the  merit  of  fidelity.     The  importance  of  your  discovery 

year  1805,  solicited  and  obtained  for  his  own  gratification, 
and  by  way  of  complimentary  present  to  Dr.  Jenner,  a  sit- 
ting for  bis  portrait  (a  small  medallion  profile  in  pencil,  with 
a  view  to  assist  in  forming  a  die  for  a  gold  medal),  which 
is  allowed  to  be  one  of  the  most  exact  resemblances  of  Dr. 
Jenner,  and  was  engraved  by  the  late  Mr.  Anker  Smith,  at  the 
Doctor's  expense,  for  private  circulation.  The  engraving 
is  a  pleasing  specimen  of  the  art. 
*  See  Appendix,  No.  Tl. 

78  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

will  be  much  better  comprehended  by  those  who  have 
been  in  the  habit  of  occupying  or  frequenting  countries 
characterized  by  heat  of  climate,  than  by  those  who  have 
constantly  enjoyed  the  advantages  which  belong  to  a  tem- 
perate region.  You  have  conquered  more  in  the  field  of 
science,  than  Buonaparte  has  conquered  in  the  field  of 
battle;  and  I  sincerely  congratulate  you  on  so  glorious  a 
testimony  of  your  success,  as  that  which  the  Spanish  nar- 
rative affords. 

I  am, 

Dear  Sir, 

Yours  very  sincerely, 


The  important  narration  alluded  to  in  his  lord- 
ship's letter  stated,  that  on  Sunday  the  7th  of 
September,  1806,  Dr.  Francis  Xavier  Balmis,  Sur- 
geon-Extraordinary to  the  King  of  Spain,  had  the 
honour  of  kissing  his  Majesty's  hand,  on  the  occa- 
sion of  his  return  from  a  voyage  round  the  world, 
executed  for  the  sole  object  of  carrying  to  all  the 
possessions  of  the  King  of  Spain  beyond  the  seas, 
and  to  those  of  other  nations,  the  inestimable  gift 
of  vaccine  inoculation.  The  reader  will  recollect 
that  the  expedition,  of  which  Don  Balmis  was  the 
director,  sailed  from  Cadiz  on  the  30th  of  No- 
vember, 1803.  It  made  the  Canary  Islands  first; 
it  then  proceeded  to  Porto  Rico  and  the  Caraccas. 
On  leaving  the  port  of  La  Guira,  it  was  di\T.ded 
into  two  branches,  one  part  sailing  to  South 
America,    under  the   charge  of  the  sub-director, 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  /^ 

Don  Francis  Salvani ;  the  other,  with  Bahiiis  on 
board,  steering  for  the  Havannah,  and  thence  for 
Yucatan.  There  a  sub-division  took  place.  The 
professor,  Francis  Pastor,  proceeded  from  the 
port  Siral,  to  that  of  Villa  Hermosa,  in  the  pro- 
vince of  Tobasca.  The  rest  of  the  expedition 
traversed  the  \dce-royalty  of  New  Spain  and  the 
interior  provinces  ;  and  thence  returned  to 
Mexico,  the  point  of  re-union.  This  being  ac- 
complished, the  next  object  of  the  director  was 
to  carry  the  preservative  from  America  to  Asia. 
After  surmounting  various  difficulties^  he  em- 
barked in  the  port  of  Acapulco  for  the  Philippine 
Islands,  carrying  with  him  from  New  Spain  twenty- 
six  children  destined  to  be  vaccinated  in  succes- 
sion. The  cow-pox  having  thus  been  disseminated 
through  the  islands  subject  to  his  Catholic  Ma- 
jesty, it  was  originally  designed  that  the  expedition 
should  then  terminate.  The  director,  however, 
and  the  Captain-General,  concerted  the  means  of 
extending  the  beneficence  of  the  King  to  the  re- 
motest confines  of  Asia.  Setting  sail,  therefore, 
for  Macao  and  Canton,  they  introduced  the  pre- 
servative to  the  Portuguese  settlements,  and  to 
the  inhabitants  of  the  vast  empire  of  China.  Bal- 
mis  returned  from  Canton  to  Macao,  and  em- 
barking in  a  Portuguese  vessel  reached  Lisbon  on 
the  15th  of  August,  1806.  In  his  way  he  touched 
at  St.  Helena;  and,  strange  to  say,  was  the  first 
to  induce  the  English  inhabitants  of  that  settle- 

80  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

ment  to  adopt  the  antidote  ;  and  this  even,  though 
it  had  been  discovered  in  their  own  country,  and 
sent  to  them  by  Jenner  himself. 

The  fate  of  that  part  of  the  expedition  destined 
for  Peru  was  disastrous,  having  suffered  shipwreck 
in  one  of  the  mouths  of  the  river  La  Magdalena. 
Providentially,  the  sub-director,  the  members  of 
the  faculty,  and  the  children,  with  the  fluid  in 
good  preservation,  were  saved.  It  was  thence 
carried  to  the  Isthmus  of  Panama.  Another  part 
of  the  expedition  ascended  the  river  La  Magda- 
lena, Wlien  they  reached  the  interior,  they  se- 
parated, to  discharge  their  commission  in  the 
towns  of  Teneriffe,  Mompox,  Ocana,  Socorro,  San 
Gil  y  Medellin,  in  the  valley  of  Cucuta,  and  in  the 
cities  of  Pamplona,  Giron,  Tunja,  Velez,  and  other 
places  in  the  neighbourhood,  and  reunited  at  Santa 
Fe.  Towards  the  close  of  1805,  they  again  sepa- 
rated, for  the  purpose  of  traversing  the  remaining 
districts  of  the  vice-royalty,  passing  by  Popayan, 
Cuenca,  and  Quito,  as  far  as  Lima.  In  the  Au- 
gust following,  they  reached  Guaiaquil. 

Not  one  of  the  least  remarkable  events  in  this 
expedition  was  the  discovery  of  the  indigenous 
cow^-pox  in  three  different  places  ;  namely,  in  the 
valley  of  Atlixco,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Valla- 
dolid  de  Mechoacan,  and  in  the  cUstrict  of  Cala- 
bozo,  in  the  province  of  Caracca. 

The  conductors  of  the  expedition  were  every- 
where welcomed  with  the  utmost  enthusiasm.     It 

LIFE    OP    DR.    JENNER.  81 

was  to  be  expected  that  the  representatives  of  the 
Spanish  monarch  and  all  the  constituted  authori* 
ties  would  gladly  co-  operate  ;  but  it  was  scarcely 
to  be  anticipated  {hat  the  unenlightened  minds  of 
the  Indians  would  so  soon  appreciate  the  value  of 
the  mission.  It  is,  nevertheless,  most  gratifying 
to  know,  that  the  numerous  hordes  which  oc- 
cupy the  immense  tract  of  country  between  the 
United  States  and  the  Spanish  colonies,  all  re- 
ceived the  precious  fluid  with  the  utmost  readi- 
ness. They  acquired  the  art  of  vaccinating,  and 
soon  performed  the  operation  with  great  dexterity. 
Fame  had  preceded  the  arrival  of  Salvani  at 
Santa  Fe.  On  approaching  the  capital  he  was 
met  by  the  viceroy,  the  archbishop,  and  all  the 
civil  and  ecclesiastical  authorities.  The  event  was 
celebrated  with  religious  pomp  and  ceremonies ; 
and  in  a  short  time  more  than  fifty  thousand  per- 
sons were  vaccinated.  Similar  honours  awaited 
the  expedition  throughout  its  whole  course.  At 
Quito  they  were  greeted  with  boundless  joy  and 
festivity.  Such  expressions  well  became  them. 
The  people  of  this  country,  the  Indians  more  espe- 
cially, having  been  often  scourged  by  the  hor- 
rid ravages  of  small-pox,  regarded  it  as  the 
most  terrible  affliction  which  Heaven  could  send 
them.  On  its  first  appearance  in  a  village  a  panic 
seized  every  heart ;  each  family  prepared  an 
isolated  hovel,  to  which  those  who  were  supposed 
to  be  infected  were  banished.      There^  without  suc- 

VOL.    11.  G 

82  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

cour,  without  remedy,  and  with  a  very  insufficient 
supply  of  food,  they  were  exposed  to  the  alter- 
nations of  a  very  variable  climate,  and  left  to  their 
fate.  In  this  way  whole  generations  perished. 
Under  the  viceroy  Toledo  the  population  of  the 
native  Indians  had  amounted  to  seven  millions  and 
a  half;  at  the  time  of  this  expedition  the  number 
was  supposed  to  be  reduced  to  one-fifth. 

I  fear  that  the  energy  which  prompted  the  mea- 
sures on  the  first  introduction  of  vaccination  into 
South  America  has  not  been  maintained  :  I  per- 
ceive, at  least,  by  a  message  from  the  government 
of  Buenos  Ayres  to  the  seventh  legislative  assem- 
bly, dated  September  12th,  1828,  that  small-pox 
had  been  making  dreadful  ravages  in  the  adjoin- 
ing districts.  The  words  of  that  part  of  the  mes- 
sage relating  to  this  topic  deserve  to  be  recorded 
in  this  place.  "  The  important  establishment  of 
vaccination  has  been  augmented,  and  its  utility 
has  never  been  more  felt  than  at  this  moment : 
whilst  the  neighbouring  provinces  are  visited  by 
the  terrible  scourge  of  the  small-pox,  it  has  scarcely 
been  felt  in  this  city,  and  the  government  has  put 
in  practice  every  means  entirely  to  eradicate  it." 

The  arrival  of  the  Spanish  expedition  at  Macao 
was  followed  by  very  extensive  vaccination  at  that 
place,  as  will  appear  from  the  following  extract 
from  a  letter,  dated  Macao,  28th  of  June,  1805  : — 

"  Mr.  Pearson  devotes  one  dav  in  the  week  to  vaccine 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  83 

inoculation,  and  the  numbers  brought  to  him  rapidly  in- 
crease. Two  of  our  compradores,  and  Mr.  Drummond's 
head  servant,  have  been  taught  the  mode  of  vaccinating, 
and  have  daily  applicants  from  the  neighbouring  villages. 
The  treatise  drawn  up  by  Mr.  Pearson,  and  translated  by 
the  compradore  and  Sir  George  Staunton,  has  been  sent 
to  Canton,  and  200  copies  Avill  be  immediately  struck  off. 
Advertisements  have  been  also  sent  to  Canton,  directing 
those  who  are  desirous  of  promoting  this  blessing,  to 
bring  the  subjects  for  inoculation  to  the  company's  fac- 
tory, where  it  will  be  performed  gratis,  and  the  medical 
men  be  supplied  with  lancets  ready  charged,  and  copies 
of  the  above  treatise.  In  the  title-page  are  mentioned 
Mr.  Pearson,  the  English  surgeon,  and  Sir  George 
Staunton,  who  accompanied  Lord  Macartney  to  Pekin, 
and  now  in  the  company's  civil  employ ;  and  Gnewgna, 
one  of  the  Hong  merchants,  being  here  on  a  visit,  Mr. 
Drummond  prevailed  on  him  to  sanction  the  publication 
by  adding  his  signature. 

''  This  intelligence  will  be  highly  grateful  to  Dr.  Jenner, 
as  well  as  to  humanity  at  large,  when  it  is  known  that 
one-third  of  the  people  of  this  extensive  empire,  when  the 
natural  small-pox  is  raging,  are  supposed  to  fall  victims 
to  it. 

"  P.S.  I  cannot  close  this  without  informing  you  that 
the  Jennerian  system  of  inoculation  has  been  introduced 
into  this  place  by  means  of  subjects  from  Manilla,  and 
many  children,  both  Portuguese  and  Chinese,  have  been 
vaccinated  with  complete  success ;  and  am  happy  to 
add  that  such  of  the  Chinese  as  have  witnessed  the  inno- 
cence of  the  operation,  and  the  mildness  of  its  effects,  are 
now  sensible  of  the  importance  of  the  discovery,  and  I 
have  no  doubt  of  its  being  shortly  practised  throughout 
the  empire. 

G  2 

84  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

"  Every  thing  is  now  arranged  for  the  departure  for 
Pekin  of  the  two  French  missionaries  who  came  out  in 
the  Dorsetshire,  to  whom  Mr.  Pearson  has  forwarded  large 
suppUes  of  lancets  charged  with  the  genuine  virus,  in  the 
view  to  the  introduction  of  this  inestimable  blessing 
throughout  the  empire,  accompanied  with  a  short  plain 
treatise  on  the  subject  by  himself,  and  translated  into 
the  language  of  the  country  by  Sir  George  Staunton ; 
which  is  certainly  a  very  humane  and  praiseworthy  under- 

In  the  course  of  a  few  months  Dr.  Jenner  had 
the  satisfaction  of  receiving  still  more  gratifying 
intelligence  from  this  quarter.  The  circumstances 
to  w^hich  I  refer  were  made  known  to  him  by  a 
distinguished  individual  well  acquainted  with  the 
character  of  the  Chinese. 

Mr.  (now  Sir  John)  Barrow  to  Dr.  Jenner. 

3,  Charles-street,  St.  James's  Square^ 
dth  June,  1806. 

I  have  great  pleasure  in  being  able  to  inclose  for  your 
inspection  a  short  treatise  in  the  Chinese  language  on  the 
vaccine  inoculation,  translated  by  my  friend  Sir  George 
Staunton,  and  published  by  the  Chinese  in  the  city  of 
Canton.  The  curiosity  of  an  English  work  issuing  from 
the  Chinese  press,  however  extraordinary,  gives  way  to 
the  more  extraordinary  facility  with  which  this  people, 
always  strenuous  in  opposing  every  innovation,  has  sub- 
mitted to  receive  the  new  practice  of  vaccination.  Not 
only  the  surgeon  of  the  English  factory,  but  numbers  of 
the  Chinese  were  constantly  employed  in  communicating 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  85 

the  disease  from  the  moment  it  was  perceived  with  what 
ease  and  convenience  the  patient  went  through  it ;  and 
they  had  actually  raised  a  very  considerable  subscription 
for  the  purpose  of  establishing  a  vaccine  institution  for 
promoting  the  practice  in  every  part  of  this  extensive 
empire.  Thus  the  English,  at  length,  as  well  as  the  other 
Europeans,  have  established  their  claim,  which,  though 
last,  is  not  the  least,  on  the  gratitude  of  the  Chinese. 

As  the  small-pox  in  China  has  usually  been  attended 
with  most  fatal  effects,  there  is  little  doubt  that  the  same 
willingness,  which  has  manifested  itself  at  Canton,  to  re- 
ceive so  mild  and  effectual  a  substitute,  will  be  felt  in 
every  province  of  this  populous  country  ;  and  the  more  so, 
as  public  confidence  there  is  not  likely  to  be  shaken  by 
that  kind  of  illiberal  and  undignified  opposition  which  has 
been  so  industriously  employed  elsewhere. 

By  every  real  friend  of  humanity,   and  by  you,  sir,  in 
particular,  this  intelligence  must  be  received  with  sensa- 
tions of  peculiar  satisfaction. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be.  Sir, 

Your  most  obedient  and  humble  servant, 

John  Barrow. 

P.  S.  As  I  imagine  the  inclosed  to  be  the  only  copy 
in  England,  you  will  be  pleased,  at  your  convenience, 
and  when  done  with,  to  put  it  under  cover  to  me.'^ 

The  heartfelt  satisfaction  which  Jenner  ex- 
perienced on  the  successful  issue  of  the  Spanish 
expedition  in  some  measure  repaid  him  for  the 
anxiety  and  suffering  v^hich,  up  to  that  time,  he 
had  endured  from  the  unjust  and  ungenerous 
attacks    made   upon   him   by   too    many   of    his 

86  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

own  countrymen.  He  transmitted  copies  of  the 
Madrid  Gazette  to  all  his  friends,  and  only  regret- 
ted that  the  honour  of  the  beneficent  enterprise 
which  it  recorded  should  not  have  been  acquired 
by  England.  His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Bedford,  in 
acknowledging  the  receipt  of  one  of  those  docu- 
ments, thus  writes: — 

The  Duke  of  Bedford  to  Dr.  Jenner. 

Dublin  Castle,  Dec.  9,  1806. 

My  dear  Sir, 

By  yesterday's  mail  I  was  favoured  with  your  letter  of 
the  4th  inst.  and  am  much  gratified  by  the  accounts  you 
send  me  of  the  progress  of  vaccination  in  distant  quarters 
of  the  globe,  although  I  cannot  but  lament  with  you  that 
Great  Britain  has  suffered  other  nations  to  take  a  more 
conspicuous  part  than  herself  in  the  extension  of  this  ines- 
timable blessing. 

You  will  readily  beheve  that  the  importance  I  have  ever 
attached  to  the  success  of  the  vaccine  system  induced  me 
to  direct  my  attention  to  this  subject  at  an  early  period  of 
my  government  in  this  country,  and  I  am  persuaded  that 
you  will  be  satisfied  with  the  Report  which  has  been  drawn 
up  by  Dr.  Yeats,  and  which  I  have  now  transmitted  to 
the  College  of  Physicians. 

Dr.  Yeats  is  at  present  in  England  for  a  short  time ;  but 
on  his  return,  I  will  not  fail  to  give  him  the  very  satisfac- 
tory account  from  the  Madrid  Gazette.  He  added  to  his 
Report  the  outline  of  a  plan  for  extending  vaccination 
and  exterminating  the  small-pox  throughout  the  British 
dominions  (and  indeed  throughout  the  world) ;  l)ut  as  this 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  8/ 

did  not  form  any  part  of  Lord  Henry  Petty's  motion,  I  did 
not  send  it  to  the  College ;  but^  if  you  should  desire  to 
see  itj  I  will  with  pleasure  forward  you  a  copy  of  this 

I  remain,  with  very  sincere  regard, 

My  dear  Sir, 

Your  faithful  and  obedient, 


At  this  period  more  substantial  proofs  of  consi- 
deration reached  Dr.  Jenner  from  our  Indian  pos- 
sessions. The  idea,  which  was  started  by  Dr. 
Lettsom  in  England,  had  about  the  same  time  oc- 
curred to  several  of  the  European  inhabitants  in 
the  different  presidencies.  They  almost  simulta- 
neously resolved  to  present  him  with  a  testimony 
of  their  gratitude.  An  announcement  of  their 
proceedings,  together  with  Dr.  Jenner's  reply,  is 

To  Dr.  Edward  Jenner,  Berkeley. 

Calcutta,  11  th  May,  1806. 

The  principal  inhabitants  of  Calcutta  and  its  dependen- 
cies having  some  time  ago  resolved  to  present  you  with  a 
testimonial  of  their  gratitude  for  the  benefit  which  this  set- 
tlement, in  common  with  the  rest  of  mankind,  has  derived 
from  your  inestimable  discovery  of  a  preventive  of  the 
small-pox,  and  having  appointed  us  a  Committee  for  car- 

88  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

rying  their  resolution  into  effect,  it  is  with  the  highes.t 
satisfaction  that  we  now  discharge  the  duty  committed  to 
VIS,  by  transmitting  to  you  herewith  bills  drawn  on  the 
Honourable  Court  of  Directors  to  the  amount  of  three 
thousand  pounds  sterling.  Duplicates  and  triplicates  of 
these  bills,  together  with  the  remainder  of  the  subscription 
(about  one  thousand  pounds),  will  be  hereafter  forwarded 
to  you  by  the  first  favourable  opportunity. 

We  have  the  honour  to  be,  with  the  greatest  esteem  and 


Your  most  obedient, 

humble  servants, 

Robert  Smith,  J.  Fleming, 


Per  Charger. 

Doctor  Jenner  to  Doctor  Fleming. 

My  dear  Sir, 

The  death  of  my  great  and  good  friend  Lord  Cornwallis, 
and  the  uncertainty  whether  my  letter,  directed  to  you  at 
Portsmouth  when  you  were  upon  the  eve  of  sailing,  ever 
reached  you,  were  circumstances  which  nearly  set  aside 
every  hope  of  my  being  brought  forward  at  Calcutta  as 
one  deserving  public  attention.  But  your  unexpected 
letter  of  25th  March,  told  me  my  fears  were  groundless. 
Since  that  time,  I  have  the  pleasure  of  informing  you  I 
have  duly  received  the  bills  remitted,  and  the  very  hand- 
some letter  Avhich  accompanied  them.  In  my  inclosed 
reply  to  this  letter,  you  participate  only  in  my  thanks 
with  my  three  other  friends,  Mr.  Sniith,  Mr.  Colebrooke, 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  89 

and  Mr.  Alexander,  who  kindly  laboured  with  you  in  my 
cause.  But  now  you  must  allow  me  to  express  the  very 
particular  obligations  I  feel  under  to  you.  Indeed,  it  is 
highly  probable  that  without  your  industry  and  benevo- 
lence, the  good  people  of  Calcutta,  like  most  other  parts  of 
the  world,  would  not  have  expressed  their  thanks  in  the 
way  they  have  done.  Permit  me  to  request  you  to 
present  my  particular  thanks  to  the  medical  gentle- 
men you  name  to  me,  who  have  been  so  strenuous  in 
promoting  the  donation.  Mr.  Russell's  acquaintance 
I  had  the  pleasure  of  making  at  Cheltenliam  and  re- 
newing in  town.  Mr.  Hare  I  have  not  the  pleasure 
of  knowing,  but  from  his  high  reputation.  Mr.  Shool- 
bred  has  been  my  correspondent,  and  has  my  warmest  re- 
gards for  his  excellent  publication  on  vaccination.  Some 
disaster,  I  fear,  has  befallen  my  late  dispatches  to  him,  as 
I  have  received  no  answer  to  my  letters. 

No  intelligence  of  any  sort  has  of  late  reached  me  from 
Madras  or  Bombay ;  but  I  once  heard  that,  at  the  latter 
place,  the  inhabitants  intended  me  a  pecuniary  compliment. 
Vaccination,  I  find,  has  been  unbounded  in  both  these 

I  have  sent  you  some  copies  of  a  Madrid  Gazette. 
What  a  glorious  enterprise  !  Yet,  while  I  feel  proud  in 
contemplating  it,  I  cannot  but  lament  that  it  was  not 
achieved  by  the  British  nation.  To  say  the  truth,  this  coun- 
try has  been  dreadfully  supine  in  the  matter  hitherto:  how- 
ever, its  energies  seem  roused,  as  you  will  see  by  the  inclosed 
advertisement.  Some  pamphlets,  full  of  the  grossest 
misrepresentations  and  forgeries,  have  been  spread  ;  and 
the  common  people  became  so  terrified,  particularly 
when  told  that  their  children,  if  vaccinated,  would  take  the 
similitude  of  bulls  and  cows,  that  a  great  dislike  to  the 
practice  has  arisen  among  them  :  and  these  accounts  have 

90  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

been  circulated  through  the  country  with  pecuUar  industr}% 
The  consequence  has  been  the  re-introduction  of  variolous 
inoculation,  which  has  produced  an  epidemic  small-pox 
through  the  metropolis  and  the  whole  island,  except  in 
those  parts  where  vaccination  had  previously  been  so 
generally  adopted  as  to  forbid  its  approach.  This,  now 
too  late,  has  opened  their  eyes,  and  they  see  the  powers  of 
the  cow-pox.  The  folly  of  the  oppositionists  has  gone 
so  far  as  to  exhibit  prints  of  children  undergoing  trans- 
formation from  the  human  being  into  that  of  a  brute. 

Believe  me,  dear  Sir, 

With  the  warmest  sentiments  of  esteem. 

Your  obliged  and  very  faithful  servant, 

Edward  Jenner. 

In  a  very  short  time  after  this  period,  an  au- 
thentic report  of  what  was  doing  in  Bombay 
reached  him.  A  letter  from  Dr.  Helenus  Scott 
conveys  this  and  other  interesting  intelligence. 

Dr.  Helenus  Scott  to  Dr.  Jenner. 

Bombay,  5th  December,  1806. 
My  dear  Sir, 

I  very  lately  received  your  letter  of  the  8th  February 
last,  with  the  evidence  on  the  vaccine  subject,  and  the 
Report,  &c.  It  is  certainly  not  to  Bombay  that  you  need 
take  the  trouble  to  send  further  evidence.  We  have 
long  had  abundance  of  it,  and  daily  experience  gives  us 
more  and  more.  The  attacks  on  vaccination  have  made 
but  very  little  impression  here,  none  Avhatever  on  myself, 
or  on  those  medical  men  for  whose  judgment  I  have  any 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  91 

value.  I  have  given  Mr.  Duncan  the  report  you  sent  for 
him,  and  I  have  shewn  him  the  letter  you  wrote  me, 
which  contains  many  obliging  expressions  with  respect  to 
himself.  He  desires  me  to  thank  you,  and  to  assure  you  of 
his  esteem  and  high  regard. 

Some  centuries  ago  men  were  too  credulous.  The 
limits  of  many  branches  of  knowledge  were  less  known 
than  they  now  are,  and  they  had  no  kind  of  rules  by 
which  belief  could  be  limited.  We  have  now  gone  to  the 
contrary  extreme,  no  less  unphilosophical,  and  perhaps 
more  injurious  to  science,  of  crediting  nothing  that  is  new 
and  unexpected.  Of  all  the  circumstances  that  have 
occurred  to  me,  the  resistance  that  has  been  made  to  the 
cow-pox  in  England  was  what  I  expected  the  least.  In 
all  that  you  have  asserted,  so  much  is  evident,  and,  I  may 
say,  palpable,  that  I  looked  for  no  resistance. 

^  •tP  "^  ^  ^ 

That  all  this  should  have  been  rejected  (I  must  still 
affirm,  without  sufficient  inquiry),  I  have  never  been  sur- 
prised ;  but  that  the  cow-pox  should  stop  in  its  progress, 
has  filled  me  with  wonder.  It  is  so  interesting  to  every 
individual,  peculiarly  so  to  every  parent^  that  I  thought 
(against  the  practice  of  this  world)  the  triumph  was  com- 
plete, even  in  the  lifetime  of  its  inventor. 

I  confess  that  I  am  much  displeased  with  what  I  ob- 
serve at  a  distance  of  many  members  of  our  profession. 
They  dispute  with  violence  and  ill  manners  ;  and  on  many 
occasions  one  is  tempted  to  believe  that  he  has  gotten 
into  very  bad  company.  I  suppose  that  those  who  are 
the  most  disj)osed  to  fight  and  scribble,  are  not  in  much 
estimation  by  such  as  know  them  better  than  we  can  do 
at  this  distance.  I  frequently  feel  concern  for  the  pro- 

It  is  now  several  vears  since  Dr.  Duncan,  several  other 

92  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

gentlemen,  and  myself,  made  a  proposal  that  some  testi- 
mony of  our  thanks  should  be  offered  to  the  discoverer  of 
vaccine  inoculation.  A  paper  was  circulated  to  that 
effect,  which  from  various  causes  has  been  long  kept  from 
the  Presidency.  You  must  know  that  our  territory  on 
this  side  of  India,  and  consequently  the  British  inhabit- 
ants, are  now  scattered  over  a  vast  tract  of  country.  This 
paper  has  been  at  Sazurat,  and  with  our  army  I  believe  at 
Delhi.  Although  our  power  extends  over  a  great  space, 
the  number  of  British  inhabitants  is  not  very  consider- 
able. From  these  and  other  causes,  this  testimony  of  our 
thanks  has  been  long  delayed,  and  will  at  last  I  fear  be 
less  considerable  than  we  could  wish.  It  will,  however, 
shew  our  intentions,  and  I  hope  on  that  account  be  agree- 
able to  you.  When  all  is  settled,  I  intend  that  the 
Medical  Board,  (of  which  I  have  the  honour  to  be  Pre- 
sident), shall  bring  the  matter  before  government,  and  beg 
of  them  to  remit  the  amount  of  the  subscription  to  the 
Court  of  Directors. 

The  vaccine  inoculation  goes  on  here  with  its  usual 
success.  In  this  island,  swarming  with  mankind,  no  loss 
has  been  suffered  by  the  small-pox  for  several  years,  since 
the  introduction  of  the  vaccine  inoculation.  I  shall  desire 
the  Secretary  to  the  Medical  Board  to  transmit  to  you  the 
monthly  reports  of  vaccination,  which  are  published  by 
order  of  this  government.*  " 

Vaccination  having  been  happily  established  in 
all  the  governments  of  European  Russia,  his  Ma- 

*  The  full  amount  of  the  contributions  from  our  posses- 
sions in  the  East  was  not  received  by  Dr.  Jenner  till  1812. 
From  Beng;al  was  remitted  £4000  ;  from  Bombay  £2000 ; 
from  Madras  £1383.  Is.  lOd. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  93 

jesty  the  Emperor  commanded  Dr.  Boutlatz  to 
traverse  the  remaining  parts  of  his  vast  empire, 
and  to  spread  the  practice  in  every  direction. 
This  gentleman  had  studied  in  England.  He  did 
not  visit  the  two  populous  districts  of  Nisny-Novo- 
gorod  and  Casan.  In  the  former,  the  physicians 
resident  in  the  families  of  the  nobility  interested 
themselve^  in  propagating  this  mild  disease.  The 
Minister  of  State  had  his  officers  instructed  in  the 
manner  of  conducting  this  simple  operation ;  and 
himself  vaccinated  several  children  in  the  villages. 
The  Prince  of  Georgia  actively  promoted  the  prac- 
tice among  the  children  of  his  dependents,  and  of 
all  who  resided  in  his  vicinity.  At  Casan  the 
practice  had  been  introduced  before  the  Mission 
reached  that  town,  by  M.  Walkoff.  His  exertions 
succeeded  in  disposing  the  Tartar  merchants  to 
adopt  the  new  practice.  He  caused  to  be  trans- 
lated a  work  on  vaccination  compiled  by  the  Me- 
dico-Philanthropic Society  of  Petersburgh.  This 
translation  was  printed  at  the  Tartar  press  esta- 
blished at  Casan. 

The  surgeon  Stury  found  that  it  had  made 
its  way  into  Siberia ;  Dr.  Grahl,  at  Perm,  had 
been  indefatigable  in  spreading  it.  He  had  vacci- 
nated in  two  years  six  hundred  persons.  From 
him  the  mission  received  the  last  supply  of  fresh 
matter  ;  and  from  his  stock  all  the  other  districts 
of  Siberia  were  supplied.  The  mission  proceeded 
to    Tomsk,    then    to    Krasnojoesk.      They   next 

94  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

advanced  to  the  capital  of  Siberia,  and  lastly  to 
Jakoutzk  and  Ochotzk.  From  thence  the  virus 
was  transmitted  to  Kamstchatka,  and  the  islands 
situated  between  Asia  and  America,  extending 
thus  to  the  north-eastern  extremity  of  our  hemi- 

At  Irkoutzk,  where  the  Empress  Katherine  had 
founded  an  institution  for  small-pox  inoculation, 
but  which  had  been  disused  for  many  years, 
several  children  were  vaccinated,  in  order  that  a 
fresh  and  certain  supply  of  virus  might  be  had  for 
transmission  to  China.  The  Russian  and  the 
Spanish  expeditions  thus  reached  different  points 
of  the  celestial  empire  nearly  at  the  same  period 
of  time. 

In  the  United  States  of  America  vaccination 
continued  to  maintain  its  high  character.  The 
President  Jefferson,  whose  early  service  in  that 
cause  has  been  commemorated,  evinced  his  feel- 
ings in  the  following  emphatic  manner. 

Mr.  Jefferson  to  Dr.  Jenner. 

Monticello,  Virginia,  May  14,  1806. 

I  have  received  the  copy  of  the  evidence  at  large 
respecting  the  discovery  of  the  vaccine  inoculation,  which 
you  have  been  pleased  to  send  me,  and  for  which  I  return 
you  my  thanks.  Having  been  among  the  early  converts 
in  this  part  of  the  globe  to  its  efficacy,  I  took  an  early 
part  in  recommendi)ig  it  to  my  countrymen.     I  avail  my- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  95 

self  of  this  occasion  to  render  you  my  portion  of  the 
tribute  of  gratitude  due  to  you  from  the  whole  human 
family.  Medicine  has  never  before  pi'oduced  any  single 
improvement  of  such  utiHty.  Harvey's  discovery  of 
the  circulation  of  the  blood  was  a  beautiful  addi- 
tion to  our  knowledge  of  the  ancient  economy ;  but 
on  a  review  of  the  practice  of  medicine  before  and  since 
that  epoch,  I  do  not  see  any  great  amelioration  which  has 
been  derived  from  that  discovery.  You  have  erased  from 
the  calendar  of  human  afflictions  one  of  its  greatest. 
Yours  is  the  comfortable  reflection  that  mankind  can 
never  forget  that  you  have  lived  ;  future  nations  Avill  know 
by  history  only  that  the  loathsome  small-pox  has  existed, 
and  by  you  has  been  extirpated.  Accept  the  most  fer- 
vent wishes  for  your  health  and  happiness,  and  assurances 
of  the  greatest  respect  and  consideration. 

Th.  Jefferson. 

The  Royal  College  of  Physicians  of  Edinburgh, 
on  the  20th  of  May  1806,  unanimously  elected 
Jenner  an  honorary  fellow  of  their  college.  Dr. 
Spens,  the  President,  in  announcing  this  distinc- 
tion, expressed  himself  in  the  highest  terms  of 
respect  for  the  eminent  individual  whose  great 
merit  he  was  then  acknowledging. 

The  anniversary  of  the  Jennerian  Society,  as 
usual,  was  held  on  the  IJth  of  May  1807;  his 
Royal  Highness  the  Duke  of  York  in  the  chair. 
Though  Jenner  felt  a  peculiar  dislike  to  exhi- 
bitions of  this  kind,  he  seems  to  have  been  much 
gratified  with  the  events  of  this  day.  Dr.  Lett- 
som   and   the    Rev.    Rowland    Hill    energetically 

96  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

supported  vaccination.  Jenner,  too,  on  his  own 
health  being  drank,  spoke  with  much  deUcacy  and 
propriety.  "  After  the  very  animated  speech  of 
the  Duke  of  York,  the  illustrious  chairman,  and 
the  important  information  conveyed  by  his  friend 
Dr.  Lettsom,  he  had  little  to  say  on  the  subject. 
He  continued  to  receive  the  most  agreeable  in- 
formation respecting  vaccination  from  all  parts  of 
the  world,  from  Greenland  to  the  Cape,  and  from 
the  Mississipi  to  the  Ganges."  He  then  alluded 
to  the  effects  of  prejudice  and  falsehood  in  retard- 
ing the  progress  of  vaccination  in  the  metropolis ; 
and  he  refuted  a  calumny  which  had  been  put 
forth  to  the  public  respecting  failures  alleged  to 
have  taken  place  in  his  own  practice. 

At  this  meeting,  an  account  of  the  introduction 
of  vaccination  into  China  was  delivered  by  Mr. 
Parry,  one  of  the  East  India  Directors.  Mr.  Ring 
read  a  translation  of  a  Latin  letter  from  Dr.  Reyss, 
of  Makow  in  Poland.  It  was  addressed  to  the 
"  Illustrious  exterminator  of  that  pestilential  dis- 
order the  small-pox."  He  complimented  Jenner 
highly  on  his  chscovery ;  sent  him  a  richly  em- 
bossed silver  cup,  which  had  belonged  to  a  per- 
son of  the  name  of  Jenner  ;  wished  that  joy  and 
festivity  might  prevail  on  his  birthday ;  and  re- 
quested to  be  enrolled  among  the  honorary  mem- 
bers of  the  society.  He  requested  also  a  portrait 
of  Jenner,  and  a  small  pattern  of  the  cloth  that  he 
generall}'  w^ore,  that   he    and   his    friends    might 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  97 

wear  the  same  garb  on  the  1 7th  of  May,  the  birth- 
day of  the  Discoverer  of  Vaccination.  In  re- 
turning thanks  to  Dr.  Reyss  for  his  letter  and  his 
present,  Jenner  observed,  "  I  may  with  truth  say, 
that  greater  attention  was  never  paid  me  by  any 
individual  since  the  first  promulgation  of  the  vac- 
cine discovery.  My  native  county  has  compli- 
mented me  with  some  very  elegant  plate;  but 
there  is  not  a  piece  among  it  I  set  so  high  a  value 
upon  as  the  curious  antique  cup  you  have  pre- 
sented to  me,  and  which  has  probably  graced  the 
table  of  those  who  sprang  from  the  same  stock  as 

Writing  to  Mr.  Ring,  concerning  the  hearty 
and  animating  letter  of  Reyss,  Jenner  observes, 
'^  John  Reyss  is  a  fine  fellow.  I  have  given  order 
to  Manning  to  prepare  a  bust  for  him,  thinking  it 
would  be  more  acceptable  than  the  print." 

This  bust,  executed  by  Manning,  is  indeed  an 
extremely  faithful  and  valuable  Kkeness.  Some 
years  after  the  period  just  mentioned,  he  presented 
me  with  one,  and  I  value  it  as  a  most  satisfac- 
tory resemblance,  not  less  than  for  the  donor's 

VOL.  II. 

98  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 


FROM    IT — DEATH    OF    HIS    ELDEST    SON. 

We  are  now  arrived  at  a  period  when  it  may  be 
judicious  to  take  a  very  brief  survey  of  the  state  of 
vaccination  throughout  the  world.  Had  1  been 
writing  the  history  of  the  practice,  it  would  have 
been  necessary  to  have  traced  its  progress  with 
greater  minuteness.  It  had  been  eagerly  espoused 
by  the  King  of  Prussia,  the  Emperor  of  Germany, 
Napoleon,  the  Emperor  of  Russia,  the  King  of 
Spain,  the  King  of  Naples,  the  King  of  Denmark, 
the  King  of  Sweden,  the  Elector  of  Swabia,  the 
Queen  of  Etruria.  It  had  gained  the  sanction  of 
the  Grand  Seignior,  the  Dey  of  Algiers,  the  Hos- 
podar  of  Moldavia,  the  heads  of  our  government 
in  India,  many  of  the  native  chiefs,  and,  under  the 
authority  of  the  governments,  had  been  diffused 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  99 

through  all  the  states  both  in  North  and  South 
America.  It  had  taken  firm  root  in  Siberia  and 
China ;  and  had  been  carried  to  many  of  the 
islands  in  the  Pacific  and  Indian  oceans,  and  to 
most  of  our  possessions  in  the  West  Indies. 

Of  course  it  is  impossible  to  ascertain  with  accu- 
racy the  number  that  may  have  been  vaccinated 
up  to  this  period ;  but  there  is  good  reason  for  be- 
lieving, that  it  must  have  been  considerably  more 
than  twenty  millions.      Indeed,   when   we  reflect 
that  Dr.  Sacco  and  his  assistants    vaccinated,  in 
eight  years,  thirteen  hundred  thousand  persons,  I 
am  satisfied  that  I  am  giving  a  very  low  estimate. 
Besides  this  very  large  number  vaccinated  by 
professional  gentlemen  in  different  parts    of  the 
world,  it  is  but  proper  to  commemorate  the  ser- 
vices of  many  ladies  and  gentlemen  in  England, 
who  particularly  distinguished  themselves  by  their 
efforts  in  this  cause.     Among  them  ought  to  be 
mentioned  the  Rev.  Rowland  Hill  *,  W.  Bramston 

*  On  the  discovery  of  vaccination  by  Dr.  Jenner,  Mr. 
Row^Iand  Hill  eagerly  embraced  this  new  means  of  confer- 
ring a  benefit  on  his  fellow  creatures,  and  ably  defended  it 
against  its  opponents.  "  This,"  he  said,  "  is  the  very  thing  for 
me;  "  and  wherever  he  went  to  preach,  he  announced  after 
his  sermon,  "  I  am  ready  to  vaccinate  to-morrow  morning  as 
many  children  as  you  choose;  and  if  you  wish  them  to 
escape  that  horrid  disease  the  small-pox,  you  will  bring 
them."  Once  a  week  he  inoculated  the  children  who  were 
brought  to  him  from  Wotton  and  the  neighbourhood;  and  it 
is  well  known   that  one  of  the  most  effective   vaccine  boards 

H  2 

100  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER, 

of  Oakeley  Hall,  Hants,  Esq.  the  Lady  Charlotte 
Wrottesley,  Miss  Bayley  of  Hope,  near  Manches- 
ter, Miss  Cox  of  Painswick,  in  the  county  of  Glou- 
cester, Mrs.  Kingscote  of  Hinton  House,  Hants, 
T.  Westfaling  of  Rudhall,  near  Ross,  Hereford- 
shire, Esq.  the  Rev.  W.  Finch  of  St.  Helen's,  Lan- 
cashire, the  Rev.  J.  T.  A.  Reed,  Leckhampstead, 
&c.  &c.     I   have  already  stated,  notwithstanding 

in  London  was  established,  and  still  continues  in  operation, 
at  Surrey  Chapel. 

When  vaccinating  the  children,  he  seemed  quite  in  his 
element,  talking  kindly  to  the  parents,  and  coaxing  the  little 
frightened  creatures  in  the  most  good  natured  manner.  In 
a  few  years  the  numbers  inoculated  by  him  amounted  to 
more  than  ten  thousand  ;  and  in  most  of  the  cases  he  was 
particularly  successful.  Dr.  Jennerwas  of  a  very  lively  turn 
of  mind*  and  animated  conversation,  with  a  remarkably  kind 
disposition  ;  and  although  he  did  not  fully  participate  in  his 
venerable  friend's  religious  views  and  feelings,  he  had  the 
highest  reverence  for  his  character,  and  was  a  frequent  at- 
tendant on  his  ministry  at  Cheltenham.  He  seemed  at 
times  forcibly  struck  with  the  deep  tone  of  the  zealous 
preacher's  piety  and  glowing  anticipations  of  happiness  in  a 
spiritual  state  of  being.  Mr.  Hill  once  introduced  him  to  a 
nobleman  in  these  terms:  "Allow  me  to  present  to  your 
Lordship  my  friend  Dr.  Jenner,  who  has  been  the  means  of 
saving  more  lives  than  any  other  man."  —  "Ah!  would  T, 
like  you,  could  say  souls.'' — Sidney's  Life  of  the  Rev.  Row- 
land Hill,  pp.  225,  226. 

*  I  remember  seeing  these  two  remarkable  men  amusing 
themselves  in  playing  with  an  old  eagle  in  Dr.  Jenner's  gar- 
den at  Berkeley,  with  all  the  sportive  interest  of  boys. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  10] 

the  clamour  which  was  raised  against  unprofes- 
sional vaccinators,  that  they  rendered  good  ser- 
vice to  the  cause.  They  were  obedient  and  teach- 
able, and  certainly  in  the  main  conducted  the  prac- 
tice with  greater  success  than  many  professional 
persons.  I  have  often  heard  Dr.  Jenner  speak 
with  satisfaction  of  the  conduct  of  the  ladies.  Miss 
Bayley  in  jDarticular  managed  the  process  with 
much  skill  and  perseverance.  In  order  to  detect 
any  cases  of  failure  that  might  occur  in  her  prac- 
tice, she  told  the  poor  that  she  would  give 
a  reward  of  five  shillings  to  any  one  who  could 
produce  an  instance  of  small-pox  after  vaccination 
performed  by  her.  Out  of  2600  cases,  only  one 
was  brought  to  claim  the  reward ;  but  on  referring 
to  her  journal,  she  found  a  mark  against  the  name, 
indicating  her  belief  that  vaccination  had  not  pro- 
perly taken  effect. 

Mr.  Kingscote's  vaccinations  were  nearly  as  ex- 
tensive, and,  I  believe,  quite  as  perfect  as  those  of 
Miss  Bayley. 

After  various  attempts  to  disseminate  vaccina- 
tion among  the  native  tribes  of  North  America, 
Dr.  Jenner  at  length  had  the  happiness  of  finding 
that  his  efforts  were  successful.  He  had  sent 
through  the  hands  of  Colonel  Francis  Gore,  Lieute- 
nant-Governor of  Upper  Canada,  his  w^ork  on  vac- 
cination, to  be  presented  to  the  Five  Nations.  On 
the  8th  of  November,   1807,   they  assembled  in 

102  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

Council  at  Fort  George,  in  Upper  Canada,  to  re- 
ceive this  gift,  and  to  reply  to  Dr.  Jenner.  They 
were  addressed  by  William  Claus,  Esq.  Deputy 
Superintendent-General  of  Indian  affairs,  as  fol- 
lows : — 

Brothers  op  the  Five  Nations, 

Early  in  May  last.  His  Excellency  Lieutenant-Governor 
Gore  took  every  possible  means  to  introduce  vaccine  in- 
oculation among  your  tribes ;  but,  owing  to  your  people 
being  then  out  on  their  hunt,  it  did  not  take  place.  When 
on  public  business  here  about  a  month  after,  I  spoke  to 
you  again,  and  strongly  recommended  to  your  serious 
consideration  the  introducing  among  your  people  this 
valuable  discovery,  the  want  of  which  you  soon  after- 
wards felt  very  severely  in  the  loss  of  one  of  your  chiefs, 
Oughquaghga  John. 

Brothers  !  I  have  now  the  satisfaction  to  deliver  to 
you  a  book,  sent  to  you  from  England,  by  that  great  man. 
Dr.  Jenner,  whom  God  enabled  to  discover  so  great  a 
blessing  to  mankind :  it  explains  fully  all  the  advantages 
derived  from  so  great  a  discovery. 

I,  therefore.  Brothers,  at  his  request,  and  in  his  name, 
present  this  book  to  the  Five  Nations,  as  a  token  of  his 
regard  for  you  and  your  rising  generation,  by  which  many 
valuable  lives  may  be  ]:)reserved  from  that  most  dreadful 
pestilence,  the  small-pox. 

(Signed)      W.  Claus,  D.S.G.I.A. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  103 

Speech  of  the  Five  Nations,  assembled  in  Council  at  Fort 
George,  in  Upper  Canada,  to  Dr.  Jenner,  London,  on 
the  8th  of  November,  1807. 


Lieutenant  Colonel  Proctor,  41st  regiment,  command- 
ing the  garrison. 

William  Claus,  Esq.  Deputy  Superintendent-General  of 
Indian  affairs. 

Lieutenant  Saunders,  41st  regiment. 

Ensign  Bullock,  41st  regiment. 

Lieutenant  Fowler,  41st  regiment. 

W.  J.  Chew,  Storekeeper,  Indian  Deputy. 

David  Price,  >    ^ 

.      •     -c,  •    1,11  C   Interpreters. 

Benjamm  Jbairchild,  3 

Brother  !  Our  Father  has  delivered  to  us  the  book 
you  sent  to  instruct  us  how  to  use  the  discovery  which 
the  Great  Spirit  made  to  you,  whereby  the  small-pox, 
that  fatal  enemy  of  our  tribes,  may  be  driven  from  the 
earth.  We  have  deposited  your  book  in  the  hands  of  the 
man  of  skill  whom  our  great  Father  employs  to  attend  us 
when  sick  or  wounded. 

We  shall  not  fail  to  teach  ovir  children  to  speak  the 
name  of  Jenner ;  and  to  thank  the  Great  Spirit  for  be- 
stowing upon  him  so  much  wisdom  and  so  much  bene- 

We  send  with  this  a  belt  and  string  of  Wampum,*  in 

*  The  Wampum  is  at  once  the  current  coin  of  the  untu- 
tored Indian,  and  the  emblem  and  the  pledge  of  all  his  con- 
tracts. It  ratifies  his  private  friendships,  as  well  as  the 
most  solemn  and  important  public  treaties.  A  string  of 
Wampum  passed  from  one  hand  to  another  is  sufficient  for 


LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

token  of  our  acceptance  of  your  precious  gift ;  and  we  be- 
seech the  Great  Spirit  to  take  care  of  you  in  this  world 
and  in  the  land  of  spirits. 

Chiefs'  Names.        Signatures.  Interpretation  of  the  Names.  Nations. 


Two  pointed  arrows 

Dekayonwagegh  Two  Wampum  Belts. 

Aigowane    .         .     ^ ^     Clear  Sky 

>  Mohawks. 

Cosscouete  . 
Caugheaw    . 
Ussweghtagehte  , 

Feathers  on  his  head 



Moving  a   tree    with 

brush,  and  planting  1  ^ 

14.  ^  ^    >heuecas. 


/^_Tl\_j     A    Town  Destroyer 
/^^~^      Raven 



Belt  Carrier 


Sawesyewathaw   .  (^  Disturber  of  Sleep 


^-"^1  Fish  Carrier 



the  former  of  these  purposes.  Strings  multiplied  and  united 
together  in  the  form  of  a  belt,  varying  in  length  and  breadth 
according  to  the  importance  of  the  occasion,  bespeak  treaties 
of  a  different  description.  Jenner's  belt,  from  its  size,  I 
should  imagine  must  have  been  such  as  they  used  for  these 
latter  purposes. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  105 

That  such  tokens  and  assurances  of  regard  from 
the  unsophisticated  children  of  the  wilderness  were 
highly  acceptable  to  Jenner,  more  especially  when 
contrasted  with  the  ingratitude  of  too  many  of  his 
own  countrymen,  need  scarcely  be  added  ;  but  let 
his  own  words  express  his  feelings  : 


Your  kindness  in  delivering  to  the  Five  Nations  of 
Indians  my  Treatise  on  vaccination,  and  in  transmitting 
to  me  their  reply,  demands  my  warmest  thanks. 

I  beg  you  to  make  known  to  the  Five  Nations  the  sin- 
cere gratification  which  I  feel  at  finding  that  the  practice 
of  vaccination  has  been  so  universally  received  among 
their  tribes,  and  proved  so  beneficial  to  them ;  at  the  same 
time,  be  pleased  to  assure  them  of  the  great  thankfulness 
with  which  I  received  the  belt  and  string  of  Wampum, 
with  which  they  condescended  to  honour  me,  and  of  the 
high  estimation  in  which  I  shall  for  ever  hold  it.  May 
the  active  benevolence  which  their  chiefs  have  displayed 
in  preserving  the  lives  of  their  people  be  crowned  with  the 
success  it  deserves ;  and  may  that  destructive  pestilence, 
the  small-pox,  be  no  more  known  among  them. 

You  also,  Sir,  are  entitled  to  the  most  grateful  acknow- 
ledgments, not  only  from  me,  but  from  every  friend  of 
humanity,  for  the  philanthropic  manner  in  which  you 
originally  introduced  the  vaccine  among  these  tribes  of 

I  have  the  honour  to  remain,  &c.  &c. 

E.  Jenner. 

Lieutenant-Colonel  Gore,  S^c.  ^'c. 

106  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

Among  the  events  of  this  period  must  be  enu- 
merated a  scheme  of  his  friend,  Dr.  Valentine,  of 
Nancy,  for  honouring  and  recompensing  Jenner. 
After  an  eloquent  and  animated  exordium,  and 
detailing  in  a  brief  but  striking  manner  the  his- 
tory of  vaccination,  he  alludes  to  the  rewards  con- 
ferred by  Parliament,  the  subscriptions  at  Bengal 
and  Madras,  and  contrasts  them  with  the  splendid 
and  princely  gifts  which  England  had  bestowed 
on  some  of  her  sons,  whose  claims  were  infinitely 
inferior  to  those  of  Jenner.  He  then  proposes 
that  all  the  societies  which  had  been  formed  in 
the  French  empire  for  cultivating  the  healing  art 
should,  with  the  consent,  and  under  the  protec- 
tion of  government,  open  a  subscription  in  favour 
of  "  Edward  Jenner."  The  central  committee 
of  vaccination  and  the  medical  societies  of  the 
metropolis  were  exclusively  to  determine  the  na- 
ture of  the  recompense  to  be  offered.  Every 
learned  society,  every  individual  who  belonged  to 
the  medical  profession,  or  to  any  of  the  commit- 
tees of  vaccination,  was  to  be  invited  to  concur  in 
this  project. 

After  the  subscriptions  were  closed,  it  was  in- 
tended that  deputies  should  be  appointed  who 
were  to  proceed  to  England  to  present  their  re- 
spectful homage  to  Dr.  Jenner.  Finally,  it  was 
proposed  to  erect  a  statue  to  his  honour,  and  to 
place  his  bust  by  the  side  of  Hippocrates  and 
that  of  Napoleon. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  10/ 

This  project  of  the  kind-hearted  author  was  for- 
warded to  the  Central  Committee  of  Vaccination 
and  the  secretary  of  the  Medical  Society  of  Paris ; 
and  it  was  published  in  their  Journals :  but  I  be- 
lieve it  led  to  no  result.  The  failure  of  such  a 
scheme  might  have  been  anticipated ;  for  had  it 
been  realized,  it  would  have  manifested  a  degree  of 
enthusiasm  in  behalf  of  a  foreigner  that  few  nations 
have  exhibited. 

Though  pecuniary  rewards,  and  statues,  and  de- 
putations, did  not  greet  Dr.  Jenner  on  this  occa- 
sion, he  shortly  afterwards  received  one  of  the 
most  en\dable  distinctions  that  a  man  of  science 
could  obtain.  The  National  Institute  of  France,  it 
is  well  known,  have  always  been  jealous  of  their 
reputation  ;  and  have  never  bestowed  their  honours 
on  any  one,  but  especially  on  foreigners,  whose 
claims  were  not  of  the  most  unquestionable  na- 
ture. On  the  20th  June  (1808)  he  was  elected  a 
corresponding  member  of  that  celebrated  body. 
I  have  seen  a  letter  from  a  gentleman  who  was 
present  at  the  sitting  when  Jenner's  name  was 
proposed ;  and  it  was  received  with  unanimous 
and  unequivocal  demonstrations  of  respect. 

The  subject  of  vaccination  having  been  treated 
from  the  beginning  as  subsidiary  to  the  illustration 
of  the  character  of  its  author,  many  questions  that 
arose  during  its  progress  have  been  entirely  omit- 
ted ;  because,  though  they  deeply  engaged  the 
attention  of  the  public  when  they  occurred,  they 

108  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

possess  but  little  interest  now,  and  do  not  involve 
in  any  degree  points  that  I  feel  myself  called  upon 
to  discuss.  There  are  others,  however,  that  more 
immediately  touched  Dr.  Jenner's  feelings,  and 
such  I  have  been  induced  to  notice. 

Of  this  description  were  some  supposed  failures 
of  vaccination  that  were  reported  to  have  taken 
place  at  Ringwood  in  Hampshire.  The  affair  was 
brought  before  the  Royal  Jennerian  Society  by  the 
late  Right  Honoural)le  George  Rose.  An  excessive 
alarm  had  been  created  by  false  and  exaggerated 
statements  in  newspapers,  and  various  periodical 
publications.  The  authors  of  these  statements 
were  the  same  individuals  who  had  distinguished 
themselves  by  a  blind  and  inveterate  opposition  to 
the  strongest  evidence.  In  order  to  satisfy  the 
public,  a  deputation,  consisting  of  Mr.  Ring, 
Mr.  Blair,  and  Dr.  Knowles,  repaired  to  Ring- 
wood,  where  they  were  met  by  Dr.  Fowler  of 
Salisbury,  Mr.  Rose,  several  magistrates  and  cler- 
gymen, Mr.  Westcote,  and  Mr.  Macilwain,  sur- 
geons, and  the  other  principal  inhabitants  of  the 
town  and  its  neighbourhood.  This  public  meeting, 
which  was  held  in  the  Town  Hall,  was  continued 
for  two  whole  days ;  the  medical  gentlemen  car- 
rying on  their  investigation  before  this  assembly 
in  the  most  open  manner.  The  result  was  a  com- 
plete and  triumphant  refutation  of  the  false  and  ca- 
lumnious assertions  that  had  been  industriously 
propagated  by  the  anti-vaccinists.     This  is  not  the 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  109 

place  to  'enter  minutely  into  particulars  ;  it  will  be 
sufficient  to  remark,  that  small-pox  broke  out  at 
Ringwood  about  the  middle  of  September :  it 
spread  rapidly  and  with  great  mortality.  Vaccine 
inoculation  did  not  commence  until  the  23rd  of 
October,  after  all  had  been  previously  exposed  to 
the  contagion  of  small-pox.  Notwithstanding 
these  unfavourable  circumstances,  more  than  two 
hundred  persons  were  successfully  vaccinated, 
though  much  exposed  to  small-pox  in  different 
ways  ;  the  supposed  failures  having  occurred  only 
in  those  cases  where  either  the  cow-pox  infection 
had  not  taken  place  at  all,  or  where  the  constitu- 
tion had  previously  been  impregnated  with  the 
small-pox  contagion.  It  does  not  appear,  that  any 
one  person  either  in  Ringwood  or  its  neighbour- 
hood had  caught  the  small-pox  after  going  through 

regular  and  complete  vaccination.  Both  Dr.  Fow- 
ler and  Mr.  Rose  sanctioned  the  accuracy  of  the 
Report,  and,  I  believe,  it  satisfied  every  one  but 
those  who  did  not  love  the  truth. 

Dr.  Jenner  was  strongly  urged  to  form  one  of 
this  deputation.  This  was  a  very  unreasonable 
and  unwise  proposal ;  and  judging  from  the  tem- 
per of  his  traducers,  I  have  no  doubt  that  they 
would  have  made  it  the  occasion  of  personal  insult 
to  him.  It  was  actually  stated  in  one  of  their 
publications  (the  Medical  Observer),  "  that  the  de- 
puties carried  pistols  to  defend  themselves  against 
the   astonished    populace   at  Ringwood ! "       This 

110  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

single  sentence  may  tell  the  reader  the  nature  of 
that  rancorous  and  unmanly  opposition  which  at  this 
period  raged  against  Dr.  Jenner  and  his  discovery. 
The  force  of  prejudice    and  error,  and  the  evil 
consequences    which    have    resulted   from   them, 
form  the  most   melancholy    chapters  in  the  his- 
tory of  man;   at  one  time    struggling  to  maintain 
false  and  inaccurate  dogmas,  at  another  resisting 
the  plainest  and  most  convincing  demonstrations, 
we  are  compelled  to  believe  that  there  is  a  princi- 
ple in  our  nature  which  has  too  strong  an  affinity 
for  what  is  untrue,  to  permit  the  understanding 
either  to  discern  or  acknowledge  an  opposite  prin- 
ciple, till  both  the    moral  and  intellectual   vision 
have  been  purified  and  strengthened.     The   per- 
secutors of   Galileo  would,  I   believe,  have  been 
eclipsed  in  their  monstrous  and  outrageous  hostility 
to  the  splendid  discoveries  of  that  illustrious  man,  by 
some  of  the  opponents  of  vaccination,  had  the  spirit 
of  the  age  or  their  own  power  enabled  them    to 
carry  their  wishes  into  execution.     It  is  very  true 
that  the  persons  who  manifested  such  dispositions 
were  little  distinguished  by  their  rank,  or  station, 
or  abilities.     They  were,  nevertheless,  men  of  edu- 
cation, and  many  of  them  belonged  to  the  medical 
profession  ;  and  I  record  it  as  a  striking  proof  of 
the  weakness  of  the  human  understanding,  that  in 
the  nineteenth  century,  and  in  the  metropolis  of 
the  British  Empire,  two  of  the  most  beneficial  in- 
ventions should  in  protracted  and  repeated  public 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  Ill 

discussions  have  been  consigned  to  contempt  and 
obloquy,  and  their  authors  held  up  to  the  world  as 
hypocrites  and  impostors.  On  Monday  the  28th 
of  March,  1808,  the  follomng  question  was  dis- 
cussed at  the  British  Forum  : — "Which  has  proved 
a  more  striking  instance  of  the  public  creduUty, — 
the  gas  lights  of  Mr.  Winsor,  or  the  cow-pox  inocula- 
tion ?"  The  result  of  the  discussions  was  as  usual 
announced ;  and  both  vaccination  and  gas  Kghts 
were  handed  over  to  scorn  and  ignominy  ! 

This  same  British  Forum  seems  to  have  been  a 
place  somewhat  akin  to  that  in  which  the  Jacobins 
of  the  day  put  forth  their  pestiferous  doctrines  ;  but 
I  have  often  heard  Dr.  Jenner  aver  that  many 
individuals  of  our  profession,  and  some  of  them, 
too,  men  holding  important  public  stations,  were 
concerned  in  diffusing  such  \\Tetched  and  perni- 
cious trash.  I  call  it  pernicious,  merely  from  its 
influence  in  keeping  up  a  resistance  among  the 
lower  orders  to  a  life-preserving  practice,  and  in 
the  same  ratio  promoting  the  diffusion  of  a  most 
fatal  disease.  The  walls  of  London  were  placarded 
with  such  falsehoods  ;  and  doubtless  many  a  "victim 
perished  at  the  shrine  of  this  Moloch.  The  same 
party  which  promoted  these  discussions,  tried  to 
carry  their  point  in  another  way.  They  actually 
published  a  sort  of  newspaper,  entitled,  "  The  Cow- 
pox  Chronicle  ;  or  Medical  Reporter."  This  was 
printed  on  stamped  paper,  and  circulated  through 
the  Post  Office.     The  wit  of  this  publication  was 

112  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

very  much  on  a  level  with  its  other  qualities.  I 
have  understood  that  the  indulgence  of  their 
humour  became  at  last  rather  too  expensive  for 
the  proprietors.  They  put  forth  their  lucubra- 
tions in  the  shape  of  advertisements,  in  which  they 
parodied  all  the  ordinary  topics  that  fill  the 
columns  of  a  newspaper;  but  they  were  not 
aware  that  the  duty  for  the  advertisements  would 
fall  upon  them.  This  weight,  however,  was  not 
required  to  sink  the  pubhcation.  Its  atrocious 
falsehoods,  its  coarse  and  disgusting  ribaldry,  and 
its  impious  scurrility,  must  soon  have  caused  its 

As  a  contrast  to  these  humiUating  proceedings 
we  may  turn  to  the  inteUigence  which  Dr.  Jenner 
received  from  the  north  of  Italy,  from  his  excel- 
lent friend  Sacco.  He  sent  a  long  letter  from 
Trieste,  dated  January  the  5th,  1808,  giving  an 
account  of  his  vaccinations  perfectly  unexampled. 
"During  eight  years,"  he  observes,  "I  reckon 
more  than  600,000  vaccinated  by  my  own  hand, 
and  more  than  700,000  by  my  deputies  in  the  dif- 
ferent departments  of  the  kingdom.  I  assure  you, 
out  of  a  population  of  six  millions,  to  have  vacci- 
nated one  million  three  hundred  thousand  is 
something  to  boast  of ;  and  I  flatter  myself  that  in 
Italy  I  have  been  the  means  of  promoting  vaccina- 
tion in  a  degree,  which  no  other  kingdom  of  the 
same  population  has  equalled." 

The  inha])itants  of  Italy  were  not  insensible  to 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  113 

his  indefatigable  and  disinterested  exertions ;  and 
they  commemorated  them  by  ordering  medals  to 
be  struck  in  his  honour  and  in  that  of  vaccination. 
One  was  executed  at  Brescia,  another  at  Bologna.  * 
These  two  medals,  with  those  which  had  been 
issued  on  former  occasions,  make  up  eight,  com- 
memorative of  the  benefits  conferred  on  mankind 
by  vaccination ;  but  it  is  a  singular  and  somewhat 
distressing  circumstance,  that  the  "  vera  effigies  " 
of  the  author  of  vaccination  does  not  appear  on 
any  one  of  them. 

Doctor  Jenner's  successful  mediation  with  Napo- 
leon for  the  release  of  persons  detained  in  captivity 
is  known  to  the  reader.  It  is  pleasing  to  be  able 
to  add,  that  the  claims  of  science  and  philanthropy 
found  favour  in  the  breast  of  another  crowned 
head,  at  the  time  when  all  national  intercourse  was 
suspended  by  the  horrors  of  war.  By  a  strange 
combination  of  events,  a  young  man  of  the  name 
of  Powell,  the  son  of  W.  D,  Powell,  Esq.  Chief 
Justice  of  His  Majesty's  Court  of  King's  Bench  in 
Upper  Canada,  and  nearly  related  to  Mr.  Murray, 
who  was  Secretary  to  the  Royal  Jennerian  Society, 
was  captured  on  board  Miranda's  squadron  by 
the  forces  of  the  King  of  Spain ;  he  was  tried,  and 
sentenced  to  ten  years'  confinement  and  hard 
labour  in  the  Castle  of  Omoa,  a  sea  port  of  Mex- 
ico.    To  obtain  the  remission  of  his  sentence.  Dr. 

*  See  Appendix,  No.  III. 
VOL.  II.  I 

114  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

Jenner  directly  memorialised  the  King  of  Spain ; 
and  it  is  to  the  honour  of  all  parties  to  be  able  to 
say,  that  the  appeal  was  not  made  in  vain.  After 
lamenting  that  it  could  not  be  presented  through 
the  medium  of  an  ambassador,  he  stated,  that  he 
was  encouraged  to  hope  from  the  magnanimity 
that  had  recently  been  shown  by  his  Majesty  in 
the  glorious  expedition  to  disseminate  through 
every  quarter  of  the  world,  alike  to  friends  and 
enemies,  the  discovery  which  he  had  the  happi- 
ness of  introducing,  that  his  petition  in  behalf  of 
an  unfortunate  object  would  be  received  with  cle- 

The  circumstances  of  the  case  were  then  briefly 
detailed.  The  youth,  only  twenty  years  of  age, 
w^as  engaged  in  extensive  mercantile  concerns,  and 
was  led  to  the  ill-fated  island  of  St.  Domingo. 
On  his  arrival  he  was  warmly  patronised  by  Des- 
salines,  who  encouraged  him  to  settle,  and  pro- 
mised him  protection  and  support ;  but  scarcely 
was  he  established  there,  before  the  conduct  of 
that  ferocious  chief  gave  him  cause  to  entertain 
serious  apprehensions  both  for  his  property  and 
his  life.  At  this  moment  Miranda  arrived  with  his 
expedition ;  and  the  imprudent  youth  was  in- 
duced to  embark  in  his  enterprise,  more  with  the 
hope  of  escaping  the  impending  destruction  with 
which  he  was  threatened  by  Dessalines,  than  from 
any  other  motive. 

Young  Powell  seems  to  have  had  a  due  and  be- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  115 

coming  feeling  of  the  value  of  the  intercession. 
He  was  restored  to  his  friends  at  York  in  Upper 
Canada;  and  on  the  19th  day  of  February  1808, 
he,  in  a  very  grateful  manner,  acknowledged  his 
obligation  to  Dr.  Jenner. 

On  several  other  occasions  he  was  enabled  to 
procure  the  release  of  gentlemen  who  were  de- 
tained on  the  Continent.  One  was  the  son  of 
the  celebrated  Sir  John  Sinclair,  who  had  gone  to 
prosecute  his  studies  in  Germany.  He  was  at  that 
time  at  Vienna ;  and  his  friends  were  very  anxious 
that  he  should  have  a  passport  to  return  through 
France  or  Holland.  This  object  was  obtained  by  a 
direct  application  to  the  Emperor  of  Austria, 
which  was  transmitted  through  Baron  Jacobi. 
Two  other  gentlemen,  Mr.  (now  Lieutenant-colo- 
nel) Gold  and  a  Mr.  Garland,  were  about  the  same 
time  indebted  for  their  liberation  to  the  same  in- 
tercession with  the  ruler  of  France. 

At  no  period  was  the  influence  of  Jenner's  cha- 
racter more  powerful  with  foreign  nations.  His 
name  carried  a  charm  with  it  sufficiently  potent  to 
disarm  the  hostility  of  belligerent  states,  and  ac- 
tually to  turn  aside  the  distresses  and  severities  of 
war.  So  strong  was  the  general  feeling  on  this 
subject,  that  persons  left  our  shores,  not  with  a 
passport  countersigned  by  a  minister  of  state,  but 
with  a  simple  certificate  bearing  the  name  of 
Edward  Jenner,  testifying  that  the  parties 
were  known  to  him,  and  were  voyaging  to  distant 

I  2 

116  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

lands,  in  pursuit  of  health  or  science,  or  other 
affairs  totally  apart  from  the  concerns  of  war,  and 
were  deemed  by  him  deserving  of  protection  and 
freedom  from  the  restraints  imposed  upon  other 
captives.  Probably  there  was  not  a  ci\ilised  nation 
in  the  world  that  would  not  have  paid  respect  to 
such  a  document.  As  a  ciu-iosity  I  subjoin  a  cer- 
tificate of  this  kind : 

I  hereby  certify,  that  Mr.  A.  the  young  gentleman 
who  is  the  bearer  of  this,  and  who  is  about  to  sail  from 
the  port  of  Bristol  on  board  the  Adventure,  Captain  Ve- 
sey,  for  the  island  of  Madeira,  has  no  other  object  in  view 
than  the  recovery  of  his  health. 

Edward  Jexner, 
Member  of  the  N.  I.  of  France,  &c.  &c. 

Berkeley,  Gloucestershire,  July  1,  1810. 

On  sending  this  certificate  he  adds,  "  I  beg  you 
to  put  this  letter  into  your  son's  possession ;  and 
should  the  ship  in  which  he  sails,  through  the 
chance  of  war,  be  captured  by  a  French  com- 
mander, I  trust  he  -will,  at  my  solicitation,  shew 
Mr.  A.  every  indulgence  in  his  power  ;  and  that 
if  he  will  cause  it  to  be  made  known  to  the 
French  government,  it  will  obtain  for  him  a 
speedy  release.  I  feel  the  more  confident  of  the 
Emperor's  kindness  in  this  case,  as  his  Majesty 
has  hitherto  been  pleased  to  lend  a  favourable  ear 
to  my  petitions  in  behalf  of  British  captives." 

His  applications  to  the  Emperor   had  latterly 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  117 

been  transmitted  through  the  hands  of  his  physi- 
cian, the  celebrated  Baron  Corvisart,  who  was  ex- 
ceedingly punctual  in  making  all  Jenner's  requests 
known  to  His  Majesty. 

"  J'ai  remis,  ces  jours  derniers,"  (he  observes,  in 
a  letter  dated  Paris,  Dec.  5,  1809),  "a  S.  M.  la 
copie  de  votre  derniere  lettre  en  date  du  4  S^""^ 
1809.  L'Empereur  m'a  permis  de  vous  repondre. 
Monsieur,  qu'il  ferait  mettre  en  liberte  les  deux 
gentilhommes  (MM.  Garland  et  Gold),  auxquels 
vous  vous  interessez.  Je  suis  bien  flatte  de  pou- 
voir  vous  annoncer  cette  heureuse  nouvelle." 

The  Baron  then  asks  Jenner  to  render  a  good 
office  to  a  young  friend  of  his,  a  prisoner,  who  had 
been  sent  back  to  France  on  his  parole.  His  best 
efforts  were,  I  believe,  exerted  in  behalf  of  the 
young  man ;  but,  unhappily,  Jenner's  influence 
with  the  British  government  was  not  equal  to  that 
which  he  enjoyed  with  the  court  of  France. 

The  adjustment  of  the  second  parliamentary 
grant,  the  increasing  importance  attached  to  vac- 
cination, and  the  decay  of  that  institution  which 
had  been  formed  for  its  support,  called  for  the 
adoption  of  other  measures,  better  calculated  to 
give  stability  to  the  practice.  It  was,  therefore, 
resolved  that  the  influence  of  the  government 
should  be  exerted  in  founding  an  establishment 
for  the  propagation  of  vaccination  throughout  the 
British  dominions.  The  late  FJght  Honourable 
George  Rose  took  the   lead  in  this    transaction. 

118  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

Dr.  Jenner  was  requested  by  him  to  draw  up  a 
plan,  and  to  give  an  estimate  of  the  expense. 
Having  submitted  this  plan  to  Mr.  Rose,  he  went 
to  town  himself,  at  this  gentleman's  express  de- 
sire, in  order  to  assist  in  the  organization  of  the 
establishment.  He  remained  five  months  in  Lon- 
don, anxiously  endeavouring  to  bring  matters  to  a 
favourable  conclusion.  He  had  frequent  inter- 
views with  Mr.  Rose  and  Sir  Lucas  Pepys,  then 
President  of  the  College  of  Physicians.  I  will  not 
detail  all  the  difficulties  and  mortifications  that  he 
experienced  in  the  negotiation,  because  I  mean  to 
subjoin  a  paper,  drawn  up  by  Jenner,  recording 
his  part  in  these  transactions,  and  explaining  the 
conduct  he  was  compelled  to  adopt. 

During  the  latter  part  of  his  stay  in  London,  his 
mind  was  much  agitated  by  the  situation  of  his 
family  at  Berkeley.  His  eldest  son  was  suffering 
under  typhus,  and  he  found  him,  on  his  return 
home,  quite  a  wreck,  and  with  little  hopes  of  re- 
covery. His  second  son  was  seized  with  the 
same  disease,  and  his  situation  became  extremely 

Sir  Lucas  Pepys  having  received  the  warrant 
for  instituting  the  National  Vaccine  Establish- 
ment, wished  Dr.  Jenner  to  be  in  London  during 
the  first  sitting  of  the  board.  The  condition  of 
his  family  at  the  Chantry^  kept  Dr.  Jenner  a  pri- 

*  Dr.  Jenncr's  cotfage  at  Berkeley. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  119 

soner  there.  He  apologised  to  Sir  Lucas  for  his 
absence,  and  begged  his  friend  Mr.  Moore  to  do 
the  same,  adding  these  remarkable  words  : — "  In 
this  unfortunate  situation  1  should  be  unworthy  of 
the  name  of  father  were  I  to  stir  from  my  children. 
Indeed,  nothing  would  make  me,  not  even  a  royal 
mandate,  unless  accompanied  by  a  troop  of  horse." 
Had  circumstances  permitted  his  being  in  Lon- 
don, there  is  reason  to  fear  that  his  feelings  would 
have  been  wounded.  It  was  natural  that  he  should 
be  jealous  of  the  character  of  vaccination  ;  that  he 
should  wish  to  see  it  directed  by  the  most  perfect 
knowledge  and  the  purest  integrity  ;  that  the  bad 
conduct  and  bad  faith  which  had  been  formerly 
displayed  in  other  institutions  should  be  excluded 
fi'om  this ;  that  he,  the  discoverer,  the  disinte- 
rested promulgator  of  the  practice,  should  have 
influence  enough  to  secure  all  these  objects,  by 
holding  that  station  of  dignity  and  responsibility 
in  the  new  Institution,  which  certainly  was  his  due. 
He  was  less  concerned  about  the  general  arrange- 
ments of  the  establishment,  than  for  the  practice 
of  vaccination  itself.  For  this  he  felt  himself 
responsible  ;  and  in  this  matter  he  very  properly 
wished  to  direct. 

Gentlemen  who  occupied  prominent  stations  in 
the  metropolis,  could  not  so  readily  admit  the 
claims  of  a  provincial  physician,  who  held  no  place 
in  either  of  the  great  corporations  which  preside 
over  medicine  and  surgery  in  this  country.     This 

120  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

circumstance,  trifling  as  it  might  well  appear  to 
unprofessional  or  unprejudiced  men,  prevented 
him  from  being  a  member  of  that  very  board, 
which  was  constituted  for  the  express  purpose  of 
promoting  the  practice  to  which  he  gave  existence. 
This  strange  anomaly  he  would  have  overlooked, 
had  the  office  assigned  to  himself  been  as  efficient 
as  its  name  imphed.  The  board  appointed  him 
Director,  but  they  soon  contrived  to  let  him  feel 
that  he  was  a  Director  directed. 

"  It  was  stipulated,"  he  observes,  in  a  letter 
written  on  Jan.  16th,  1809,  to  Mr.  Moore,  "be- 
tween Mr.  Rose,  Sir  Lucas,  and  myself,  that  no 
person  should  take  any  part  in  the  vaccinating 
department,  who  was  not  either  nominated  by  me, 
or  submitted  to  my  approbation,  before  he  was 
appointed  to  a  station.  On  my  reminding  Sir 
Lucas  of  this,  he  rephed,  '  You,  Sir,  are  to  be 
whole  and  sole  director.  We  (meaning  the  board), 
are  to  be  considered  as  nothing :  what  do  we  know 
of  vaccination  ?'  This  compact  was  soon  forgot- 
ten ;  for  out  of  eight  persons  nominated  by  Jen- 
ner,  six  were  rejected  by  the  board.  After  much 
deUberation,  he  made  up  his  mind  to  resign  his 
office  of  Director.  Some  of  his  friends  thought 
this  step  was  uncalled  for ;  that  he  might  have 
submitted  to  the  grievances  he  felt,  and  the 
humihation  to  which  he  was  exposed.  It  is  not  my 
part  to  decide  upon  this  question ;  it  belongs  to 
me  rather  to  state  plainly  the  facts  as  they  arose, 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  121 

and  finally  to  record  Dr.  Jenner's  own  sentiments 
on  the  occasion,  as  contained  in  the  following 
memorial,  which  he  put  into  my  hands  a  short 
time  before  his  death. 

"  It  is  most  painful  to  Dr.  Jenner's  feelings, 
when  speaking  of  an  institution,  the  welfare  of 
which  he  cannot  but  have  so  much  at  heart,  and 
the  direction  of  which  has  been  placed  in  the 
hands  of  gentlemen  of  such  high  respectability,  to 
be  obliged  to  express  his  disapprobation  of  the 
arrangements  they  have  made,  and  to  decline  co- 
operating with  them.  But,  powerful  as  these 
feelings  are,  he  cannot  suffer  them  to  impede  the 
faithful  discharge  of  what  he  conceives  to  be  his 
duty  to  himself,  his  friends,  and  the  public. 

"  In  the  course  of  last  year.  Dr.  Jenner  twice 
went  to  town,  in  compliance  with  requests  from 
Mr.  Rose,  for  the  express  purpose  of  assisting  in 
the  formation  of  an  establishment,  the  object  of 
which  was  to  be  the  propagation  of  the  vaccine 
practice  in  the  metropolis  in  particular,  and  the 
British  realms  in  general.  He  accordingly  drew 
up  a  plan  for  its  organization,  and  an  estimate  of 
its  probable  expenses,  which  he  laid  before  Mr. 
Rose.  In  the  course  of  a  few  weeks  he  had  an  in- 
terview with  Mr.  Rose  and  Sir  Lucas  Pepys  (Pre- 
sident of  the  College  of  Physicians)  together,  when 
he  found  that  his  plan  had  been  altered,  by  the 
introduction  of  a  board  to  superintend  the  affairs 
of  the  establishment,  by  a  reduction  of  the  num- 

122  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

ber  of  vaccinating  stations,  by  the  grant  of  an 
annual  salary  to  the  members  of  the  board,  and  by 
the  consequent  diminution  of  the  salaries  which 
were  to  have  been  granted  to  the  officers  of  the  es- 
tablishment. As  these  alterations  were  considered 
necessary  by  Mr.  Rose  and  Sir  Lucas,  Dr.  Jenner  did 
not  object  to  them,  since  he  did  not  wish  to  inter- 
fere with  the  general  arrangements  of  the  estab- 
lishment, but  wished  its  affairs  to  be  totally  inde- 
pendent of  him,  except  in  what  related  to  the 
practice  of  vaccination.  But  he  stated  at  the  same 
time,  how  important  it  was  that  gentlemen  should 
be  appointed  to  the  inoculating  stations  who  were 
thoroughly  acquainted  with  the  practice  ;  and  that, 
on  this  account,  he  hoped  their  nomination  would  be 
left  to  him,  or  at  least  that  none  would  be  appoint- 
ed who  were  not  approved  of  by  him.  This  he 
conceived  to  be  indispensable,  since  the  public 
and  the  world  at  large  would  of  course  consider 
him  responsible  for  the  manner  in  which  the  vac- 
cine practice  was  conducted  in  an  institution 
with  which  he  was  connected.  Mr.  Rose  and  Sir 
Lucas  Pepys  acquiesced  in  the  propriety  of  Dr. 
Jenner's  request;  and  that  he  might  not  only 
guide  the  practice  of  vaccination,  but  have  a  share 
in  the  management  of  all  the  concerns  of  the 
establishment,  a  clause  was  introduced  for  the 
particular  purpose  of  admitting  him  a  member  of 
the  board. 

"After  remaining  in  London  for  five  months,  with 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  123 

no  other  object  in  view  than  the  completion  of 
the   establishment.    Dr.  Jenner   was    obliged,  by 
urgent  circumstances,  to  return  to  Gloucestershire. 
Pre\iously,    however,    to   his    leaving    town,    he 
waited  on  Sir  Lucas  Pepys,  and  repeated  what  he 
had  formerly  said  of  the  high  responsibility  of  his 
office  as  Director,  and  of  the  great  importance  of 
selecting  gentlemen,  for  whose  knowledge  of  vac- 
cination he  could  be  answerable,  to  conduct  the 
practice  of  it.     In  this  Sir  Lucas  most  readily  con- 
curred.    Dr.  Jenner,  therefore,  at  once  nominated 
Mr.  Moore  as  his  assistant  director,  and  recom- 
mended Mr.  Ring   as   Principal   Vaccinator   and 
Inspector  of  Stations,  urging  this  recommendation 
with  a  particular  stress,  since  he  conceived  that 
appointment  to  be  of  far  greater  consequence  than 
any  other,    on   account   of  the   extensive    duties 
which  would  be  attached  to  it,  which  very  few, 
who  would  accept  of  the  situation,  would  be  quali- 
fied to  perform,  but  for  which  Mr.  Ring  was  par- 
ticularly qualified,  from  his  long  and  wide  practice 
of  vaccination,  and  his  intimate  acquaintance  with 
its  minutiae.     Dr.  Jenner  added,  that  when  the 
establishment   assumed   its   functions,    he   would 
send  in  the  names  of  those  gentlemen  whom  he 
wished  to  see  elected  to  the  subordinate  stations. 

"  After  a  few  weeks,  Sir  Lucas  received  the  war- 
rant for  instituting  the  establishment.  The  board 
was  formed,  consisting  of  the  four  censors  of  the 
College  of  Physicians,  with  the  master  and  two 

124  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

senior  wardens  of  the  College  of  Surgeons.  Dr. 
Jenner  was  not  admitted  a  member  of  it,  notwith- 
standing the  clause  inserted  expressly  for  the  pur- 
pose of  introducing  him.  The  board  assembled  to 
appoint  the  principal  officers,  when  Mr.  Ring, 
whom  Dr.  Jenner  had  so  strongly  recommended, 
was  set  aside,  and  a  gentleman  appointed  in  his 
place  who  was  taken  from  an  institution  which 
had  been  personally  hostile  to  Dr.  Jenner  on  all 

"  The  next  meeting  of  the  board  was  to  ap- 
point subordinate  officers.  Previous  to  this  meet- 
ing, Dr.  Jenner  sent  in  to  the  board,  through 
Sir  Lucas,  the  names  of  seven  gentlemen,  whom 
he  knew  to  be  most  eminently  qualified  for 
conducting  the  vaccine  practice,  and  whom  he 
therefore  was  anxious  to  see  appointed.  The  list 
of  these  gentlemen  was  presented  to  the  board  ac- 
cordingly, before  they  commenced  the  nomination 
of  vaccinators :  one  was  set  aside,  as  the  number 
of  stations  was  reduced  by  the  board  to  six  ;  and 
out  of  the  six  gentlemen  whose  names  remained, 
four  were  rejected  by  the  board.  By  the  whole 
of  these  circumstances.  Dr.  Jenner  felt  himself 
under  the  necessity  of  withdrawing  from  the  esta- 
blishment. He  could  take  upon  himself  no  re- 
sponsibility where  he  had  no  power,  not  even  a 
vote.  He  did  not  wish  to  control  the  establish- 
ment; nothing  was  farther  from  his  thoughts. 
But  he  expected  that  the  practical  part  of  its 
concerns  would  have  been  under  his  direction^  as 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER.  125 

the  title  of  his  office  implied ;  and  he  expected 
that  those  gentlemen,  whom,  from  a  consciousness 
of  their  pre-eminent  ability,  he  had  so  strongly  re- 
commended to  conduct  this  practical  part,  would 
have  been  appointed.  But  as  his  recommenda- 
tions have  been  disregarded, — as  arrangements 
and  appointments  have  been  made  which  are  con- 
trary to  his  judgment,  and  as  he  is  informed  by 
the  board  that  it  was  intended  for  them  to  use 
their  own  discretion,  and  that  they  alone  are  re- 
sponsible for  the  conduct  of  the  establishment, 
Dr.  Jenner  declined  accepting  the  station  of  Direc- 
tor to  which  they  had  nominated  him,  since  he 
found  that  he  was  to  have  nothing  to  do  in  the 
establishment,  and  that  his  office  was  only  a 

In  coming  to  the  decision  mentioned  in  the  pre- 
ceding document,  it  was  satisfactory  to  him  that 
he  was  enabled  to  keep  up  his  communication 
with  the  Institution  through  the  medium  of  Mr. 
Moore,  who  succeeded  him  as  Director,  He  was 
consulted  on  the  first  paper  of  instructions  which 
was  circulated  by  the  board  for  managing  the 
practice  of  vaccination ;  and  on  every  occasion 
wherein  his  assistance  could  be  of  the  shghtest 
service  it  was  most  freely  and  cordially  given. 
Mr.  Moore  distinguished  himself  among  those 
friends  who  endeavoured  to  induce  him  to  accept 
the  office  that  had  been  allotted  to  him.  He 
thought  that  Jenner  took  a  stronger  view  of  the 

126  LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER. 

difficulties  of  the  case  than  was  necessary ;  and, 
with  all  the  ardour  of  sincere  regard,  used  every 
means  to  induce  him  to  alter  his  purpose.  A  very 
interesting  series  of  letters,  which  Mr.  Moore  has 
most  kindly  placed  at  my  disposal,  and  some  of 
which,  in  justice  to  Dr.  Jenner,  I  have  deemed  it 
necessary  to  print  in  a  subsequent  part  of  this 
volume,  will  show  how  highly  he  estimated  the 
importance  of  the  new  establishment,  and  how 
earnestly  and  magnanimously  he  laboured  for  its 
success.  One  of  them  is  appropriately  introduced 

From  Dr.  Jenxer  to  James  Moore,  Esq. 

My  dear  Friend, 

At  the  time  I  informed  you  of  my  intention  to  come  to 
town,  believe  me  I  was  quite  in  earnest.  But  while  I  was 
getting  things  in  order  came  a  piece  of  information  from  a 
Right  Hon.  Gentleman  which  determined  me  to  remain 
in  my  retirement.  It  was  as  follows.  That  the  Institution 
was  formed  for  the  purpose  of  a  full  and  satisfactorij  inves- 
tigation of  the  benefits  or  dangers  of  tlievaccine practice,  and 
that  this  was  the  reason  ivhy  Dr.  J.  could  not  be  admitted  as 
one  of  the  conductors  of  it,  as  the  public  would  not  have 
had  the  same  confidence  in  their  proceedings  as  if  the  board 
were  left  to  their  own  Judgment  in  doubtful  cases.  This 
is  the  sum  and  substance  of  the  communication; — "  What 
do  we  know  of  vaccination  ?  We  know  nothing  of  vac- 

And  yet,  my  friend,   these  very  ive  are  to  be   the  sole 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER.  127 

arbitrators  in  doubtful   cases  !     Alas,  poor  Vaccina,  how 
art  thou  degraded ! 

You  intimated  something  of  this  sort  to  me  some  time 
since,  and  now  I  get  it  from  the  fountain  head.  An  insti- 
tution founded  on  the  principle  of  inquiry  seven  or  eight 
years  ago,  would  have  been  worthy  of  the  British  nation ; 
but  now,  after  the  whole  world  bears  testimony  to  the 
safety  and  efficacy  of  the  vaccine  practice,  I  do  think  it  a 
most  extraordinary  proceeding.  It  is  one  that  must  ne- 
cessarily degrade  me,  and  cannot  exalt  the  framers  of  it 
in  the  eyes  of  common  sense.  I  shall  now  stick  closely  to 
my  oivn  Institution,  which  I  have  the  pride  and  vanity  to 
think  is  paramount  to  all  others,  as  its  extent  and  benefits 
are  boundless.  Of  this,  I  am  the  real  and  not  the  nominal 
director.  I  have  conducted  the  whole  concern  for  no 
inconsiderable  number  of  years,  single  handed,  and  have 
spread  vaccination  round  the  globe.  This  convinces  me 
that  simplicity  in  this,  as  in  all  effective  machinery,  is 

I  agree  with  you  that  my  not  being  a  member  of  the 
British  Vaccine  Establishment  will  astonish  the  world  ; 
and  no  one  in  it  can  be  astonished  more  than  myself.  An 
establishment  liberally  supported  by  the  British  Govern- 
ment,— its  arrangements  harmonious  and  complete, — every 
member  intimately  acquainted  not  only  with  the  ordinary 
laws  and  agencies  of  the  vaccine  fluid  on  the  human  con- 
stitution, but  with  its  extraordinary  or  anomalous  agen- 
cies,— all  fully  satisfied  from  the  general  report  of  the 
civilized  part  of  the  world  and  their  own  experience  of  the 
safety  and  efficacy  of  the  vaccine  practice, — all  cordially 
uniting  in  directing  that  practice  to  one  grand  point,  the 
extermination  of  the  small-pox  in  the  British  Empire :—  a 
society  so  formed,  was  a  consummation  devoutly  to  be 
wished.     But  instead  of  this,  taking  away  yourself  and  a 

128  LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER. 

few  others^  an  assembly,  which  from  well-known  facts 
must  appear  discordant  in  the  eyes  of  the  public,  is 
packed  together.  However,  incongruous  as  it  is,  it  would 
have  been  still  more  so,  had  I  mingled  with  it ;  and  what 
is  above  all  other  considerations,  and  which  would  have 
proved  a  source  of  perpetual  irritation,  I  must  have  gone 
in  with  a  sting  upon  my  conscience. 

Though  resolved  on  not  incorporating  myself  with  the 
Society,  be  assured  I  shall  be  ever  ready  to  afford  it  any 
assistance  in  my  power. 

Believe  me,  my  dear  Friend, 
most  truly  yours, 

Edward  Jenner. 
April  Ath,  1809. 

The  after-thought  mentioned  in  the  preceding  let- 
ter, by  whomsoever  suggested,  was  quite  unexpected 
by  Jenner,  and  not  less  at  variance  with  proper 
respect  to  himself  than  to  the  ascertained  charac- 
ter of  vaccination.  The  Imperial  Parliament  had 
twice,  after  the  most  mature  investigation,  marked 
its  approbation  of  the  discovery.  The  testimony 
of  all  the  enlightened  medical  men  throughout  the 
world  vindicated  the  discrimination  and  accuracy 
of  the  discoverer ;  but  in  the  constitution  of  the 
new  board,  the  overwhelming  weight  of  this  evi- 
dence was  not  deemed  sufficient ;  and  Jenner  and 
vaccination  were  again  to  be  put  upon  their  trial. 
A  tribunal  was  established  which  was  so  scrupulous 
in  the  discharge  of  these  its  inquisitorial  duties, 
that  it  could  not  safely  admit  into  its   counsels 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER.  129 

that  noble  and  most  generous  man,  to  whose 
wisdom  and  disinterestedness  they  owed  their 
very  being.  I  have  no  satisfaction  in  dwelling  on 
this  topic ;  but,  in  accordance  with  the  principle 
which  I  trust  has  guided  me  throughout  this  work, 
I  may  not  abstain  from  recording  any  facts  neces- 
sary for  explaining  the  conduct  of  Jenner.  I  am 
fully  persuaded  that  he  considered  the  Parlia- 
mentary investigation,  and  the  Parliamentary 
grants  too,  of  inferior  moment  to  the  Establish- 
ment, the  origin  of  which  I  have  been  tracing. 
Such  was  the  magnanimity  of  his  character,  that 
personal  honours  and  emoluments  were  as  nothing 
in  his  eyes  when  compared  with  the  great  purposes 
that  vaccination  was  calculated  to  secure.  The 
poor  attempts,  therefore,  to  keep  down  such  an 
one  ;  to  deprive  him  of  the  distinction  which  he 
had  so  well  earned;  to  interpose  the  rules  and 
forms  of  collegiate  discipline  between  him  and  his 
reward,  did  not  well  consist  either  with  the  claims 
of  science  or  of  substantial  justice.  He  was  truly 
an  humble  man,  and  it  afforded  him  no  gratifica- 
tion to  feed  on  empty  praise.  He  was  contented 
to  spend  his  days  in  retirement,  or  even  in  obscu- 
rity ;  but  he  had  a  supreme  love  of  justice,  and  he 
could  not  condescend,  for  any  object,  to  depreciate 
its  value. 

A  person  with  such  feelings,  and  who  stood  in 
the  remarkable  station  which  he  occupied,  could 
not  maintain  his  self-respect,  nor  secure  the  appro- 

VOL.    II.  K 

130  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

bation  of  others,  except  by  acting  as  he  did.  I 
know  that  his  trials  on  this  occasion  were  search- 
ing, and  hard  to  be  endured.  To  see  himself  com- 
pelled to  withdraw  from  a  national  establishment, 
endowed  for  the  purpose  of  propagating  his  dis- 
covery, was  a  bitter  mortification  to  him ;  but  his 
deliberations  were  mature,  and  his  decision  was 
firm ;  and  I  have  no  doubt  that  posterity  will  say 
that  he  was  right.  This  certainly  was  the  conclu- 
sion of  some  of  his  warmest  adherents  at  the  time  ; 
and  in  accordance  with  such  sentiments,  the  late 
amiable  Sir  Thomas  Bernard  thus  expressed  him- 
self upon  the  occasion. 

Wimpole-Street,  iUh  March,  18C.J). 
My  dear  Sib, 

I  did  not  expect  all  that  has  happened ;  but  from  some 
circumstances  which  came  to  my  knowledge  in  November, 
I  guessed  that  the  new  Board  was  to  be  made  an  instru- 
ment of  patronage ;  I  therefore  did  not  augur  well  of  the 
result.  I  am  glad  you  have  resigned,  and  have  con- 
fidence, that  when  the  Board  is  noticed  in  Parliament,  the 
treatment  you  have  received  will  be  properly  censured. 
It  will  be  material  to  consider  to  whom  a  detail  of  the 
circumstances  should  be  confided.  I  think  it  will  end 
more  for  your  honour,  than  if  they  liad  complied  with 
your  recommendation,  and  you  had  continued  director. 
I  wish  to  know  when  you  will  be  in  town. 

With  all  my  feelings,,  however,  of  what  has  recently 
passed,  I  continue  so  much  and  so  entirely  gratified  with 
the  honourable  and  public  tribute  which  Parliament  has 
voted  you,  that  I  treat  this   last  event,  and  indeed  all  the 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  131 

other  matters,  as  trivial,  and  undeserving  either  of  your 
friends'  attention  or  yours.  The  reflection  frequently 
recurs  to  my  mind,  that  in  the  great  point,  the  national 
acknowledgment,  there  has  been  entire  and  unqualified 
success ;  and  therefore,  that  in  other  matters,  we  may 
very  well  admit  of  some  things  not  being  exactly  as  we 
wish.  Such  are  my  sentiments ;  but  not  venturing  to 
trust  myself,  and  knowing  the  value  you  justly  put  on 
Lady  Crewe's  opinion,  I  would  not  answer  your  letter  till 
1  had  seen  her  ladyship.  I  found  her  at  home  yesterday, 
and  as  desirous  as  I  am  that  you  should  make  your  mind 
easy  about  lesser  matters,  and  not  expect  the  world  to  be 
composed  of  other  materials  than  those  experience  has 
found  in  it.  The  number  of  those  who  honour  and 
respect  you  is  very  great,  and  the  adoption  of  your  dis- 
covery throughout  the  world  has  been  rapid  and  successful 
beyond  example.  Let  us  then  not  be  disturbed  by  two 
or  three  envious  calumniators,  or  by  a  few  sinister  events. 
The  promulgation  of  every  discovery  by  which  mankind 
has  been  benefited  has  always  been  attended  with  similar 
circumstances :  it  is  a  general  condition,  and  must  be  sub- 
mitted to. 

I  shall  show  this  to  Lady  Crewe  before  it  is  sent  off. 
Let  me  know  when  we  are  to  expect  you.  You  will  find 
the  Alfred  flourishing  beyond  any  expectation,  and  in 
great  request. 

Adieu,  my  dear  Sii', 

and  believe  me  always 

most  faithfully  yours, 
T.  Bernard. 

The  conduct  of  the  vaccine  board  was  different 
from  that  of  a  body  constituted  for  a  similar  pur- 

K  2 

132  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

pose  in  ti  neighbouring  nation.  Napoleon,  in  the 
end  of  1809,  issued  a  decree,  that  one  hundred 
thousand  francs  should  be  at  the  disposal  of  the 
Minister  of  the  Interior,  for  encouraging  and  pro- 
pagating vaccination  throughout  the  empire.  Dr. 
Valentin,  who  communicates  this  information  to 
Dr.  Jenner,  adds,  "  Dr.  Thouret,  the  Dean  of  the 
Faculty  and  the  chief  member  of  the  Central 
Committee,  wrote  to  me,  that  they  will  not  keep 
for  themselves  any  fees,  as  certain  members  in 
London  have  done,  but  will  employ  the  whole  sum 
allowed  by  the  Emperor,  to  give  rewards  and 
encouragements  in  our  departments."  In  another 
part  of  the  same  letter  he  says  :  "  The  report 
made  by  the  Central  Committee  to  the  minister, 
concerning  the  state  of  vaccination  in  France, 
during  the  years  1807-8,  has  been  published 
with  the  above  decree  annexed  to  it,  and  the 
names  of  many  gentlemen,  physicians,  and  some 
ladies,  to  whom  the  minister  has  granted  gold, 
silver,  and  brass  medals  for  their  zeal  and  exer- 
tions in  propagating  your  immortal  and  beneficent 

When  the  preceding  detail  was  written,  I  did 
not  expect  that  the  subject  of  vaccination  would 
again  come  under  the  cognizance  of  a  parliament- 
ary committee.  The  expediency  of  continuing 
the  vaccine  board  was,  however,  questioned  in  the 
first  session  of  the  reformed  parliament,  and  a 
select  committee  was  appointed  to  collect  evidence. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  133 

and  to  report  their  opinion  thereupon.  The  re- 
port itself,  as  well  as  the  evidence  on  which  it  is 
founded,  has  necessarily  attracted  my  attention, 
and  I  am  thankful  that  I  have  an  opportunity  of 
making  a  few  remarks  on  the  occasion. 

Before  I  proceed  to  execute  this  duty,  I  must 
be  permitted  to  express  my  respect  for  the  honour- 
able members  who  constituted  the  committee. 
The  evidence  which  was  delivered  before  them 
doubtless  afforded  a  sanction  for  the  statements 
contained  in  their  report.  The  friends  of  Dr.  Jen- 
ner,  however,  may  be  permitted  to  regret  that 
their  inquiry,  searching  as  it  was  in  some  respects, 
had  not  embraced  all  the  points  which  especially 
affected  his  reputation,  and  the  character  of  his 

With  all  becoming  deference,  therefore,  I  am 
constrained  to  notice  those  parts  which  either  in- 
sufficiently or  inaccurately  represent  the  occur- 
rences which  took  place.  No  one  can  read  what 
I  have  already  said  respecting  the  formation  of  the 
vaccine  board,  without  perceiving  that  the  original 
object  of  establishing  that  institution,  as  explained 
in  Dr.  Jenner's  memorial,  was  different  from  that 
which  was  ultimately  avowed,  and  which  as  I  have 
already  shown,  was  one  of  the  main  causes  of  his 
secession  from  the  establishment.  The  propaga- 
tion of  vaccination  throughout  the  empire,  under 
the  countenance  and  support  of  government,  was 
the  primary  object  of  the  institution.     The  idea  of 

134  LIFE    OF    UR.    JENNER. 

making  the  board  a  sort  of  court  of  revision,  did 
not  occur  till  some  time  afterwards,  and  the  only- 
effect  of  it  was  to  exclude  Dr.  Jenner  from  his 
proper  situation  at  the  board. 

The  committee  might  not  have  been  aware  of 
the  facts  which  I  have  stated  on  this  point ;  but  I 
hope  I  may  be  permitted  to  observe,  that  the  ques- 
tion, whether  or  not  vaccination  was  an  infallible 
preventive  of  small-pox,  was  not  involved  in 
uncertainty  when  the  vaccine  board  was  estab- 
lished. Tliis,  therefore,  could  not  have  been  a 
reason  for  constituting  that  board.  The  fact  is, 
that  the  question  had  been  nearly  as  completely 
settled  at  that  time  as  at  this  moment. 

Vaccination,  and  the  merits  of  the  discovery, 
had  already  been  twice  before  parliament,  and 
the  second  investigation  had  so  fully  established 
its  value,  that  twenty  thousand  pounds,  in  addi- 
tion to  the  former  grant,  were  voted  to  the 
author.  In  these  discussions  we  hear  nothing 
of  vaccination  as  an  infallible  preventive  of  small- 
pox. I  am  not  sure  that  the  expression  was  ever 
used  by  Dr.  Jenner  himself.  If  he  did  use  it  he 
certainly  very  soon  accompanied  it  with  the  neces- 
sary qualification,  as  the  quotations  already  printed 
in  this  volume  amply  testify.  He  may  perhaps  at 
the  very  outset  have  stated  his  opinion  somewhat 
too  decidedly  ;  but  no  one  qualified  to  judge  of  the 
evidence  which  I  have  already  presented,  can 
doubt  that  he,  from  the  very  beginning,  was  pos- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER,  135 

sessed  of  the  gauge  by  which  to  measure  the  vir- 
tues of  vaccination.  "  Dull/  and  efficiently  per- 
fonned,'''  he  observes,  ''  ic  wilt  protect  the  consti- 
tution from  subsequent  attacks  of  small-pox,  as 
much  as  that  disease  itself  will.  I  never  expected 
that  if  would  do  more,  and  it  will  not,  I  believe, 
do  less.''  Such  being  the  case,  I  am  surprised 
that  the  committee  towards  the  conclusion  of  their 
report  should  have  reiterated  the  statement  that 
Dr.  Jenner,  at  the  time  of  the  formation  of  the 
vaccine  board,  announced  vaccination  as  an  "  in- 
fallible preventive  of  small-pox.'"'  "  The  fate  of 
a  new  practice,"  they  continue,  "  was  thus  made 
to  hang  on  the  occurrence  of  a  single  case  of  small- 
pox after  vaccination.*"  This  I  am  sorry  to  say  is 
a  great  misapprehension  ;  the  opposers  of  vacci- 
nation endeavoured  to  place  the  fate  of  vaccina- 
tion on  such  an  issue  ;  but  if  his  principles  be 
duly  considered,  he  never  at  any  time  sanctioned 
such  an  idea;  and  long  before  the  practice  of 
vaccination  became  general,  he  anticipated  failures, 
and  explained  the  circumstances  under  which  they 
were  most  likely  to  occur.  I  cannot  help  regret- 
ting that  evidence  of  this  kind,  which  had  been 
before  the  public  in  various  shapes  for  many  years, 
w^as  not  brought  under  the  consideration  of  the 
committee ;  if  it  had,  ample  justice  would  doubt- 
less have  been  rendered  to  the  memory  of  Jenner. 

*  See  Report,  p.  11. 

136  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

The  misapprehension  on  this  point  led  to  some 
mistakes  in  other  particulars  ;  it  gave  support  to 
the  notion  that  Dr.  Jenner's  doctrines  were  very 
inaccurate,  and  that  the  whole  subject  required 
further  investigation. 

It  would  be  tedious,  and  it  is  manifestly  un- 
necessary, to  repeat  the  evidence  contained  in 
these  volumes,  which  proves  the  surprising  accu- 
racy of  his  first  investigation,  his  clear  and  un- 
faltering decisions  both  with  regard  to  the  nature 
of  the  complaint  and  the  method  of  conducting 
the  practice.  Every  year's  experience  has  only 
tended  to  strengthen  his  opinions,  and  to  vindicate 
his  character  as  a  medical  philosopher. 

While  some  of  the  preceding  events  were  in 
progress,  my  acquaintance  with  Jenner  com- 
menced. He  was  living  at  Fladong's  Hotel,  Ox- 
ford Street,  in  the  summer  of  1808,  making  ar- 
rangements for  the  national  vaccine  establish- 
ment. I  was  introduced  to  him  at  that  place  by 
Dr.  Maton.  I  cannot  refer  to  this  and  many  other 
favours  conferred  upon  me  by  this  distinguished 
and  most  estimable  physician  without  dwelling  for 
a  moment  on  the  consequences  of  that  introduc- 
tion. To  me  it  proved  one  of  those  leading  and 
influential  events  which  colour  all  the  subsequent 
ways  of  a  man's  life.  I  was  about  to  commence 
practice  :  all  the  world  was  before  me.  In  seeking 
the  acquaintance  of  Jenner  I  was  impelled  mainly 
by  a  desire  to  do  homage  to  a  man  whose  pubHc 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  13/ 

and  i)rivate  character  had  already  secured  my 
warmest  admiration.  I  little  thought  that  it  would 
so  speedily  lead  to  an  intimacy,  and  ultimately  to 
a  friendship  which  terminated  only  at  his  death, 
and  placed  me  in  a  relationship  to  his  memory  that 
no  one  could  have  anticipated.  The  greatness  of 
his  fame,  his  exalted  talents,  and  the  honours 
heaped  upon  him  by  all  the  most  distinguished 
public  bodies  of  the  civilised  world,  while  they 
made  me  desirous  of  offering  my  tribute  of  respect 
to  him,  forbade  the  expectation  of  more  than  such 
an  acknowledgment  as  a  youth,  circumstanced  as 
I  was,  might  have  expected.  I  soon,  however, 
perceived  that  I  had  to  do  with  an  individual  who 
did  not  square  his  manners  by  the  cold  formality 
of  the  world.  He  condescended  as  to  an  equal ; 
the  restraint  and  embarrassment  that  might 
naturally  have  been  felt  in  the  presence  of  one  so 
eminent  vanished  in  an  instant.  The  simple  dig- 
nity of  his  aspect,  the  kind  and  familiar  tone  of  his 
language,  and  the  perfect  sincerity  and  good  faith 
manifested  in  all  he  said  and  did,  could  not  fail  to 
win  the  heart  of  any  one  not  insensible  to  such 
qualities.  Though  more  than  twenty  years  have 
elapsed  since  this  interview  took  place,  I  remember 
it,  and  all  its  accompaniments,  with  the  most  per- 
fect accuracy.  He  was  dressed  in  a  blue  coat, 
white  waistcoat,  nankeen  breeches,  and  white 
stockings.*     All  the  tables  in  his  apartment  were 

*  We  are  grateful  to  him  who  told   us  that  Milton  wore 

138  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

covered  with  letters  and  papers  on  the  subject 
of  vaccination,  and  the  estabhshment  of  the  Na- 
tional Vaccine  Institution.  Having  recently  come 
from  Edinburgh,  he  talked  to  me  of  the  excel- 
lent article  which  had  lately  appeared  in  the 
Edinburgh  Review,  relative  to  the  vaccine  con- 
troversy.^    He   spoke   with  great   good   humour 

large  buckles ;  and  that  Washington  broke  in  his  own 
horses  ;  and  in  some  future  day  the  curious  reader  may  be 
thankful  for  such  particulars  descriptive  of  the  habits  of 

*  The  paper  to  which  he  alluded  on  this  occasion  was 
one  of  the  most  impressive  that  had  been  published  since  the 
promulgation  of  the  vaccine  discovery.  Its  intrinsic  value 
was  great,  and  its  influence  must  have  been  felt  wherever  it 
was  duly  examined.  It  acquired,  however,  an  added  virtue 
from  having  been  printed  in  a  work  which  had  obtained  a 
most  extensive  circulation  and  powerfully  affected  the  public 
mind.  There  were  other  circumstances  favourable  to  the 
cause  which  it  advocated.  It  did  not  appear  in  a  medical 
work  ;  it  was  not  written  by  a  medical  man,  and  it  kept 
aloof  from  every  thing  like  professional  prejudice  or  party 
violence.  It  exhibited  an  eloquent  and  masterly  analysis  of 
the  various  points  at  issue  between  the  different  combat- 
ants; it  clearly  and  forcibly  balanced  their  arguments,  and 
so  convincingly  and  manifestly  shewed  on  which  side  truth 
and  justice  lay,  that  all  reasonable  minds  were  satisfied. 

Several  of  the  first  sentences  are  worthy  of  a  place  in  this 
work.  I  do  not  know  that  on  any  occasion  the  benefits 
arising  from  vaccination  have  been  placed  in  a  more  striking 
and  impressive  aspect.  "  Medical  subjects,"  it  is  observed, 
"  ought  in  general,  we  think,  to  be  left  to  the  medical  journ- 
als ;  but  the  question  as  to  the  efficacy  of  vaccination  is  of 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  139 

also  of  the  conduct  of  the  anti-vaccinists,  and 
gave  me  some  pamphlets  illustrative  of  the  con- 
such  incalculable  importance,  and  of  sucli  universal  interest, 
as  to  excuse  a  little  breach  of  privilege.  We  let  our  lawyers 
manage  actions  of  debt  and  trespass  as  they  think  proper, 
without  our  interference ;  but  when  the  case  touches  life  or 
reputation  we  insist  upon  being  made  parties  to  the  consul- 
tation, and  naturally  endeavour,  at  least,  to  understand  the 
grounds  of  the  discussion.  The  question  now  before  us  is 
nothing  less  than  whether  a  discovery  has  actually  been 
made  by  which  the  lives  of  40,000  persons  may  annually  be 
saved  in  the  British  Islands  alone,  and  double  that  number 
protected  from  lengthened  suffering,  deformity,  mutilation, 
and  incurable  infirmity  !  This  is  not  a  question,  therefore, 
which  is  interesting  only  to  the  physiologist  or  the  medical 
practitioner ;  it  concerns  nearly  every  community  in  the 
universe,  and  conies  home  to  the  condition  of  almost  every 
individual  of  the  human  race  ;  since  it  is  difficult  to  conceive 
that  there  should  be  one  being  who  would  not  be  affected  by 
its  decision  either  in  his  own  person,  or  by  those  of  his 
nearest  connexions.  To  the  bulk  of  mankind  wars  and  re- 
volutions are  things  of  infinitely  less  importance  ;  and  even 
to  those  who  busy  themselves  in  the  tumult  of  public  affairs 
it  may  be  doubted  whether  anything  can  occur  that  will 
command  so  powerful  and  permanent  an  interest,  since  there 
are  few  to  whom  fame  or  freedom  can  be  so  intimately  and 
constantly  precious  as  personal  safety  and  domestic  aff'ec- 

I  have  already  had  occasion  to  allude  to  the  character  of 
the  vaccine  controversy  ;  but  my  delineation  was  feeble  when 
compared  with  tbe  authoritative  declarations  of  a  writer  well 
acquainted  with  literary  and  scientific  warfare.  "  In  the 
whole  course  of  our  censorial  labours  we  have  never  had  oc- 
casion to  contemplate  a  scene  so  disgusting  and  humiliating 
as  is  presented  by  the  greater  part  of  this  controversy ;  nor 

140  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

troversy  then  carrying  on.  The  day  before  I 
saw  him  he  had  had  an  interview  with  the  Prin- 
cess of  Wales^  and  he  shewed  me  a  watch  which 
Her  Royal  Highness  had  presented  to  him  on  that 
occasion.  I  did  not  see  him  again  till  the  follow- 
ing year,  after  I  had  fixed  myself  at  Gloucester. 
Our  second  interview  took  place  in  his  own  house 
at  Berkeley.  His  eldest  son  Edward  was  then 
lying  in  the  last  stage  of  pulmonary  consumption. 
He  had  repeated  haemorrhages  from  the  lungs, 
and  was  then  evidently  approaching  his  end.  Dr. 
Parry  of  Bath  was  in  the  house.  I  was  introduced 
into  the  sick-room,  and  there  for  the  first  time  saw 
Mrs.  Jenner,  the  anxious  and  constant  attendant 
on  her  dying  child.  Jenner  was  particularly  at- 
tached to  this  young  man,  and  apparently  for 
qualities  which,  in  less  generous  natures,  would 
have  produced  a  different  effect.     He  had  been 

do  we  believe  that  the  virulence  of  political  animosity,  or 
personal  rivalry,  or  revenge,  ever  gave  rise  among  the  lowest 
and  most  prostituted  scribblers  to  so  much  coarseness,  illi- 
berality,  violence,  and  absurdity  as  is  here  exhibited,  by 
gentlemen  of  sense  and  education,  discussing  a  point  of  pro- 
fessional science  with  a  view  to  the  good  of  mankind."  The 
writer,  notwithstanding  this  discouragement,  proceeds  with 
his  task  ;  and  in  a  most  able  and  luminous  manner  seizes  upon 
all  the  strong  points  of  the  argument,  and,  after  weighing  the 
evidence  in  a  most  impartial  manner,  comes  to  the  conclusion 
that  vaccination,  if  it  do  not  absolutely  and  certainly  secure 
the  patient  from  the  contagion  of  small-pox,  gives  him  a  se- 
curity at  least  as  effectual  as  could  be  given  by  the  old  prac- 
tice of  inoculation. — See  Edinburgh  Review,  vol.  ix.  page  63. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  141 

always  delicate  in  health,  and  had,  moreover,  in 
some  respects,  rather  a  defective  understanding. 
His  father  felt  these  deficiencies,  and  considered 
them  but  as  stronger  claims  to  his  attachment  and 
his  regard.  Some  years  after,  he  wept  when  he 
talked  to  me  of  this  son,  and  many  times  referred 
to  the  singular  character  of  his  mind  with  the 
most  touching  and  affectionate  recollections. 

Poor  Edward  lingered  to  the  beginning  of  the 
year  1810.  A  letter  written  by  Jenner  to  his 
friend  Mr.  Hicks  contains  strong  proof  of  the  in- 
tensity of  his  feelings  and  the  depth  of  his  suffer- 
ings. "  I  feel,"  said  he,  "  greatly  obliged  to  every 
one  who  attempts  to  console  me  in  my  present 
affliction ;  but  you,  who  know  so  much  of  the 
human  mind,  are  convinced  how  vain  are  these 
friendly  efforts.  I  had  no  conception  till  it  hap- 
pened that  the  gash  would  have  been  so  deep  ; 
but  God's  will  be  done !  In  the  midst  of  my 
wretchedness  a  ray  of  comfort  sometimes  breaks 
in  upon  me  and  tells  me  my  sorrowing  will  be  pro- 
fitable to  me.  How  mysterious  and  unsearchable 
are  the  ways  of  Providence  !     God  bless  you. 

Your  affectionate 

E.  Jenner." 

Bevheley,  Feb.  lOth,  1810. 

"  One  would  suppose,"  he  observes,  writing  to 
another  friend  [John  Ring],  "that  the  mind  would 
become  in  some  measure  reconciled  to  an  event. 

142  LTFE    OF    DR.    .TENNER. 

however  melancholy  in  its  nature,  that  one  knows 
to  be  ine\'itable,  when  it  has  made  such  gradual 
approaches  ;  but  I  know,  from  sad  experience,  that 
the  edge  of  sensibility  is  not  thus  to  be  blunted." 
But  his  domestic  sorrows  did  not  materially  im- 


pede  his  efforts  in  the  cause  of  vaccination.  They 
were  less  interrupted,  however,  by  the  attacks  of 
his  opponents.  After  using  the  expressions  just 
quoted,  he  observes,  "^  Whether  it  be  from  age, 
long  retirement,  or  what  I  cannot  tell,  but  some 
how  or  other,  I  feel  myself  less  and  less  disposed 
to  notice  the  malevolence  of  my  enemies  ;  and  as  I 
wish  you  quite  as  well  as  I  do  myself,  I  should  be 
happy  to  see  you  follow  my  example,  entirely  on 
the  principle  of  your  enjoying  more  repose.  The 
world  is  ungrateful,  and  will  never  requite  you  for 
your  toils.  Your  satires  against  the  anti-vaccinists 
are  keen  ;  but  the  keenest  of  all  are  those  which 
you  engrave  with  the  point  of  your  lancet.  Where 
is  the  man  in  a  private  station  in  the  metropolis 
who  has  rescued  so  many  from  an  untimely  grave 
as  yourself?  This  is  a  satire  which  must  deeply 
wound  the  hearts  of  our  opponents  if  they  are  not 
too  callous  to  be  penetrated.  The  paper  inclosed 
is  another  satire  on  their  absurdities.  Would  not 
some  of  the  editors  of  the  newspapers  be  glad  to 
insert  it  ?  The  Duke  of  Sussex  was  some  time 
since  taken  very  ill  at  Gloucester.  I  attended  His 
Royal  Highness  there  ;  and  afterwards,  for  near  a 
fortnight,  at  Berkeley.  This  gave  me  an  opportunity 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  143 

of  bringing  up  Corneiro,  and  of  going  fully  into 
the  subject  of  his  abominable  pamphlet.  The 
Duke  understood  the  matter  so  well  that  he  could 
refute  every  charge  which  related  to  Portugal,  and 
explained  many  things  very  minutely,  particularly 
that  respecting  the  royal  infant,  who  he  assured 
me  was  vaccinated  (I  think  he  said  by  Domeyer) 
in  spite  of  all  remonstrances."  A  short  time  after 
this  event  His  Royal  Highness,  in  testimony  of  his 
respect  for  Jenner,  sent  him  by  the  Countess  of 
Berkeley  a  very  handsome  hookah.  In  returning 
thanks  for  this  very  elegant  present,  Jenner  ob- 
served, "  Your  Royal  Highness's  kindness  in  mak- 
ing this  addition  to  the  scanty  number  of  gratifi- 
cations afforded  me  in  this  sequestered  spot,  will 
never  be  forgotten ;  and  smoking,  I  am  sure,  is  a 
harmless  one  if  used  in  moderation.  A  man  who 
has  a  pipe  at  his  command,  independently  of  its 
salutary  influence  in  some  instances,  has  always  a 
soothing  companion. 

"  It  was  with  great  pleasure  I  heard  that  your 
Royal  Highness  was  enjoying  so  good  a  state  of 
health.  Guard  well,  Sir,  your  stomach  and  your 
skin,  and  I  am  persuaded  you  will  live  in  safety 
from  the  future  attacks  of  the  malady  that  so  often 
annoys  you.  Happy  shall  I  be,  if  at  any  time  I 
can  do  any  thing  to  convince  you  how  much  I  am 
your  Royal  Highness's 
obliged  and  devoted 

humble  servant, 

Edward  Jenner." 

144  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

The  shock  produced  by  the  death  of  his  son, 
and  his  incessant  labours,  materially  affected  his 
health.  Writing  on  the  1st  of  April  to  Sir  Thomas 
Bernard,  he  says,  "  Your  letters  are  always  pleasant 
to  me.  I  was  in  your  debt  when  you  were  good 
enough  to  send  the  last,  and  should  have  answered 
it  long  ago,  but  for  a  most  afflictive  event  which  has 
happened  in  my  family — the  death  of  my  eldest 
son,  an  amiable  youth,  who  had  just  reached  his 
twenty-first  year.  This  melancholy  occurrence 
threw  me  into  that  state  of  dejection  which  renders 
me  unfit  to  perform  my  ordinary  duties,  and  I  still 
feel  enveloped  as  it  were  in  clouds,  so  that  all  ob- 
jects wear  a  new  and  gloomy  aspect.  You  wish 
me  to  come  to  town ;  you  will  find  me  too  torpid 
to  perform  any  useful  offices ;  and  I  feel  confident 
that  even  the  cheerful  company  of  yourself  and 
those  friends  into  whose  society  you  have  so  often 
introduced  me,  would  at  present  do  me  no  ser- 
vice. I  bend  to  the  will  of  Providence,  trusting  in 
due  time  that  I  shall  from  this  source  derive  that 
consolation  which  no  other  can  afl^ord."" 

His  symptoms  became  so  distressing,  that  active 
means  were  deemed  necessary  to  obviate  them. 
In  pursuance  of  this  object  he  went  to  Bath.  I 
was  to  have  accompanied  him,  but  was  disap- 
pointed in  my  wishes.  The  following  letter,  which 
he  wrote  me  on  his  return  to  Berkeley,  is  at  once 
illustrative  of  his  bodily  and  mental  state. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  145 

Berkeley,  June  15  th,  1810. 
My  dear  Doctor, 

The  Bath  scheme  would  have  turned  out  well  if  it  had 
not  been  for  an  unexpected  chasm  which  occasioned  a 
general  disappointment ;  but  to  none  of  the  party  so  par- 
ticularly as  myself,  as  I  thought  to  have  benefited  by  the 
union  of  your  medical  ideas  with  my  friend  Parry's,  on 
my  case.  I  have  been  cupped,  calomeled,  salted,  &c.  &c. 
and  think  the  cascades  do  not  roar  so  loud  in  my  ears  as 
they  did,  nor  my  head  feel  so  heavy  ;  but  still  all  is  far 
from  right.  The  constant  disposition  to  drowsiness  is  a 
lamentable  tax  upon  me.  I  should  not  say  constant,  but 
frequent,  for  I  feel  lively  from  breakfast  time  till  about 
one  o'clock,  when  the  signal  of  acidity  in  my  stomach 
is  the  signal  also  for  nodding.  For  six  days  my  only 
drink  was  water ;  but  finding  my  pulse  sink  from  its  old 
standard,  48  to  40,  I  venture  again  on  two  glasses  of  wine 
after  dinner.  I  am  ordered  to  migrate,  and  not  to  think. 
The  first  injunction  I  shall  comply  with,  and  go  to  town 
on  Monday  for  a  few  days.  On  my  return  it  is  my  inten- 
tion to  throw  myself  upon  Cheltenham  in  a  probationary 
way.  Should  this  be  too  much  for  me,  my  retreat  is  not 
far  distant. 

You  see  I  have  enlisted  Creaser  in  our  cause,  and  you 
will  find  that  he  will  not  discredit  it.  The  inclosed  is 
from  Filkin,  surgeon  of  the  Gloucester  regiment  of  Mi- 
litia. We  must  not  repine  at  the  ill  success  he  has  met 
with.  He  is  on  that  barren  kind  of  land  where  science 
has  not  yet  begun  to  vegetate.  Poor  Chatterton,  by 
accident,  sprang  up  on  this  soil ;  but  he  was  soon  rooted 
up  and  flung  away  like  a  weed. 

VOL.    II.  L 

146  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

Our  friend  Hicks  goes  with  me  to  town ;   I  wish  you 
were  of  the  party. 

Adieu ! 

Most  truly  yours, 

Edward  Jenner. 

I  find  no  proof  of  the  torpor  of  which  he  com- 
plains above  in  his  correspondence  at  this  season. 
On  the  contrary,  many  of  his  letters,  though 
tinged  by  the  pensive  hues  of  his  affliction,  are 
full  of  energy  and  vigour  when  the  subject  re- 
quired him  to  put  forth  his  strength. 

Immediately  on  his  return  to  Berkeley  he  had  ano- 
ther painful  duty  to  perform  in  watching  the  pro- 
gress of  the  fatal  disease  which  put  aperiod  to  the  life 
of  the  late  Earl  Berkeley.  During  this  attendance 
he  had  occasionally  the  aid  of  his  friend,  Dr.  Parry 
of  Bath.  This  intercourse  led  to  a  renewal  of 
many  of  their  ancient  recollections.  Some  of  Dr. 
Jenner's  pathological  -vdews  necessarily  became 
subjects  of  discussion,  and  I  am  very  glad  to  find 
that  so  excellent  and  accomplished  a  judge  as 
Dr.  Parry  did  justice  to  his  acquirements  in  this 
branch  of  knowledge.  In  a  letter  which  is  now 
before  me,  Dr.  P.  observes,  "  It  will  give  me  great 
pleasure  to  hear  your  pathological  theories,  be- 
cause, without  flattery,  I  highly  respect  them  all, 
and  have  no  hesitation  in  saying,  that  it  is  your 
own  fault  if  you  are  not  still  the  first  pathologist 
existing."     He  then  goes  on  to  remark  in  refer- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  147 

ence  to  the  anti-vaccinists  : — "  For  heaven's  sake, 
thmk  no  more  of  these  wasps,  who  hum  and  buz 
about  you,  and  whom  your  hidifFerence  and  silence 
will  freeze  into  utter  oblivion.  Let  me  again 
entreat  you  not  to  give  them  one  moment's  con- 
sideration, o^ms  exegisti  cere  perennius.  The  great 
business  is  accomplished,  and  the  blessing  is  ready 
for  those  who  choose  to  avail  themselves  of  it ; 
and  with  regard  to  those  who  reject  it,  the  evil 
will  be  on  their  own  heads."  (December  8tli 

Dr.  Jenner  was  released  from  his  attendance  at 
Berkeley  Castle,  by  the  death  of  the  Earl,  in  the 
beginning  of  August.  This  distressing  event  was 
felt  by  him  with  great  poignancy,  and  it  materially 
deepened  his  other  sources  of  suffering.  Towards 
the  end  of  September  he  changed  his  residence 
with  his  family  to  Cheltenham,  and  he  had  been 
but  a  short  time  there  when  he  was  stricken  by 
another  calamity  in  the  death  of  his  sister,  Mrs. 
Black.  This  lady,  and  his  elder  brother,  stood  to 
him  almost  in  the  relation  of  parents,  and  he 
mourned  her  loss  with  the  greatest  sincerity. 

I  was  in  frequent  intercourse  with  him  at  this 
time,  and  had  many  opportunities  of  witnessing 
the  distress  and  embarrassment  occasioned  by 
these  domestic  trials,  and  by  the  pressure  arising 
from  the  great  responsibility  which  he  never 
ceased  to  feel  respecting  vaccination.  Though, 
as  far  as  silence  was  concerned,  he  xjould  follow 

L  2 

148  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

Dr.  Parry's  advice,  yet  he  could  not  altogether 
escape  from  the  annoyance  occasioned  by  the 
blindness  and  wickedness  of  his  traducers.  The 
combined  influence  of  all  these  causes  sometimes 
rendered  duties  which  he  had  formerly  executed 
^vith  ease,  burdensome  to  him,  and  in  this  state  it 
may  readily  be  conceived  that  he  would  be  willing 
to  shrink  from  all  labours  that  were  not  of  a  very 
pressing  nature.  He  was  of  course  disposed  to 
avail  himself  of  the  help  of  his  friends  to  relieve 
him  from  the  burden,  and  he  more  than  once 
honoured  me  by  accepting  my  services  in  this 

Dr.  Jenner  was  an  original  member  of  the  Me- 
dico-Chirurgical  Society.  The  first  volume  of 
their  Transactions  contains  two  papers  which  he 
contributed.  One  on  the  distemper  in  dogs  was 
read  on  the  21st  of  March,  1809.  This  curious 
affection,  according  to  his  observations,  had  not 
been  known  in  this  country  much  above  fifty  years. 
The  paper  is  short,  but  contains  a  very  faithful 
description  of  the  disease.  It  does  not,  however, 
as  might  have  been  expected,  record  any  of  his 
experiments  instituted  with  a  view  to  ascertain  the 
effects  of  vaccination  in  preventing  the  distemper. 
There  is  great  reason  to  believe  that  this  influence 
is  considerable.  A  friend  of  Dr.  Jenner's,  Mr. 
Skelton,  a  sporting  gentleman  in  Yorkshire,  sub- 
sequently made  some  very  decisive  trials.  "  Hav- 
ing  selected,"    he    observes,    "  three    couples   of 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  149 

healthy  pups  of  six  weeks  old,  I  inoculated  three 
of  them  with  the  cow-pox  under  the  left  arm,  a 
little  above  the  elbow,  which  regularly  matured. 
The  other  three  with  those  inoculated  were  sent 
out  to  quarters.  At  a  proper  age  they  were  all 
brought  to  the  kennel.  The  former  with  other 
hounds  were  soon  attacked  with  and  died  of  the 
distemper,  whilst  the  latter  remained  perfectly 
healthy,  though  surrounded  by  their  infected 
companions,  becoming  the  strongest  hounds  in 
the  pack,  and  ha\'ing-  certainly  the  best  noses." 

The  other  paper  published  by  Dr.  Jenner  re- 
lated chiefly  to  secondary  small-pox.  The  facts 
which  he  had  observed  led  him  to  infer  that  the 
susceptibility  to  receive  variolous  contagion  re- 
mains through  life,  but  under  various  modifica- 
tions or  gradations.  His  principal  design  in 
publishing  these  observations  was  to  guard  those 
who  may  think  fit  to  inoculate  with  variolous 
matter  after  vaccination,  from  unnecessary  alarms  ; 
a  pustule  may  sometimes  be  thus  excited  on  those 
who  had  pre\dously  gone  through  the  small-pox, 
febrile  action  of  the  constitution  may  follow,  and, 
as  has  been  often  exemplified,  a  slight  eruption.  At 
the  commencement  of  vaccination  he  deemed  this 
test  of  security  necessary  ;  but  he  felt  confident 
that  we  have  one  of  equal  efficacy,  and  infinitely 
less  hazardous,  in  the  re-insertion  of  the  vaccine 

Notwithstanding  all  the  evidence  that  had  been 

150  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

collectedj  a  great  deal  of  wilful  ignorance  still 
remained  regarding  the  character  of  vaccination. 
Rumours  and  assertions  of  the  most  unfriendly 
nature  were  eagerly  circulated,  and  much  more 
industry  was  exerted  in  the  propagation  of  small- 
pox than  could  have  been  believed.  There  can 
be  no  doubt  that  the  hesitation  and  indecision  of 
medical  men  contributed  essentially  to  this  evil ; 
and  it  was  imagined  that  a  great  moral  duty,  as 
well  as  a  strong  professional  obligation,  required 
that  all  well-informed  and  respectable  medical 
men  should  take  a  decided  line  of  conduct  touch- 
ing the  question  which  then  so  divided  the  public 
mind.  Under  this  conviction  an  association  of  the 
faculty  was  formed  in  the  county  of  Gloucester, 
the  great  object  of  which  was  to  promote  the 
vaccine,  and  to  discourage  the  small-pox  inocula- 
tion. The  members  proved  their  sincerity  by 
voluntarily  and  publicly  renouncing  the  latter,  and 
that  solely  and  entirely  from  a  thorough  conviction 
of  the  efficacy  of  the  former.  A  short  address,  em- 
bodying the  argument  for  adopting  this  principle, 
was  circulated  through  the  district,  and  very  cor- 
dially and  generally  received.  It  fell  to  my  lot  to 
take  an  active  part  in  this  transaction.  The  utter 
renunciation  of  small-pox  was,  even  at  that  time, 
considered  a  bold  measure,  and  some  could  not 
readily  perceive  that  it  was  the  immediate  and 
necessary  consequence  of  the  approval  of  vaccina- 
tion.    They  could  not  discover  that  to  disseminate 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  151 

the  small-pox  with  a  full  knowledge  that  they  had  it 
in  their  power  to  avert  this  scourge,  was  an  act  nei- 
ther quite  consistent  with  high  professional  feeling, 
nor  with  their  duty  to  their  fellow-creatures.  These 
principles  found  a  most  zealous  and  firm  sup- 
porter in  my  late  colleague,  Charles  Brandon 
Trye,*  Esq.  F.R.S.  Senior  Surgeon  to  the  Glouces- 

*  When  co-operating  with  him  for  that  purpose,  I  little 
thought  that  I  should  have  so  soon  to  deplore  the  termina- 
tion of  his  valuable  life.  I  allude  to  this  occurrence  here, 
because  it  brought  me  for  some  days  into  close  and  constant 
professional  attendance  with  Dr.  Jenner.  He  had  been  sent 
for  from  Cheltenham,  on  the  first  approach  of  Mr.  Trye's 
illness.  Unhappily  it  wore  from  the  very  beginning  a  most 
unfavourable  aspect ;  it  began  on  the  3rd  of  October,  and 
terminated  early  on  Monday  the  7th  (1811).  During  nearly 
the  whole  of  that  time,  Jenner's  services  were  unre- 

Trye  was  a  man  who  had  acquired  a  very  high  reputation 
in  his  profession  ;  he  had  a  heartfelt  respect  for  Jenner,  and 
the  feeling  was  mutual.  He  was  descended  from  a  very 
ancient  family.  He  is  well  known  to  the  profession  by 
several  works,  and  he  acquired  great  celebrity  for  his  skill 
and  success  in  performing  some  of  the  most  difficult  opera- 
tions in  surgery.  But  I  am  not  so  desirous  of  pointing  the 
reader's  attention  to  such  things,  as  to  some  other  parts  of 
his  character  which  are  less  common.  He  was  remarkably 
devoid  of  ostentation,  and  was  deeply  imbued  with  a  profound 
and  fervent  spirit  of  devotion. 

He  never,  I  believe,  performed  an  operation  without  re- 
tiring to  meditate  and  pray,  and  to  seek  for  guidance  and 
assistance.  He  had  committed  many  of  his  prayers  to  writ- 
ing, and  so  discreet  and  secret  was  he  in  this  matter,  that  it 

152  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

ter  General  Infirmary.  This  was  not  the  only 
occasion  in  which  he  rendered  efficient  service  to 
the  cause  of  vaccination.  His  decided  and  manly 
character  gave  a  powerful  impulse  to  every  cause 
that  he  espoused,  while  his  extensive  professional 
acquirements,  and  his  eminent  skill  and  dexte- 
rity as  an  operator,  made  his  authority  respected 
throughout  the  district  in  which  he  lived.  Were 
this  a  fit  occasion  I  would  insert  in  this  place  his 
first  published  letter  on  the  subject  of  vaccination. 
It  conveyed  all  the  caution  of  the  philosopher  with 
the  warm,  immixed  approbation  of  a  discovery  as 
remarkable  in  its  origin  as  it  was  important  in  its 
results.  He  sincerely  respected  Jenner ;  but  nei- 
ther private  friendship  nor  any  other  motive  could 
ever  touch  his  mind,  so  as  to  bias  his  judgment  on 
an  important  professional  topic.  He  was  the 
plainest  and  most  straightforward  man  I  ever  met 
with.  This  occasioned  an  apparent  abruptness  of 
manner :  but  there  was  truth  in  all  he  said  and 
in  all  he  did. 

Jenner  was  particularly  pleased  with  our  asso- 
ciation :  it  afforded  at  once  a  test  of  the  sincerity 
of  those  who  professed  themselves  friendly  to  vac- 
cination ;  it  offered  the  best  arguments  against  the 
practice  of  small-pox  inoculation ;  and  promised, 
if    conscientiously    followed    up,     to    extinguish 

was   not  known   he  had   been  tlius  employed    till  his  paper? 
were  examined  after  his  death. 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENXER.  153 

that  pest  altogether.  We  fondly  hoped  that  the 
maxims  and  motives  that  governed  us  would  ex- 
tend themselves,  and  that  the  whole  moral  and 
medical  influence  of  the  profession  might  be 
brought  to  bear  in  such  a  way  on  the  prejudices 
of  the  public  as  ultimately  to  overthrow  them.  It 
had  been  well  for  the  health  of  the  community 
had  our  design  prospered ;  for  it  is  unquestion- 
able, that  one  of  the  main  causes  of  the  con- 
tinuance of  small-pox  among  us  arose  from  the 
ambiguous  conduct  of  those  medical  men  who 
thought  it  no  sin  to  employ  either  small-pox  or 
cow-pox,  as  it  might  suit  the  caprice  of  their 

About  this  period.  Dr.  Jenner  was  somewhat 
astonished  by  hearing  of  a  notice  of  a  motion  in  the 
House  of  Commons  for  a  Bill  to  prevent  the  spread- 
ing of  the  small-pox.  This  bill  was  introduced  by 
the  late  Mr.  Fuller.  It  was  prepared  mthout  any 
communication  with  Dr.  Jenner.  Suspecting  that 
the  provisions  might  not  have  been  very  well  con- 
sidered, he  posted  to  town  to  inquire  into  the 
matter.  Mr.  Fuller  very  kindty  put  the  Bill  into 
his  hands  for  amendment.  It  was  returned  with 
the  objectionable  parts  removed ;  but  to  the  great 
astonishment  of  Jenner,  it  was  introduced  to 
the  House  in  its  original  form,  and  received,  as 
he  predicted,  with  aversion,  and  completely  failed 
in  its  object. 

At  the  time  that  Mr.  Fuller  was  endeavouring 

154  LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER. 

by  legislative  enactments  to  restrain  the  spreading 
of  small-pox,  several  private  individuals  were 
attempting  to  accomplish  the  same  object.  Mr. 
Bryce,  of  Edinburgh,  put  forth  a  plan  of  this  kind. 
It  was  much  approved  of  by  Dr.  Jenner,  but  like  all 
others  with  a  similar  view,  was  rendered  difficult 
of  execution  by  the  liberty  claimed  by  the  people 
of  this  country,  of  following  the  bent  of  their  own 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  155 



Dr.  Jenner  had  himself  a  considerable  illness 
in  the  spring  of  1811,  and  he  moreover  had  the  sor- 
row of  witnessing  the  advances  of  a  painful  and  pro- 
tracted disease  in  the  person  of  his  late  brother-in- 
law,  Thomas  Kingscote,  esquire.  He  had  occasion 
to  be  in  town  early  in  March ;  but,  I  believe,  it 
was  only  for  a  very  few  days.  Affairs  of  a  more 
urgent  nature  required  his  presence  again  in  the 
capital,  and  he  went  there  in  the  first  week  of  June, 
1811.  On  his  arrival  he  encountered  one  of  the  most 
unpleasant  events  that  had  befallen  him  in  his 
vaccine  practice.  Alleged  cases  of  small -pox  after 
vaccination,  had  been  reported  before.  Some  of 
them,  doubtless,  were  real ;  but  the  majority  un- 
questionably were  distorted  exaggerations.  It  was 
then,  as  it  is  now,  that  careful  and  skilful  conductors 
of  the  vaccine  practice  met  with  few  disappointments, 

156  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

while  in  the  hands  of  others  they  were  frequent. 
Dr.  Jenner  had  for  thirteen  years  been  carrying 
on  vaccine  inoculation  on  a  very  extended  scale. 
Of  the  many  thousands  who  had  been  subsequently 
exposed  to  the  influence  of  small-pox,  not  one  was 
known  to  have  been  affected  by  that  disease.  I 
have  already  shown  in  the  former  volume  that  the 
statements  touching  the  absolute  protection  afforded 
by  vaccination  were  too  unconditional ;  but,  certainly. 
Dr.  Jenner's  own  experience,  up  to  the  time  we  are 
now  speaking  of,  did  afford  countenance  to  these 

On  the  26th  of  May,  1811,  the  Honourable  Ro- 
bert Grosvenor  was  seized  with  symptoms  which 
denote  the  approach  of  a  very  violent  disease.  In 
four  days  he  became  delirious,  and  an  eruption 
appeared  on  the  face.  At  this  time  the  existence 
of  small-pox  was  not  suspected,  because  he  had  been 
vaccinated  by  Dr.  Jenner  about  ten  years  before. 
In  the  course  of  the  following  day,  however,  the 
eruption  increased  prodigiously,  and  some  of  the 
worst  symptoms  of  a  malignant  and  confluent  small- 
pox showed  themselves. 

Master  Grosvenor  was  attended  by  Sir  Henry  Hal- 
ford  and  Sir  Walter  Farquhar.  These  gentlemen, 
in  making  their  report  of  this  case,  observed  that 
they  entertained  a  most  unfavourable  opinion  of  the 
issue  of  the  malady,  having  never  seen  an  instance 
of  recovery  under  so  heavy  an  eruption.  It  seemed, 
however,  to  use  their  own  words,  "  that  the  latter 
stages  of  the  disease  were  passed  through  more 
vapidly  in  this   case  than  usual ;  and  it  may  be  a 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  157 

question  whether  this  extraordinary   circumstance 
as  well  as  the  ultimate  recovery  of  Master  Grosvenor, 
were  not  influenced  hy  previous  vaccination," 

Dr.  Jenner  happened  to  be  in  London  when  this 
distressing  disease  w^as  in  progress,  and  he  visited 
the  patient,  in  company  with  Sir  Walter  Farquhar, 
on  the  8th  of  June.  By  that  time  the  disease  was 
on  the  decline,  and  the  symptoms,  which  but  a  few 
days  before  threatened  a  fatal  termination,  had  be- 
gun to  disappear.  The  other  children  of  the  earl, 
who  had  been  vaccinated  in  1801,  were  exposed  to 
the  contagion  of  the  small-pox,  under  which  their 
brother  was  suffering,  and  were  also  subjected  to 
small-pox  inoculation,  without  effect. 

This  disastrous  occurrence  in  the  family  of  Lord 
Grosvenor,  and  several  others  of  the  same  descrip- 
tion, which  took  place  about  this  time,  induced  the 
board  of  the  National  Vaccine  Establishment  to  pub- 
lish a  special  report.  This  measure,  prudent  and 
judicious  in  itself,  was  rendered  necessary  in  conse- 
quence of  the  great  interest  attached  to  the  subject. 
The  reader  who  has  attended  to  the  previous  dis- 
cussions in  this  work,  will  find  no  difficulty  in  ex- 
plaining events  of  this  kind.  The  possibility  of 
small-pox  succeeding  small-pox  ha\ing  been  ascer- 
tained, no  one  need  have  been  surprised  that  the 
same  disease  might  occasionally  succeed  cow-pox. 
Dr.  Jenner  at  once  admitted  the  failure,  and  gave 
the  true  explanation  of  the  occurrence.*     The  se- 

*  It  will  be  seen  in  another  page  that  Dr.  Jenner  had  not 
been  perfectly  satisfied  with  the  progress  of  vaccination  in  this 

ir>8  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

verity  of  the  disease  in  this  ease  afforded  an  excep- 
tion to  what  generally  happens,  the  symptoms  being 
usually  exceedingly  mild.  The  power  of  vaccination 
was  not  the  less  remarkable  :  for  at  the  very  time 
that  the  greatest  danger  is  observable,  and  when 
death  is  most  likely  to  ensue,  the  disease  rapidly 
abated.  The  complete  resistance  also  of  all  the 
other  children  to  the  small-pox  contagion,  demon- 
strated that  the  failure  was  to  be  ascribed  to  that 
peculiarity  of  constitution  which  probably  would  have 
left  the  patient  exposed  to  a  second  attack  of  small- 
pox, had  he  previously  had  the  disease. 

It  was  some  time,  of  course,  before  these  truths 
were  duly  appreciated.  The  immediate  tendency  of 
the  event  in  Lord  Grosvenor's  family  was  to  occasion 
no  small  alarm  and  consternation  in  the  minds  of 
those  whose  children  had  been  vaccinated.  Dr. 
Jenner  was  obliged  to  attend  and  render  explanations 
to  many  persons  in  this  state  of  doubt.  He  had 
many  letters  to  answer  on  the  same  subject ;  some 
of  them  written  with  great  earnestness  and  appre- 
hension. Many  persons  immediately  put  the  powers 
of  vaccination  to  a  test  by  ha\^ng  their  children  ino- 
culated with  small-pox.  I  cannot  better  explain  this 
whole  matter  than  by  inserting  some  of  Dr.  Jenner's 
own  sentiments  written  at  the  time  of  the  event. 

To  Miss  Calcraft. 

Take  a  comprehensive  view  of  vaccination,  and  then  ask 
yourself  what  is  this  case  ?  You  will  find  it  a  speck,  a  mere 
microscopic  speck  on  the  page  which  contains  the  history  of 
the  vaccine  discovery.     In  the  very  first  thing  I  wrote  upon 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  159 

the  subject,  and  many  times  since,  I  have  said  the  occur- 
rence of  such  an  event  should  excite  no  surprise ;  because 
the  cow-pox  must  possess  preternatural  powers,  if  it  would 
give  uniform  security  to  the  constitution,  when  it  is  well 
known  the  small-pox  cannot ;  for  we  have  more  than  one 
thousand  cases  to  prove  the  contrary,  and  fortunately  seven- 
teen of  them  in  the  families  of  the  nobility.  We  cannot 
alter  the  laws  of  nature ;  they  are  immutable.  But,  indeed, 
I  have  often  said  it  was  wonderful  that  I  should  have  gone 
on  for  such  a  series  of  years  vaccinating  so  many  thousands, 
many  under  very  unfavourable  circumstances,  without  meet- 
ing with  any  interruption  to  my  success  before.  And  now 
this  single  solitary  instance  has  occurred,  all  my  past  labours 
are  forgotten,  and  I  am  held  up  by  many,  perhaps  the  ma- 
jority of  the  higher  classes,  as  an  object  of  derision  and  con- 
tempt. There  is  that  short-sightedness  among  them  (I 
will  not  use  a  harsher  term)  which  makes  them  identify  a 
single  failure  with  the  general  failure  of  the  vaccine  system. 
Before  their  dim  eyes  stand  two  cases  in  the  family  of  Lord 
Grosvenor,  which  they  cannot  see,  or  will  not.  There  are  two 
children  vaccinated  ten  years  ago,  who  have  been  constantly 
exposed  to  the  infection  of  the  other  child,  and  inoculated 
for  the  small-pox  also  ;  but  all  without  effect.  The  infected 
child  would  have  died, — that  is  universally  allowed, — but 
for  the  previous  vaccination.  There  was  but  little  secondary 
fever ;  the  pustules  were  much  sooner  in  going  off  than  in 
ordinary  cases ;  and,  indeed,  the  whole  progress  of  the  dis- 
ease was  different.  It  was  modified  and  mitigated,  and  the 
boy  was  saved.  What  if  ten,  fifty,  or  a  hundred  such  events 
should  occur  ?  they  will  be  balanced  an  hundred  times  over 
by  those  of  a  similar  kind  after  small-pox.  This  is  what  I 
want  to  impress  on  the  public  mind ;  but  there  will  be  great 
difficulty  in  bringing  this  about  because  the  multitude  decide 
without  thinking.  No  less  than  three  cases  of  this  descrip- 
tion have  happened  in  the  family  of  one  nobleman  (Lord 
Rous).     But  I  must  check  myself,  lest  I  should  tire  you  by 

160  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

going  too  far  into  the  subject.  I  should  not  have  said  so 
much,  had  it  not  appeared  to  me  that  even  your  judgment 
was  carried  down  the  tide  of  popular  clamour.  I  beg  my 
compliments  to  Mrs.  St.  Quintin.  I  dare  say  her  children 
are  very  secure ;  but,  if  she  has  the  weight  of  a  feather  on 
her  mind,  the  safest  and  best  test  is  vaccination  with  matter 
taken  in  its  limpid  state.  I  have  stated  my  reasons  for  this 
over  and  over,  in  print  and  out  of  print. 
June  Wth. 

In  conjunction  with  the  preceding  extract,  I 
subjoin  one  more  from  a  letter  addressed  to  Mr. 
Pruen,  which  has  a  direct  bearing  on  the  subject. 
It  is  valuable  also,  as  affording  another  explicit 
testimony  respecting  the  accuracy  of  the  opinions 
delivered  in  the  former  volume.  "  In  the  eye  of 
philosophy,  or  indeed  of  common  sense,  the  failures 
that  have  happened  in  so  great  a  mass  of  vaccina- 
tions are  totally  unworthy  of  serious  attention. 
They  should  call  forth  the  inquiry  of  the  faculty 
to  discover  the  cause  if  possible,  but  not  their 
clamour ;  and  as  for  the  public,  I  think  your  deci- 
sion in  supposing  them  fit  arbitrators  in  such  a  case 
as  that  which  has  appeared,  is  erroneous.  They 
know  no  more  of  the  laws  of  the  animal  economy 
than  those  of  Lycurgus.  I  have  ever  considered  the 
variolous  and  the  vaccine  radically  and  essentially 
the  same.  As  the  inoculation  of  the  former  has 
been  known  to  fail  in  instances  so  numerous,  it 
would  be  very  extraordinary  if  the  latter  should 
always  be  exempt  from  failure.  It  would  tend  to  in- 
validate my  early  doctrine  on  this  point." 

Another  letter  written  to  myself  on  this  subject 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER.  161 

puts  the  question  in  a  different  light,  and  is  there- 
fore worthy  of  notice. 

Co ckspur -street.  Charing  Cross, 
June  llth,  1811. 
My  dear  Friend, 
I  should  be  obliged  to  you  to  send  me,  by  the  first  coach, 
some  of  the  Reports  of  our  association.  It  will  probably  be 
my  unhappy  lot  to  be  detained  in  this  horrible  place  some 
days  longer.  It  has  unfortunately  happened,  that  a  failure 
in  vaccination  has  appeared  in  the  family  of  a  nobleman 
here ;  and,  more  unfortunately  still,  in  a  child  vaccinated  by 
me.  The  noise  and  confusion  this  case  has  created  is  not  to 
be  described.  The  vaccine  lancet  is  sheathed ;  and  the  long 
concealed  variolous  blade  ordered  to  come  forth.  Charming ! 
This  will  soon  cure  the  mania.  The  Town  is  a  fool, — an 
idiot ;  and  will  continue  in  this  red-hot, — hissing-hot  state 
about  this  affair,  till  something  else  starts  up  to  draw  aside 
its  attention.  I  am  determined  to  lock  up  my  brains,  and 
think  no  more  pro  bono  publico  ;  and  I  advise  you,  my 
friend,  to  do  the  same ;  for  we  are  sure  to  get  nothing  but 
abuse  for  it.  It  is  my  intention  to  collect  all  the  cases  I 
can  of  small-pox,  after  supposed  security  from  that  disease. 
In  this  undertaking  I  hope  to  derive  much  assistance  from 
you.  The  best  plan  will  be  to  push  out  some  of  them  as 
soon  as  possible.  This  would  not  be  necessary  on  account 
of  the  present  case,  but  it  will  prove  the  best  shield  to  pro- 
tect us  from  the  past,  and  those  which  are  to  come. 

Ever  yours, 

Edward  Jenner. 

The  tone  of  the  preceding  letter  shows  a  soreness 
somewhat  unusual  with  him.  The  disaster  in  Lord 
Grosvenor's  family  had  powerfully  excited  the  public 
mind,   and  roused  the  anti-vaccinists    to   increased 

VOL.    II.  M 

1G2  LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER. 

efforts.  But  Jenner  was  ill  at  ease  on  other  subjects. 
He  had  been  required  to  give  evidence  before  the 
House  of  Lords  respecting  the  Berkeley  Peerage ; 
and  this,  added  to  a  clamour  in  high  places  on  the 
subject  of  vaccination,  would  easily  account  for  the 
acuteness  of  his  feelings.  An  exhibition  before  any 
large  assembly  was  always  to  him  an  embarrassing 
and  perplexing  affair.  His  own  account  of  the 
species  of  mental  torture  that  he  endured  when 
preparing  for  the  annual  festival  of  the  Royal  Jen- 
nerian  Society,  as  stated  to  myself,  will  render  it  less 
a  matter  of  wonder  that  he  should  have  experienced 
an  unusual  degree  of  perturbation  when  before  the 
assembled  nobles  of  the  land. 

"  I  can  compare  my  feelings  to  those  of  no  one 
but  Cowper  the  poet,  when  his  intellect  at  last  gave 
way  to  his  fears  about  the  execution  of  his  office  in 
the  House  of  Lords.  It  was  reading  Cowper's  Life,  I 
believe,  that  saved  my  own  senses,  by  putting  me  fully 
in  view  of  my  danger.  For  many  weeks  before  the 
meeting  I  began  to  be  agitated,  and,  as  it  approached, 
I  was  actually  deprived  both  of  appetite  and  sleep ; 
and  when  the  day  came,  I  was  obliged  to  deaden  my 
sensibility  and  gain  courage  by  brandy  and  opium. 
The  meeting  was  at  length  interrupted  by  a  dissolu- 
tion of  Parliament,  which  sent  the  leading  people  to 
the  country ;  and  what  was  at  first  merely  postponed 
was  ultimately  abandoned,  to  my  no  small  delight 
and  satisfaction." 

Notwithstanding  the  unfavourable  occurrence  in 
Lord  Grosvenor's  family,  vaccination  continued  to 
flourish,  and  he  had  the  happiness  to  learn  that  the 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER,  163 

deaths  from  small-pox  in  the  bills  of  mortality  were 
at  this  time  reduced  to  five  or  six  a  week.  This 
reduction  was  in  a  great  degree  to  be  ascribed  to  the 
well-directed  efforts  of  the  National  Vaccine  Esta- 
blishment. It  will  scarcely  be  believed  in  future 
times,  that  small-pox  inoculation  still  continued  to 
be  practised  at  some  of  the  principal  establishments 
for  the  relief  of  the  sick  poor  in  London.  In  that 
number,  I  am  sorry  to  be  obliged  to  mention  the 
Finsbury  Dispensary.  The  Board  of  the  National 
Vaccine  Establishment  exerted  their  influence  with 
the  directors  of  that  institution,  and  the  practice  was 
abandoned,  but  it  was  still  continued  in  the  Small- 
pox Hospital ! ! ! 

I  find  a  curious  document,  stating  the  expenses 
incurred  by  Dr.  Jenner  up  to  this  time,  in  conse- 
quence of  the  two  Parliamentary  grants,  and  other 
contingencies  immediately  arising*  from  his  discovery. 
Those  connected  with  the  first  grant  of  ten  thousand 
pounds,  amounted  to  no  less  a  sum  than  £977- 
The  grant  in  1807  was  better  managed:  only 
£58.  18^.  10^.  being  required.  The  other  sums 
which  he  expended  in  printing,  &c.  amounted  nearly 
to  £700.  If  to  these  we  could  add  the  numberless 
other  sources  of  expenditure,  or  even  one  of  the 
items,  such  as  postage,  without  counting  the  value 
of  his  time  and  labour,  it  would  be  found  that  a  very 
formidable  amount  would  stand  against  the  public 

Dr.  Jenner  was  enabled  to  leave  London  early  in 
July,  1811.  The  annoyances  he  had  recently  en- 
countered, the  state  of  Mrs.  Jenner's  health,  and 

M  2 

164  LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER. 

that  of  her  brother  in  Cheltenham,  had  an  unfavour- 
able effect  on  his  own.  I  remember  finding  him 
seriously  distressed  Ukewise  by  the  fate  of  a  young 
French  officer,  in  whose  welfare  he  took  a  deep  in- 

Captain  Husson,belonged  toDupont's  army,  and  was 
one  of  those  who  capitulated  after  the  defeat  of  that 
General  at  Baylen.  Jenner  felt  for  young  Husson  as 
for  a  son  ;  and  exerted  himself  with  unremitting  ear- 
nestness to  procure  his  liberation.  Unfortunately, 
as  I  have  already  stated,  his  influence  with  the  British 
Government  was  not  so  great  as  it  was  at  one  time  with 
that  of  France.  Either  by  direct  appeals  to  the  Empe- 
ror, or  through  the  medium  of  Corvisart  and  Husson, 
he  had  succeeded  in  procuring  the  release  of  many 
persons.  "  This,"  he  observes  to  a  friend,  "  though 
somewhat  gTatifying  to  my  feelings,  will  convince 
you  of  the  feebleness  of  my  influence  ;  and  feeble  as 
it  has  ever  been,  it  has  now  become  more  so  from  the 
following  unfortunate  occurrence.  M.  Husson,  one 
of  the  medical  gentlemen  above  referred  to,  has  a 
brother.  Captain  Husson,  a  prisoner  of  war  in  this 
country.  I  petitioned  for  his  release.  It  was  the  first 
request  of  the  kind  I  had  made  to  the  British  Govern- 
ment ;  and  it  seemed  to  meet  with  a  favourable 
reception.  This  joyful  intelligence  I  communicated 
to  Captain  Husson :  when,  most  unexpectedly,  in- 
stead of  acquiescence,  a  refusal  arrived.  This  threw 
him  into  a  state  of  desperation,  and  in  the  midst  of 
it  he  broke  his  parole,  and  is  now  in  a  state  of  misery 
and  confinement  on  board  a  prison-ship  at  Chatham. 
This  hurts  me  excessively :  as  I  cannot  but  look  on 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER.  165 

myself  as  in  some  measure  the  innocent  cause.  I 
shall  again  exert  myself  for  Captain  Husson,  con- 
ceiving that  my  first  application  could  not  have  been 
well  understood."  The  second  application,  I  believe, 
was  successful.  At  least,  he  concludes  a  letter  to 
myself  dated  the  5th  of  April,  1811,  in  these  words. 
"  This  day  I  received  a  letter  from  town,  informing 
me  that  my  petition  to  the  Prince  in  behalf  of  Cap- 
tain Husson  had  been  graciously  received." 

I  trust,  if  M.  Husson  or  his  brother  should  ever 
see  these  pages,  they  will  believe  that  Dv.  Jenner, 
whatever  may  have  been  the  event  of  his  application, 
was  sincere  and  unremitting  in  his  efforts  ;  although, 
while  overwhelmed  by  domestic  affliction,  or  the 
labours  connected  with  his  peculiar  station,  he  may 
have  sometimes  omitted  to  reply  to  the  letters  of  M. 
Husson :  but  for  reasons  which  are  ob"\aous,  I  wish 
to  make  it  manifest,  that  he  did  not  forget  the  claims 
which  M.  Husson  and  his  countrymen  had  upon 
him  for  his  best  services.  I  am  a  witness,  that  such 
services  were  rendered ;  and  farther,  to  remove  any 
blame  that  might  be  attached  to  Dr.  Jenner  for  his 
silence,  I  myself,  at  his  request,  wrote  to  M.  Husson, 
explaining  his  difficulties,  stating  what  he  had  done, 
and  was  doing  in  behalf  of  his  brother ;  and  that  he 
was  not  unmindful  of  the  great  benefits  conferred 
upon  himself  and  the  cause  of  vaccination  by  the 
French  nation. 

I  have  an  anxious  desire  that  this  matter  may  be 
well  understood  by  all  whom  it  may  concern.  From 
the  altered  manner  of  M.  Husson,  in  speaking  both 
of  Dr.  Jenner  and  vaccination  in  the  Dictionnaire  des 

16(5  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

Sciences  Medicales,  which  I  have  been  obhged  to 
refer  to  very  pointedly  in  the  former  volume,  I  fear 
that  he  may  have  been  imperfectly  informed  on  this 
subject,  and  believed  Dr.  Jenner  alike  insensible  to 
the  calls  of  gratitude  and  of  duty.  Indeed,  in  a 
letter  which  is  now  before  me,  he  seems  almost  to 
reproach  Jenner,  as  if  he  really  had  not  exerted  him- 
self with  the  British  Government  so  effectually  as  he 
might  have  done.  He  thought  it  not  credible  that 
they  could  refuse  to  the  author  of  vaccination  what 
the  French  government  had  granted  to  him.  Little 
did  he  know  how  the  prejudices  of  our  rulers  inter- 
posed on  all  occasions  when  a  question  arose  re- 
specting any  dealings  with  the  person  who  then 
wielded  the  destinies  of  France.  And,  moreover,  so 
small  was  Jenner's  interest  with  those  in  authority, 
who  chspensed  favours  in  this  country,  that  he  never 
succeeded  in  obtaining  an  appointment  for  either  of 
his  nephews,  or  any  other  of  his  connexions.  When 
recounting  the  ill-success  of  his  many  applications 
on  their  behalf,  I  have  heard  him  good-humouredly 
remark,  that  he  had  once  got  a  place  for  an  excise- 
man, but  nothing  beyond  it. 

In  1808  the  National  Institute  of  France  had 
elected  Jenner  a  corresponding  member.  The  same 
distinguished  body  conferred  a  still  higher  honour 
upon  him  by  placing  him,  on  the  13th  of  May,  1811,* 
in  the  list  of  foreign  associates.  This  vacancy  was 
occasioned  by  the  death  of  Dr.  Maskelyne.  The 
approbation  of  the  Emperor  and  King  was  accorded 

*  This  honour  was  conferred  on  (he  vaccination  of  the  King 
of  Rome. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  167 

to  their  choice  at  the  Palace  of  Ilambouillet,  on  the 
19th  of  the  same  month.  Sir  Joseph  Banks,  in  an- 
nouncing the  honour,  says — 

My  dear  Doctor, 

I  have  great  pleasure  in  transmitting  to  you  the  notice  of 
your  election  in  the  National  Institute  of  France,  in  the  place 
vacated  by  the  demise  of  Dr.  Maskelyne,  and  in  congratu- 
lating you  on  your  obtaining  a  place  among  a  body  of  men 
who  have  so  little  humbled  themselves  before  the  arbitrary 
dispositions  of  their  Sovereign  as  to  have  retained  the  title  of 
National,  when  that  of  Imperial  was  offered  to  them,  and 
who,  I  verily  believe,  are  as  little  satisfied  with  the  barljarous 
mode  of  warfare  adopted  by  their  chief,  as  we  Englishmen 
can  be. 

Adieu,  my  dear  Doctor, 

Always  faithfully  yours, 

Joseph  Banks. 
Dec.  4th,  1811. 

On  looking  at  the  diploma  forwarded  by  Delambre 
to  Dr.  Jenner,  I  observe  a  curious  proof  that  the  in- 
fluence of  the  Emperor  had,  at  least  in  this  instance, 
prevailed  over  the  firmness  of  the  members  of  the 
Institute.  The  engraved  document  was  headed 
"  Institut  de  France."  In  the  copy  before  me, 
the  abbreviation  Imp.  in  a  small  hand  is  inserted 
after  the  word  Institut. 

The  cordial  manner  in  which  Sir  Joseph  commu- 
nicated this  flattering  mark  of  distinction,  and  his 
conduct  on  other  occasions,  in  some  degree  oblite- 
rated from  Jenner  s  mind  the  painful  disappointment 

168  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

which  he  experienced  when  he  assayed  to  have  his 
first  treatise  on  the  Variolse  Vaccinae  pubKshed  in 
the  Transactions  of  the  Royal  Society.  He  has 
often  mentioned  the  incident  to  me ;  but  I  wished 
not  to  place  it  in  a  prominent  situation,  without  at 
the  same  time  showing  that  the  person  who  at  first 
was  swayed  by  prejudice  did  not  continue  in  error. 
I  know  not  whether  Sir  Joseph  had  any  secret  ad- 
visers,* or  whether,  judging  as  others  had  done,  he 
thought  the  matter  altogether  so  extraordinary,  that 
it  could  not  with  propriety  find  a  place  in  the  work 
for  which  it  was  originally  destined.  Dr.  Haygarth, 
a  most  competent  judge,  entertained  such  sentiments 
w^hen  the  subject  was  first  mentioned  to  him.  We 
need  not  wonder,  therefore,  that  others  might  de- 
cide in  the  same  manner.  I  fear,  notwithstanding 
every  allowance,  it  must  be  admitted,  that  matters 
were  managed  somewhat  uncourteously.  When  the 
subject  was  laid  before  to  the  President,  Jenner  was 
given  to  understand,  that  he  should  be  cautious  and 
l)rudent ;  that  he  had  already  gained  some  credit 
by  his  communications  to  the  Royal  Society,  and 
ought  not  to  risk  his  reputation  by  presenting  to 
the  learned  body  anything  which  appeared  so  much 
at  variance  with  established  knowledge,  and  withal 
so  incredible. 

Such  were  the  opinions  which  were  entertained  of 
his  discovery.  I  really  am  not  inclined  to  bear  hard 
upon  the  memory  of  the  persons  who  so  reasoned. 

*  This  point  is  set  at  rest  by  a  letter  of  Dr.  .Tenner  to  Mr. 
Moore,  which  will  be  found  in  ;i  subsequent  page. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  169 

Certainly  they  had  not  examined  the  subject  fully; 
they  had  not  investigated  the  admirable  and  conclu- 
sive e\'idence,  as  it  is  given  in  the  inquiry  ;  and  if  they 
had,  possibly  conviction  would  not  have  followed. 
But  be  this  as  it  may,  Jenner  was  deterred  from 
presenting  his  paper  to  the  Royal  Society ;  and  that 
body  thereby  lost  the  honour  of  placing  among  their 
most  valuable  records  a  contribution,  which  has 
done  more  for  the  relief  of  human  misery  than  any 
work  that  man  ever  produced. 

Towards  the  close  of  this  year  he  was  gratified 
with  an  offering  from  an  Italian  muse.  "  II  Trionfo 
della  Vaccinia,  Poema  di  Gioachino  Ponta,  Genovese/' 
was  published  at  Parma,  in  1810.  The  copy  pre- 
sented to  Jenner  bears  this  inscription  in  the  hand 
writing  of  the  author.  "  Al  chiarissimo  Sig^.  Dottore 
il  Sig^  Edward  Jenner,  Genio  benefico  dell'  umanita, 
in  signo  d'alta  stima  e  devozione,  I'Autore.  Napoli, 
9th  Nov.  1811." 

This  work  is  beautifully  printed,  and  with  the 
notes  occupies  286  pages.  The  author,  in  trans- 
mitting it,  sent  a  very  handsome  letter  to  the  follow- 
ing effect  : 

In  the  course  of  last  spring  I  did  myself  the  honour,  after 
having  presented  it  to  my  Maecenas,*  to  send  you  a  copy  of 
my  poem  on  the  Triumph  of  Vaccination,  for  which  mankind 
is  so  much  indebted  to  you,  and  by  which  your  name  will  be 
immortalized.  The  consul  of  Naples,  who  now  resides  at 
Tunis,  was  to  have  forwarded  to  the  English    consul  this 

*  Joachim  Napoleon,  King  of  the  two  Sicilies,  ill-fated 
Murat ! 

170  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

book,  together  with  another  copy,  which  I  sent  him  as  a  pre- 
sent, to  induce  him  to  take  all  possible  care  to  convey  this  to 
you.  The  ship  which  was  conveying  it  was  taken,  and  all 
the  goods  of  the  consul  sequestered  or  stolen.  It  hap- 
pened fortunately  for  me  that  your  consul  at  Palermo  knew 
of  the  arrest  of  these  two  volumes,  and  got  them  liberated. 
I  do  not  know  if  he  perused  the  letter  which  accompanied 
the  copy  dedicated  to  you ;  I  had  no  farther  knowledge  of 
the  issue;  the  consul  only  knew  that  yours  was  sent  to 
London.  I  will  fain  hope  that  you  will  have  received  it ; 
but  should  it  not  be  so,  in  order  to  fulfil  the  great  desire  I 
have  that  you  should  receive  it,  I  send  you  another  copy 
through  the  means  of  the  courteous  Mr.  Graham,  a  Scotch- 
man, who  being  exchanged  for  another  distinguished  prisoner 
of  war  is  returning  to  his  own  country. 

I  beg  you.  Sir,  to  accept  this  humble  present  of  a  work  of 
which  you  are  the  sublime  inspirer,  and  by  which  I  have 
endeavoured  to  add  to  the  rays  of  your  glory.  If  peace 
should  be  concluded,  and  if  I  should  have  the  means,  which 
the  post  is  now  deprived  of,  I  would  myself  present  you 
with  this  tribute. 

Accept  in  the  mean-time  of  the  great  esteem  and  good 
wishes  of  my  heart,  and  the  highest  sentiments  of  considera- 
tion from. 


Your  obedient  humble  servant, 


Nov.  dih,  1811. 

This  letter  was  translated,  and  a  very  faithful 
analysis  of  the  poem  itself  was  made  from  the  origi- 
nal, by  an  excellent  and  accomplished  lady,  Miss 
Eliza  Jenkins  of  Stone.  She  enjoyed  the  respect 
and  friendship  of  Dr.  Jenner,  and  most  deservedly ; 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  l/l 

for  her  acquirements  in  ancient  and  modern  litera- 
ture, as  well  as  her  numerous  virtues,  fully  entitled 
her  to  the  distinction.  Stone  is  in  the  immediate 
vicinity  of  Berkeley ;  and  some  of  the  happiest 
hours  of  the  latter  period  of  his  life  were  spent  in 
the  society  of  this  lady  and  her  amiable  sister.  The 
poem  of  Ponta  is  divided  into  six  cantos,  and  seems 
to  have  been  formed  on  the  ancient  epic  model. 
The  action,  or  fable,  as  well  as  the  characters  and 
sentiments,  evidently  all  have  a  reference  to  that 
lofty  style  of  composition. 

The  action  centres  in  the  discovery  of  the  antidote 
to  the  awful  infliction  of  the  small-pox.  The  ma- 
chinery employed  by  the  author  in  bringing  about 
so  great  an  event  is  such  as  modern  poets  have  for 
the  most  part  shunned.  Gods  and  goddesses,  spirits 
and  imdsible  agents,  play  their  parts ;  and  the 
Fates  ultimately  reveal  the  secret  to  the  "  Immortal 
Jenner."  After  proposing  the  subject,  and  describ- 
ing the  sufferings  inflicted  by  the  Arabian  disease  (as 
he  styles  it),  and  the  insufficiency  of  all  efforts  to 
mitigate  them,  the  pity  of  the  Gods,  after  long  delay, 
was  excited,  and  Jenner  was  created  to  triumph  over 
the  malady.  Then  follows  a  tribute  to  the  genius 
of  the  family  of  Napoleon.  But  it  is  not  on  martial 
exploits  that  the  author  intends  to  invoke  his  muse ; 
but  to  give  an  account  of  the  ravages  of  the  pestilence 
partly  allegorical,  and  partly  founded  on  the  gene- 
rally received  opinion  of  its  breaking  out  in  the  time 
of  the  pseudo-prophet.  The  first  three  cantos  de- 
scribe the  consternation  of  Mahomet,  at  seeing  death 

172  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

armed  with  such  tremendous  weapons.  He  invokes 
all  the  people  subject  to  his  authority  to  offer  a 
grand  holocaust  to  appease  the  offended  deity.  The 
other  cantos  contain  a  strange  mixture  of  real  with 
ideal  personages, — Aaron,  ^Esculapius,  Hygeia,  a 
Gnome  (an  evil  genius), — all  contribute  to  carry  on 
the  action.  Towards  the  conclusion  of  the  fourth 
canto,  after  introducing  Jupiter,  Venus,  and  Europa, 
and  sundry  other  personages,  the  action  is  com- 
pleted, and  it  was  blazoned  forth,  that  the  discovery 
which  was  to  counteract  the  effects  of  the  pestilence 
was  to  emanate  from  Berkeley,  the  birth-place  of 
the  immortal  Jenner.  To  facilitate  this  great  object, 
Jupiter  decrees  that  Oromazes  (a  good  genius)  shall 
descend  to  the  earth,  to  counteract  in  some  degree 
the  evil  done  by  the  Gnome,  by  imparting  to  Jenner 
the  great  secret. 

Scendi  in  Glocestro  con  veloci  plume, 

Ivi  uom  vedrai,  che  in  fronte  ha  una  fiammella, 

E  quando  il  mondo  del  diurno  lume 

Fia  muto  e  sveli  notte  ogni  sua  stella, 

Tu  sfolgora  di  luce  oltre  il  costume, 

E  di  te  mostra  fa  subita  e  bella, 

E  di^  a  quel  Sofo,  Giove  a  te  la  cura 

Da  di  far  scevera  del  Vaiuol  Natura. 

Canto  quinto,  p.  186. 

The  winged  minister  of  Jove's  high  will  flies  to 
the  banks  of  the  Severn,  and  finds  Jenner  engaged 
in  learned  lucubrations  on  the  Variolse,  and  sees  a 
lovely  band  of  virtues  in  his  company.     This  divine 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  173 

genius  then  announces  that  his  good  and  merciful 
actions  had  been  seen,  and  that  he  was  destined  to 
still  greater. 

Alio  splendor  raffiguro  Jennero, 
Che  vigil  stava  il  medico  talento 
Affaticando  in  freddo  esame  austero 
Meraviglioso  ad  operar  portento  ; 
E  appunto  al  morbo  Arabico  il  pensiero 
Di  gran  calcoli  cinto  aveva  intento, 
E  vide,  che  compagna  a  Jenner  era 
Delle  Virtudi  la  piu  bella  schiera. 

Canto  quinto,  p.  188. 

The  sixth  canto  is  chiefly  occupied  with  the  pro- 
gress of  the  vaccine  discovery ;  and  there  is  a  pretty 
and  interesting  account  of  the  labours  of  the  dif- 
ferent distinguished  persons  who  exerted  themselves 
in  this  cause.  He  lastly  invokes  the  good  genius  to 
protect  it,  and  entreats  the  young  of  both  sexes  to 
offer  a  due  tribute  of  honour  to  Jenner. 

A  Jenner  questo  altare,  e  il  simulacro, 
E  ai  suoi  seguaci  e  ai  Re  propizj  e  sacro. 

This  is  not  an  improper  occasion  to  mention 
another  effort  of  a  foreign  muse,  entitled,  "  La 
D^couverte  de  la  Vaccine,  Poeme  en  trois  Chants, 
par  un  M^decin."  The  author,  who  signs  himself 
P.  Py,  D.M.M.  (Aude)  Narbonne,  18  r""'''  1816, 
discussed  the  origin  of  vaccination,  the  restora- 
tion of  Louis  XVIII.  the  merits  of  Jenner,  and 
the   benefits    of  his    discovery,  with  great   fervour. 

174  LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER. 

In  this  collocation  he  has  assumed  the  licence 
of  a  poet ;  and  while  he  gives  to  England  the 
honour  of  the  discovery,  ascribes  to  "  la  belle 
France'  the  glory  of  protecting  and  disseminating  it. 
Much  space  cannot  be  allowed  for  a  long  quotation, 
but  the  following  sentiments  respecting  Jenner  are 
true  in  themselves,  and  gratifying  from  the  pen  of  a 
French  physician  : — 

C'est  lui  qui  nous  apprit,  du  fond  de  I'Angleterre, 

Le  remede  au  fleau  des  enfans  de  la  terre ; 

Fut  il  jamais  pour  I'homme  un  sort  plus  glorieux 

Que  celui  qui  la  rende  I'emule  de  nos  Dieux  ? 

De  Faurore  au  couchant,  de  Tamise  jusqu'a  Gange, 

Tout  se  doit  a  Jenner,  pour  chanter  sa  louange. 

Seul,  il  a  consacre  notre  destin  futur ; 

Seul  il  merite  aussi  notre  encens  le  plus  pur. 

A  gentleman,  whose  progress  in  literature  Jenner 
had  watched  with  the  interest  and  anxiety  of  a 
friend,  and  who  had  already  proved  the  possibility  of 
combining  poetic  talent  with  antiquarian  research, 
again  strung  his  lyre  in  "  An  Ode  to  Hygeia  on  the 
Vaccine  Inoculation."  I  here  allude  to  the  Rev. 
T.  D.  Fosbroke,  the  author  of  British  Monachism, 
the  Encyclopedia  of  Antiquities,  and  many  other 

The  origin  of  Vaccinia  is  thus  described. 


She  was  in  verdant  valleys  born,  Vaccinia  hight ; 
A  curious,  wizard  sage,  who  aye  would  pore 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER.  175 

On  wondrous  things  from  glens  obscure  as  night, 

The  goodly  wand'rer  to  his  cavern  bore  : 
Long  was  she  coy;  nor  e'er  would  speak,  but  blush'd. 

Philosophy,  to  that  wise  sage  long  known. 
By  him  for  this  invoked,  most  softly  hush'd 

Her  fears,  and  drew  her  strangest  things  to  own  : 
"  She  sprung  (she  said)  of  lo  and  of  Jove.'* 

Pregnant  of  her,  (though  nought  is  said  in  song,) 
When  Juno's  jealous  ire  had  doom'd  her  rove 

In  foul  disguise  amidst  the  horned  throng, — 
The  angry  sire  exclaim'd,  '^  Be  thou  divine — 
The  power  o'er  fell  Variola  be  thine  !" 

Another,  who  ranked  high  among  the  poets  of  the 
age,  and  who  had  a  deep  affection  for  the  discoverer 
of  vaccination,  planned  a  poem  upon  this  theme, 
which  after  long  deliberation  he  had  convinced 
himself  '^  was  capable  in  the  highest  degree  of  being 
poetically  treated."  He  announced  his  intention  to 
Jenner  in  a  very  impassioned  letter ;  but  it  is  un- 
certain whether  it  was  ever  carried  into  execution. 
If  not,  one  cannot  but  regret  that  so  distinguished  a 
writer  as  Mr.  Coleridge  should  not  have  accom- 
plished his  design. 

7,  Portland-place,  Hammersmith, 
near  London,  2']th  Sept.  1811. 

Dear  Sir, 
I  take  the  liberty  of  intruding  on  your  time,  first,  to  ask 
you  where  and  in  what  publication  I  shall  find  the  best  and 
fullest  history  of  the  vaccine  matter  as  preventive  of  the 
small-pox.  I  mean  the  year  in  which  the  thought  first  sug- 
gested itself  to  you,  (and  surely  no  honest  heart  would  sus- 
pect me  of  the  baseness  of  flattery  if  I  had  said,  inspired 

176  LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER. 

into  you  by  the  All-preserver,  as  a  counterpoise  to  the  crush- 
ing weight  of  this  unexampled  war)  and  the  progress  of  its 
realization  to  the  present  day.  My  motives  are  twofold  : 
first  and  principally,  the  time  is  now  come  when  the  Courier 
(the  paper  of  the  widest  circulation,  and,  as  an  evening 
paper,  both  more  read  in  the  country,  and  read  at  more 
leisure  than  the  morning  papers,)  is  open  and  prepared  for  a 
series  of  essays  on  this  subject ;  and  the  only  painful 
thought  that  will  mingle  with  the  pleasure  with  which  I 
shall  write  them,  is,  that  it  should  at  this  day,  and  in  this  the 
native  country  of  the  discoverer  and  the  discovery,  be  even 
expedient  to  write  at  all  on  the  subject.  My  second  motive 
is  more  selfish.  I  have  planned  a  poem  on  this  theme, 
which  after  long  deliberation,  I  have  convinced  myself  is 
capable  in  the  highest  degree  of  being  poetically  treated, 
according  to  our  divine  bard's  own  definition  of  poetry, 
as  ^  simple,  sensuous,  (i.  e.  appealing  to  the  senses, 
by  imagery,  sweetness  of  sound,  &c.)  and  impassioned." — O, 
dear  sir !  how  must  every  good  and  warm-hearted  man 
detest  the  hal^it  of  mouth  panegyric  and  the  fashion  of 
smooth  falsehood,  were  it  only  for  this, — that  it  throws  a 
damp  on  the  honestest  feelings  of  our  nature  when  we  speak 
or  write  to  or  of  those  whom  we  do  indeed  revere  and  love, 
and  know  that  it  is  our  duty  to  do  so ;  those  concerning 
whom  we  feel  as  if  they  had  lived  centuries  before  our  time, 
in  the  certainty  that  centuries  after  us  all  good  and  wise  mei 
will  so  feel.  This,  this,  dear  sir,  is  true  fame  as  contra- 
distinguished from  the  trifle,  reputation ;  the  latter  explains 
itself,  quod  iste  putabat,  hie  putat,  one  man's  echo  of 
another  man's  fancy  or  supposition.  The  former  is  in  truth 
<l>i)^i],  u  e.  V  (puTtv  01  KctXoKayadoi,  through  all  ages,  the  united 
suffrage  of  the  Church  of  Philosophy,  the  fatum  or  verdict 
unappealable.  So  only  can  we  live  and  act  exempt  from  the 
tyranny  of  time :  and  thus  live  still,  and  still  act  upon  us, 
Hippocrates,  Plato,  Milton.  And  hence,  too,  while  reputa- 
tion in  any  other  sense  than  as  moral  character  is  a  bubble. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  1/7 

fame  is  a  ivorthy  object  for  the  best  men,  and  an  awful  duty 
to  those,  whom  Providence  has  gifted  with  the  power  to 
acquire  it.  For  it  is,  in  truth,  no  other  than  benevolence 
extended  beyond  the  grave,  active  virtue  no  longer  cooped 
in  l)etween  the  cradle  and  the  coffin.  Excuse  this  overflow, 
and  let  me  only  add,  that  most  grateful  am  I,  and  a  con- 
solation it  is  to  me  for  my  own  almost  uselessness,  that 
what  I  could  most  have  wished  to  have  done, — yea,  had 
in  lazy  indefinite  reveries  early  dreamt  about  doing, — has 
Ijeen  eft'ected  in  my  own  lifetime,  and  by  men  whom  I  have 
seen,  and  many  of  whom  I  have  called  my  friends ;  in  short, 
that  I  have  known  and  personally  loved  Clarkson,  Davy, 
Dr.  Andrew  Bell,  and  Jenner. 

But  while  I  gratify  my  own  feelings  I  am  pressing  pain- 
fully on  yours.  I  will,  therefore,  avail  myself  of  an  acci- 
dent to  change  the  subject.  A  very  amiable  lady,  a  par- 
ticular friend  of  mine,  and  dear  to  me  as  a  sister,  has  l)een 
subject  generally  once  or  twice  in  a  year  to  a  severe  tooth-ache. 
She  has  many  decayed  back  teeth  ;  so  many,  as  to  put  ex- 
traction almost  out  of  the  question ;  and  besides,  from  tlie 
circumstances  of  the  case,  and  the  manner  in  which  her 
face,  eyes,  and  head  are  aflected,  I  am  convinced  that  the 
locality  of  the  pain  is  in  a  great  measure  accidental ;  that  it  is 
what  I  have  heard  called  a  nervous  rheumatic  aff'ection,  and 
possibly  dependent  on  some  affection  of  the  stomach  or  other 
parts  of  her  inside.  She  is  single,  al)out  six  and  twenty, 
has  excellent  health  and  spirits  in  all  other  respects,  and 
bears  this  affliction  with  more  than  even  feminine  patience. 
Hot  topical  applications,  such  as  tinctures  of  the  pyrethrum, 
with  ether,  oil  of  cloves,  &c.  &c.  give  only  momentary 
relief,  or  rather  palliation.  Her  last  attack  was  in  No- 
vember last,  when  she  was  confined  to  her  bed  more 
than  a  month  by  it,  and  reduced  to  a  skeleton.  Yesterday 
she  had  a  return,  and  I  am  sadly  afraid  of  another  fit  of  it. 
Should  you  remember  any  case  in  point  in  the  course  of 
your  practice,  and  be  able  to  suggest  any  mode  of  treatment, 

VOL.    II.  N 

17^  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

I  will  not  say  that  I  should  be  most  thankful,  but  only  that 
you  will  make  a  truly  estimable  family  both  grateful  and 
happy.  My  friend,  Mr.  Morgan,  has  under  Mr.  Andrews, 
to  whom  you  were  so  kind  as  to  give  him  a  letter  of  introduc- 
tion, got  rid  entirely  of  his  complaint.  Though  I  still  sus- 
pect it  to  have  been  symptomatic  of  some  tendency,  at  least, 
to  schirrus  in  some  of  the  viscera,  the  liver  probably.  I 
have  somewhere  read  or  heard,  that  ipecacuanha  in  very 
large  doses,  so  as  not  to  act  as  an  emetic,  but  as  a  sudorific, 
has  effected  great  cures  in  rheumatic  affections  of  uncertain, 
and,  as  they  say,  nervous  kind.  I  have  not  yet  read  the 
answers,  &c.  &c.  of  Davy  and  Murray  on  the  oxymuriatic, 
whether  a  chemical  element  or  a  compound ;  but  I  own, 
that  in  Davy's  first  communication  to  the  R.  S.  I  appeared 
to  myself  to  see  a  laxer  logic  than  is  common  with  him.  I 
judge  merely  as  a  logician,  taking  the  facts  for  granted,  and 
applying  the  rules  of  logic  as  an  algebraist,  his  rules  to 
X.  Y.  Z. — With  every  wish  for  your  life  and  health,  believe 
me,  dear  sir, 

Most  sincerely  your  respectful 
friend  and  servant, 

S.  T.  Coleridge. 
Be  pleased  to  remember  me  to  Mr.  Pruen  should  you  see 

I  subjoin  one  more  letter.  It  is  from  the  Ho- 
nom'able  and  gallant  Admiral  Berkeley,  who  was 
then  in  command  in  the  Tagus,  The  period  at  which 
it  was  written,  as  well  as  the  events  to  which  it 
refers,  and  the  cordial  friendship  which  it  expresses 
for  Jenner,  all  conspire  to  give  it  interest. 

Lisbon,  March  I6th,  1812. 
My  dear  Sir, 
Many  thanks  for  the  vaccine  matter,  as  well  as  for  your 
letter  of  December  1st,  which  I  only  received  yesterday, 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  l?^ 

owing  to  the  detention  of  the  Melpomene  at  Spithead.  We 
have  had  a  very  cold  winter,  for  this  climate,  Anth  more  frost 
than  has  been  known  for  a  long  period,  and,  even  now,  the 
weather  resembles  more  the  month  of  March  in  England 
than  Lisbon.  Your  anecdote  of  the  gods  who  squabbled 
about  hot  or  cold  baths  amused  me.  And  I  hope  to  dedi- 
cate Cullum's  new  ones  to  Hygeia,  and  that  the  Portuguese 
goddesses  will  dip  their  charms  with  more  convenience  as 
well  as  delicacy.  I  have  procured  an  old  fort  by  the  water- 
side, which  was  formerly  used  as  a  custom-house,  and  there 
being  a  very  good  house  in  it,  CuUum  has  fitted  it  up  for 
warm  as  well  as  cold  baths,  and  a  very  convenient  as  well 
as  an  elegant  specvdation  it  will  be.  No  such  thing  in  Lis- 
bon, and  very  much  wanted.  It  is  astonishing  how  much 
more  the  rheumatism  affects  every  body  here  than  in  our 
climate.  The  air  is  so  much  thinner  and  sharp,  and  the 
transitions  from  heat  and  cold  more  frequent.  Your  account 
of  the  eau  medicitial  has  stamped  a  credit  upon  it  with  me, 
that  I  own  I  did  not  give  it  before,  and  I  should  not  hesitate 
taking  it,  if  a  paroxysm  of  gout  should  occur.  But  I  think 
the  rheumatism  has  driven  him  out  of  the  house.  Our 
troops  are,  in  general,  in  the  most  perfect  health  :  but  it  is 
surprising  how  the  ague  has  been  felt  amongst  the  officers, 
and  how  it  adheres  to  them,  like  the  Walcheren  fever.  My 
son  has,  thank  God  !  enjoyed  his  health  throughout  the  whole 
campaign,  and  has  seen  the  whole  of  it,  M'ith  credit  to  him- 
self and  satisfaction  to  his  superiors.  God  preserve  him 
through  the  whole,  for  he  is  a  credit  to  his  name.  I  am 
going  up  myself  to  the  siege  of  Badajos,  by  desire  of  Lord 
Wellington,  to  meet  him,  and  to  see  the  effect  of  a  noble 
battering  train,  which  I  have  furnished  from  the  navy.  Lady 
Emily  desires  to  be  most  kindly  remembered  to  you,  and 
is  tolerably  well,  although  the  complaint  still  exists  in  the 
shape  of  a  dumb  gout,  which  swells  her  joints,  and  is  painful 
at  times,  M'ithout  inflammation  or  redness.  I  believe  Dr. 
Cullum    intends   thanking  you  for  all    your   kindness  and 

N  2 

180  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

civil  inquiries,  which  Dr.  M'Neil,  whom  you  saw  at  Chel- 
tenham some  little  time  since,  repeated  to  him  this  day. 
Of  our  native  town  you  may  conceive  my  affectionate  regard 
for  it  to  be  equal  to  yours.  While  I  have  strength  to  hold 
my  pen,  I  will  sign  myself  your  ever  sincere  friend,  and 
very  faithful  obedient  servant, 

G.  Berkeley. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  181 




After  an  anxious  and  more  than  usually  pro- 
tracted residence  at  Cheltenham,  I  find  Jenner  at 
Berkeley,  early  in  February,  1812.  Independent  of 
domestic  causes  of  disquiet,  he  was  particularly  an- 
noyed by  the  atrocious  falsehoods  of  the  anti-vaccin- 
ists.  Some  of  his  friends  were  inclined  to  urge  him 
to  seek  redress  in  a  court  of  law ;  but  I  am  most 
thankful  to  say  that  he  did  not  follow  their  counsel. 
He  had  better  advice  conveyed  to  him  by  Mr.  (after- 
wards Baron)  Garrow,  who  spoke  on  the  occasion  like 
a  man  of  wisdom,  and  with  a  full  perception  of  the 
real  weight  of  Jenner's  character.  When  the  sub- 
ject was  mentioned  to  him  by  a  friend,  he  observed. 

182  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

"  the  truth  probably  is,  that  I  should  have  been  too 
vain  to  have  been  consulted  by  the  greatest  human 
benefactor  of  the  human  race,  and  am  therefore  mor- 
tified by  any  thing  which  may  deprive  me  of  that 
gratification  of  my  pride  and  vanity.  You  may, 
however,  tell  him,  that  there  could  indeed  be  very 
few  libels  which  I  should  suffer  such  a  man  to  dig- 
nify by  noticing."  Never  was  sounder  advice  given ; 
for,  I  believe,  the  libels  and  the  libellers  are  both 

The  affairs  of  the  National  Vaccine  Establishment 
were  conducted  with  vigour  and  effect  under  the 
superintendence  of  the  new  board,  of  which  Sir 
Francis  Milman  was  the  head.  Mr.  Moore,  who  ad- 
mired Jenner  for  his  talents,  and  loved  him  for  his 
virtues,  executed  the  duties  of  his  department  with 
unremitting  zeal.  He  continued  to  lament  sincerely 
that  Jenner  was  separated  from  the  establishment. 

The  Report  for  1812  was  of  a  peculiarly  gratifying 
nature.  Many  of  the  most  important  documents 
which  it  contained  were  supplied  by  Dr.  Jenner.  A 
few  of  these  are  of  so  striking  a  nature  that  I  must 
mention  them. 

At  the  Havannah,  though  the  small-pox  had  been 
extremely  fatal  in  that  city,  no  death  had  occurred 
from  that  disease  for  two  years.  In  the  Caraccas 
and  in  Spanish  America,  the  small-pox  had  been  ex- 
tinguished by  vaccination.  The  same  beneficial  re- 
sults were  obtained  both  at  Milan  and  Vienna,  in  which 
latter  place  the  average  mortality  from  small-pox  had 
amounted  to  eight  hundred  annually.  The  returns 
from  France  have  been  already  alluded  to  in  the  first 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  183 

volume.  From  a  report  presented  to  the  class  of 
Physical  Sciences  of  the  Institute  by  Messrs.  Ber- 
thoUet,  Perc^,  and  Halle,  it  appears  that  of  2,671,662 
persons  properly  vaccinated,  only  seven  had  taken 
the  small-pox,  which  is  as  1  to  381,666.  It  is  added 
that  the  well-authenticated  instances  of  small-pox 
after  small-pox  are  proportionably  far  more  nume- 

In  Russia,  from  the  year  1804  to  1812,  1,235,597 
were  vaccinated,  and  in  two  years  (1810  and  1811) 
the  returns  from  the  different  stations  in  the  Presi- 
dency of  Madras  gave  305,676  vaccinations  ;  of  this 
number  245,125  were  Hindoos.  The  following  im- 
portant and  interesting  document  accompanied  the 
Russian  Report.  It  is  from  the  pen  of  Sir  Alexander 

St.  Petersburgh,  12th  Sept.  1812. 

Dear  Sir, 

The  reestablishment  of  peace  between  England  and  Russia 
being  happily  concluded,  I  embrace  an  early  opportunity  of 
sending  you  a  letter  on  the  state  of  vaccination  in  this  em- 
pire, as  I  am  convinced  that  the  encouragement  it  meets  with 
from  the  government,  its  gradual  extension  and  success, 
cannot  fail  to  be  interesting  to  you.  As  all  the  reports  on 
this  subject,  and  indeed  all  those  which  regard  every  branch 
of  medical  police,  or  the  health  of  the  inhabitants,  are  ad- 
dressed to  me,  it  is  in  my  power  to  give  you  the  most  accu- 
rate account  of  the  progress  of  your  beneficial  discovery. 
Having  been,  as  you  well  know,  one  of  your  earliest  advo- 
cates in  England,  and  having  never  wavered  in  my  opinion 
concerning  its  great  advantages,  you  need  not  doubt  that  I 
do  all  in  my  power  to  encourage  and  support  vaccination  in 

184  LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER. 

I  have  annexed  for  you  a  list  which  I  caused  to  be  made 
out,  of  all  the  children  who  have  been  vaccinated  in  the  Rus- 
sian empire  from  the  year  1804  to  1812.  It  is  arranged  in 
such  a  manner  that  you  will  see  the  progress  of  vaccination 
in  each  government  during  each  of  the  intervening  years 
between  1804  and  1812,  and  to  shew  you  the  manner  in 
which  the  evidence  is  collected,  I  have  added  one  of  the  half 
yearly  lists  of  one  of  the  governments,  translated  by  one  of 
my  secretaries  into  French.  I  have  chosen  one  of  the 
most  distant  and  least  civilised  governments  (Irkutsk)  for 
this  purpose.  It  is  inhabited,  as  you  well  know,  by  different 
tribes  of  Tartars,  chiefly  by  the  Bouriates  (or,  as.  in  England 
they  are  commonly  called,  Bourations),  and  by  the  Tungu- 
sians.  We  have  also  in  this  government  a  great  number  of 
Mantchu  Tartars,  being  probably  the  original  stock  of  the 
Mogul  race.  You  will  find  that  one  of  your  most  zealous 
inoculators  in  these  distant  regions  is  a  priest  of  the  great 
Lama,  himself  a  Lama. 

The  whole  number  of  children  inoculated  in  the  empire, 
concerning  whom  the  government  has  received  certain  intel- 
ligence, amounts  to  1,235,597.  Now  supposing,  according 
to  a  well-founded  rule  of  calculation,  that  before  the  intro- 
duction of  vaccination  every  seventh  child  died  annually  of 
the  small-pox,  vaccination  has  saved  the  lives  in  this  empire 
of  176,514  children;  and  in  an  empire  like  this,  where  the 
population  is  a  great  deal  too  scanty  in  proportion  to  its  ex- 
tent, such  a  saving  of  human  life  is  of  the  greatest  impor- 
tance. Many  generations  must  pass  away  before  Russia 
will  have  any  occasion    to   dread  Mr.  Malthus's  predictions. 

In  May  1811,  the  Emperor  signed  an  ukase  which  has 
given  more  activity  to  vaccination  throughout  his  empire 
than  formerly  existed, 


1 .  All  the  clergy  to  co-operate  with  the  beneficent  views 
oi  the   Emperor  in  destroying  the  prejudices  which  exist 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER.  185 

among  the  people  against  the  inoculation  of  the  cow-pox, 
or  as  it  is  now  called  in  Russia  the  pock  of  surety. 

2.  To  establish  in  each  of  the  capitals  and  in  every  govern- 
ment town  a  committee  of  vaccination,  consisting  of  the  go- 
vernor, vice-governor,  the  marshal  of  the  nobility,  the  most 
distinguished  clergyman  and  the  first  physician  of  the 
government.  This  Committee  issues  its  orders  and  advice 
to  committees  established  in  each  district  of  each  government, 
and  those  inferior  committees  are  composed  of  the  mayor  of 
the  district  town,  the  first  clergyman  of  the  place,  and  the 
physician  of  the  district,  and  the  intendant  of  the  district. 

8.  The  duty  of  the  committees  is, 

(a)  To  keep  exact  lists  of  all  the  children  in  the  govern- 
ment who  have  not  been  inoculated. 

(b)  To  see  that  all  children  be  inoculated  by  proper 

(c)  To  furnish  good  matter  and  proper  instruments  for 

fd)  To  cause  instructions  to  be  given  to  pupils  who  devote 
themselves  to  this  occupation. 

4.  Permitting  the  committees  to  enact  such  by-laws,  and 
to  adopt  such  modifications  of  measures  as  local  circum- 
stances may  require.  They  are  further  ordered  to  make  out 
accurate  lists  of  all  who  have  been  inoculated  in  the  districts 
and  consequently  in  the  government,  and  to  transmit  them 
to  the  minister  of  the  police,  from  whom  they  are  sent  to 
my  office. 

5.  The  Committees  of  vaccination  are  ordered  to  see  that 
the  practice  and  the  art  of  vaccination  be  introduced  into  all 
schools  and  seminaries,  and  that  the  students  of  all  classes 
be  able  to  practise  it  before  they  leave  the  seminaries,  and  to 
see  that  all  midwives  be  properly  instructed  in  this  art. 
The  said  Committees  are  to  distribute  a  popular  work  on 
vaccination,  printed  at  the  expense  of  the  crown,  in  all  the 
languages  in  use  throughout  the  empire,  and  which  contains 
a  clear,  but  abridged  history  of  the  disease,  its  real  signs  and 

186  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

manner  of  distinguishing  the  spurious  kinds,  with  rules  when 
to  take  the  matter  to  inoculate,  and  treat  the  inflammation 
when  accidentally  increased,  &c. 

Three  years  are  allowed  for  vaccinating  the  whole  empire, 
after  which  period  there  must  not  be  found  man,  woman,  or 
child,  the  newly  born  excepted,  who  have  not  been  vacci- 

The  same  ukase  established  appropriate  rewards  for  the 
members  of  committees,  and  for  inoculators  who  have  been 
zealous  in  this  good  work, 

I  have  sent  you,  along  with  this  letter,  a  case  of  instru- 
ments, which  I  have  approved  for  vaccination,  and  which  is 
distriliuted  gratis  to  the  committees.  1  have  also  sent  you 
some  of  the  caricature  prints  in  favour  of  vaccination.  These 
operate  as  much  on  the  minds  of  the  poor  peasants  as  the 
most  eloquent  discourses  of  the  clergy. 

Notwithstanding  the  supreme  order  of  Ilis  Imperial  Ma- 
jesty, that  all  liis  subjects  be  vaccinated  within  three  years, 
we  find,  that  powerful  as  His  Majesty  is,  this  cannot  be  ex- 
ecuted. There  is  a  power  greater  than  sovereignty,  namely, 
the  conscience  or  religious  opinions  of  men,  and  in  one  or  two 
of  the  distant  governments  there  exists  a  peculiar  religious 
sect,  belonging  to  the  Greek  church,  who  esteem  it  a  damna- 
ble crime  to  encourage  the  propagation  of  any  disease,  or  to 
employ  any  doctors,  or  to  swallow  any  medicines  under  the 
visitations  of  God.  Reason  has  been  employed  in  vain  with 
these  poor  people  ;  they  have  been  threatened  with  severe 
punishment  in  case  they  remained  refractory  on  such  points, 
but  all  to  no  purpose.  They  have  no  priesthood,  but  at- 
tempts have  been  made  to  gain  those  of  the  community  who 
have  most  influence  with  them,  but  all  to  no  purpose.  You 
may  well  imagine  that  no  punishment  has  been  employed, 
though  threatened;  and  the  government  has  come  to  the  wise 
resolution  of  leaving  this  dispute  to  time. 

I  have  thought  that  this  short  account  of  the  state  of  vacci- 
nation in  Russia  would  be  acceptable  to  you.     You  may 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  187 

communicate  it  to  my  old  friend  and  acquaintance,  Bradley, 
if  you  deem  it  sufficiently  interesting  for  his  Journal. 
Dear  Sir,  yours  very  sincerely, 

Alex.  Crichton. 

The  documents  which  were  transmitted  to  Dr. 
Jenner  from  the  authorities  in  Bombay  and  Bengal 
proved  that  in  the  territories  under  their  jurisdiction 
vaccination  was  carried  on  with  undiminished  suc- 
cess. Measures  likev\dse  had  been  taken  to  intro- 
duce the  cow-pox  into  the  territories  of  the  Rajah  of 
Coorg  and  the  island  of  Java. 

When  this  island  fell  under  the  dominion  of  the 
English  (in  1811),  the  late  lamented  Sir  Stamford 
Raffles  was  appointed  Lieutenant-Governor.  With 
the  wisdom  and  benevolence  which  distinguished  all 
his  public  actSjhe  immediately  took  measures  to  diffuse 
and  perpetuate  the  practice  of  vaccination.  In  adjust- 
ing the  revenue  of  the  country  portions  of  land  at- 
tached to  each  village  were  set  apart  for  the  support 
of  a  vaccine  establishment ;  and  a  certain  number  of 
vaccinators  were  appointed  for  each  district.  These 
vaccinators  were  under  the  immediate  superintend- 
ance  of  European  surgeons,  and  the  lands  or  Sawahs 
have  had  the  word  Jennerian  attached  to  them.  The 
Sawahs  Jennerian  thus  handed  over  in  perpetuity 
to  support  the  cause  of  vaccination  are  recognized  in 
all  the  rent  rolls  of  the  country. 

Sir  Stamford  Raffles  on  his  arrival  in  England  in 
1816,  communicated  these  facts  to  Dr.  Coley  of 
Cheltenham,  who  published  an  account  of  them  in 
the  Medico-Chirurgical  Journal  for  February  1817. 

188  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

He  also  transmitted  them  to  Dr.  Jenner,  who  ac- 
knowledged his  kindness  in  the  following  letter. 

To  Dr.  Coi-ey,  Cheltenham. 

My  DEAR  Sir,  Berkeley,  Sept.  5th,  1816. 

I  am  greatly  obliged  to  you  for  your  communication  re- 
specting the  introduction  of  the  vaccine  into  the  island  of 
Java,  and  beg  you  to  present  my  respectful  compHments 
and  thanks  to  Mr.  Raffles  for  his  very  interesting  letter  on 
the  subject,  and  to  assure  him  how  happy  I  should  be  in 
having  the  honour  of  a  visit  from  him  at  Berkeley.  I  cer- 
tainly would  pay  my  respects  to  him  at  Cheltenham,  were 
I  not  at  present  so  entangled  with  a  varirety  of  engagements. 

It  would  doubtless  be  gladly  received  if  a  copy  of  the 
governor's  letter  were  sent  to  the  National  Vaccine  Esta- 
blishment, which  is  too  complimentary  for  me  to  think  of 
sending  myself.  It  strikes  me  that  it  would  prove  beneficial, 
if  some  copies  of  the  instructions  for  conducting  the  pro- 
cess of  vaccination  were  sent  from  the  National  Vaccine  Es- 
tablishment to  Java,  as  they  contain  some  minutiae  perhaps 
not  yet  known  to  the  medical  practitioners  there.  Some  of 
the  Annual  Reports  of  the  Establishment  would  also  be  read 
with  interest,  and  I  am  certain  that  Dr.  Hervey  would  be 
glad  to  send  them. 

I  cannot  conclude  without  thanking  you  for  your  labo- 
rious exertions  during  the  late  epidemic  small-pox  at  Chel- 
tenham ;  but  how  shocking  it  is  to  think,  that  the  labours  of 
any  medical  man  should  be  called  forth  at  the  present  period 
on  such  an  occasion ;  and  in  a  town  where,  for  a  long  series 
of  years,  I  daily  oifered  my  services  gratuitously  to  the  pub- 
lic. By  your  saying  nothing  on  the  subject,  I  infer  that  the 
small-pox  has  now  quitted  the  town. 

Believe  me,  dear  Sir, 

very  truly  yours, 

Edward  Jenner. 

Sir  Stamford  accepted  Dr.  Jenner's  invitation,  and 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  189 

visited  him  at  Berkeley.  It  may  well  be  su}3posed 
that  two  such  persons  could  not  meet  without  find- 
ing many  kindi'ed  themes  for  mutual  discussion  and 
edification.  Sir  Stamford's  pursuits  in  natural  his- 
tory had  been  carried  on  with  unbounded  energy, 
and  on  the  most  magnificent  scale.  He  had  not 
then,  it  is  true,  made  that  splendid  collection,  which 
promised  so  much  to  enrich  our  knowledge  of  the 
productions  of  the  East,  and  the  destruction  of  which 
he  was  doomed  to  witness.  The  labours  of  twenty 
years  all  swept  away,  reduced  to  ashes  in  a  few^  hours, 
was  a  trial  which  few  men  could  have  borne  with 

The  University  of  Oxford  at  the  commencement 
of  vaccination  had  been  injudiciously  importuned 
to  confer  an  honorary  degree  on  Jenner.  This  at- 
tempt was  very  properly  resisted.  Such  a  common 
and  undistinguishing  mark  of  academical  approba- 
tion was  held  not  to  be  sufficient  if  the  discovery 
turned  out  to  be  as  important  as  it  promised  ;  while, 
on  the  other  hand,  it  did  not  become  such  a  body  to 
move  in  a  matter  of  this  kind  till  the  value  of  the 
discovery  had  been  fully  proved. 

In  the  year  1813  the  question  was  brought  before 
the  university,  and  in  full  convocation  the  degree  of 
M.D.  by  diploma  was  unanimously  voted  to  him. 
This  proceeding,  not  less  honourable  to  that  distin- 
guished body  than  to  the  individual  who  was  thus 
signalised,  it  was  imagined  would  open  the  portals  of 
the  College  of  Physicians  to  him,  and  remove  all 
objections  to  his  taking  a  seat  at  the  vaccine  board ; 
but  it  will  appear  in  the  sequel  that  it  turned  out 

190  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

He  invited  me  to  accompany  liim  when  he  went 
to  receive  the  diploma;  and  I  did  so  with  much 
satisfaction.  We  left  Cheltenham  on  the  morning 
of  Tuesday  the  14th  of  December  1813,  and  arrived 
at  Oxford  in  the  evening.  He  was  playful  and  in- 
genious as  usual,  during  the  progress  of  our  journey, 
but  at  times  a  little  depressed  by  anxiety  for  his  son 
Robert,  who  had  just  returned  from  school  with 
cough.  He  said  that  he  so  much  resembled  his  son 
who  died,  that  he  could  not  but  feel  alarm. 

Next  morning  he  was  waited  upon  by  Sir  Chris- 
topher Pegge  and  Dr.  Kidd,  the  professors  of  Ana- 
tomy and  Chemistry.  They  presented  the  diploma 
with  becoming  expressions  of  respect.  They  men- 
tioned that  it  was  an  honour  which  had  not  been  con- 
ferred on  any  man  for  nearly  seventy  years  before. 
Jenner  behaved  with  much  simplicity  and  dignity. 
"  It  is  remarkable,"  said  he,  "  that  I  should  have 
been  the  only  one  of  a  long  line  of  ancestors  and 
relations  who  was  not  educated  at  Oxford.  They 
were  determined  to  turn  me  into  the  meadows,  in- 
stead of  allowing  me  to  flourish  in  the  groves  of 
Academus.  It  is  better,  perhaps,"  he  then  ob- 
served, "  as  it  is,  especially  as  I  have  arrived  at  your 
highest  honours,  without  complying  with  your  ordi- 
nary rules  of  discipline."  He  then  reluctantly  put  on 
his  gown  and  cap,  because,  he  said,  the  thing  was 
unusual  to  him,  and  he  could  not  help  thinking  that 
he  should  be  an  object  of  remark  in  the  eyes  of 
others,  forgetting  for  the  instant  that  he  was  at  Ox- 
ford, and  not  at  Cheltenham. 

Almost  all  the  learned  societies  in  Europe  had  con- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  191 

ferret!   their  highest  honours  on  Jenner.     In  thus 
coming  forward  to  mark  their  sense  of  his  eminent 
services  and  merits,  they  truly  thought  that  all  steps 
and  gradations  by  which  the  fitness  of  ordinary  men 
for  such  distinctions  are  ascertained,  might  in  his 
case  be  dispensed  w^th.     There  was  no  risk  that  such 
relaxation  of  the  rules  of  academical  discipline  could 
ever  lead  to  the  establishment  of  an  injurious  prece- 
dent.    Claims  like  Jenner's  ever  have  been  of  rare 
occurrence,  and  the  elevation  of  such  a  person,  so 
far  from  tending  to  depreciate  the  value  of  literary 
or  scientific  distinctions,  could  have  no  other  effect 
than  to  give  them  additional  influence  and   lustre 
in  the  eyes  of  every  just  and  generous  man.     The 
University  of  Oxford,  jealous  though  she  be  of  her 
honours,  had  not  scrupled  to  give  a  noble  example 
to   all   other   learned   corporations.     Unfortunately 
this    example    was  not  followed,   especially  in    one 
quarter  where  it  would  have  been  most  graceful  and 
becoming.     Many  members  of  the  College  of  Phy- 
sicians of  London  had  strong  and  right  feelings  on 
this  subject.     They  were  conscious  that  the  name 
of  Jenner  might  well  have  been  associated  in  fellow- 
ship with  that  of  Linacre,   Caius,  or  Harvey,   and 
gladly   would   they  have  accomplished  this  object, 
though  not  in  the  usual  course  required  by  their 
statutes.     Several   ineffectual   efforts  were  made  to 
bring  about  this  very  desirable  measure,  even  before, 
I   believe,   the   Oxford   diploma  had  been  granted. 
This  occurrence,  it  was  conceived,  would  immediately 
remove  the  strongest  objection.     "  No,"  said  some 
of  the  fellows,  "  it  is   true  that  Dr.  Jenner,  coming 

192  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

from  Oxford  as  lie  does,  may,  if  he  chooses,  claim 
admission  into  our  body,  but  he  can  only  take  his 
place  with  us  after  undergoing  the  usual  examina- 
tions." The  individuals  who  thus  reasoned,  after 
protracted  debates  carried  their  point.  From  a  let- 
ter about  to  be  submitted  to  the  reader,  it  will  ap- 
pear that  Dr.  Jenner  was  no  party  to  any  of  these 
transactions.  He  never  courted  this  nor  any  other 
such  testimony  ;  and  it  may  perhaps  be  questioned 
whether  the  learned  body  did  not  lose  an  opportu- 
nity of  conferring-  as  much  honour  upon  themselves 
as  they  could  have  bestowed  upon  the  author  of 
vaccination.  This,  I  am  well  assured,  was  the  con- 
viction of  many  of  the  most  distinguished  of  its 
members,  and  no  one  entertained  it  more  strongly 
than  the  late  generous  and  warm-hearted  Dr.  Baillie. 
If  I  am  not  much  misinformed,  he  spoke  his  senti- 
ments with  unusual  animation  and  warmth.  As 
soon  as  Dr.  Jenner  knew  of  the  discussion  that  had 
taken  place,  he  wrote  to  the  following  effect  to  Dr. 
Cooke  of  Gower  Street. 

You  saw  by  my  reply  to  your  first  letter  that  I  was  not 
ambitious  of  becoming  a  fellow  of  the  College  of  Physicians  ; 
your  second  has  completely  put  an  end  to  every  feeling  of 
the  sort,  and  I  hasten  to  request  you  to  stop  the  progress  of 
anything  that  may  be  preparing  for  my  approach   to  War- 
wick Lane.     In  ray   youth    I   went  through    the    ordinary 
course   of  a  classical  education,  obtained  a  toleraljle  profi- 
ciency in  the  Latin  language,  and  got  a  decent  smattering  of 
the  Greek ;  but  the  greater  part  of  it  has  long  since  transmi- 
grated into  heads  better  suited  for  its  cultiA'ation.     At  my 
time  of  life  to  set  about  brushing  up  would  be  irksome  to  me 
beyond  measure :    I  would  not  do  it  for  a   diadem.     That 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  193 

indeed  would  be  a  bauble,  I  would  not  do  it  for  John 
Hunter's  Museum  ;  and  that,  you  will  allow,  is  no  trifle. 
How  fortunate  I  have  been  in  receiving  your  kind  commu- 
nication !  If  the  thing  had  gone  on,  it  would  have  been  em- 
barrassing to  both  parties.  I  wish  you  would  frame  a  by- 
law for  admitting  men  among  you  who  would  communicate 
new  discoveries  for  the  improvement  of  the  practice  of  phy- 
sic. On  this  score  (not  alluding  to  vaccination),  I  could 
face  your  inquisition  with  some  degree  of  firmness. 

March  \5th,  1814, 

The  next  important  public  event  that  was  intended 
to  bear  upon  the  practice  of  vaccination  w^as  a  legis- 
lative measure  to  modify  and  restrain  within  certain 
limits  the  practice  of  small-pox  inoculation.     It  was 
impossible  by  a  peremptory  decree,  such  as  had  been 
issued  by  the  autocrat  of  Russia,  to  enforce  vacci- 
nation in  this  country ;  but  it  was  perfectly  consis- 
tent with  our  usages  and  constitution  to  place  the 
practice  of  small-pox  inoculation  under  some  degree 
of  restraint.     In  consequence  of  the  adoption  of  vac- 
cination by  most  respectable  medical  men,  many  of 
the  lower  classes  took  up  the  small-pox  lancet,  and 
disseminated  the  disease  in  a  very  frightful  manner. 
Some  medical  men,  too,  surrendered  their  own  judg- 
ment at  the  bidding  of  their  patients,  and  did  not 
scruple  to  employ  small-pox,  when  required  so  to  do, 
even  though  they  preferred  vaccination.     This  was 
a  case  of  conscience,  which,  as  has  been  already 
stated,  was  warmly  taken  up  in  Jenner's  own  county ; 
and  those  who  did  so  were  desirous  that  their  rea- 
soning should  be  admitted  and  acted  upon  by  every 
professional  man  in  the  kingdom.     They  felt  that  the 

VOL.  II.  O 

194  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

fears  of  the  public  were  likely  to  be  fatally  cherished 
by  the  lamentable  indecision  of  every  man  who  could 
be  induced  for  any  consideration  to  vaccinate  with 
one  hand,  and  to  variolate  with  the  other.  The 
absolute  abandonment  of  the  latter  practice  by  all 
who  had  satisfied  themselves  of  the  security  afforded 
by  vaccination,  was  considered  to  be  a  duty  of  a 
plain  and  commanding  nature.  There  was  great 
difficulty  in  getting  some  men  to  adopt  this  \dew  of 
the  question,  and  a  few  rather  influential  persons 
thought  it  not  inconsistent  publicly  to  recommend 
cow-pox,  and  yet  to  employ  small-pox  inoculation 
when  required  to  do  so. 

I  am  happy  to  say,  that  two  years  afterwards  our 
principle  was  followed  by  the  Colleges  of  Surgeons, 
both  of  London  and  Dublin,  who  publicly  pledged 
themselves  not  to  inoculate  with  small-pox  ;  and 
they  recommended  all  their  members  to  enter  into 
similar  engagements. 

With  all  these  convincing  testimonies  from  learned 
men,  and  unquestionable  proof  of  the  power  of  cow- 
pox  in  controlling  and  extinguishing  small-pox 
wherever  it  was  generally  practised,  it  is  rather 
humiliating  to  find  Dr.  Jenner  traduced  and  libelled, 
and  small-pox  itself  diffused  in  such  an  alarming  and 
unrestrained  manner,  that  it  was  attempted  to  check 
the  latter  evil  by  a  parliamentary  enactment.  The 
board  of  the  National  Vaccine  Establishment,  I  be- 
lieve, not  only  approved  of  this  measure  ;  but,  if  I 
am  not  misinformed,  the  heads  of  the  bill  were  di- 
gested and  arranged  under  their  superintendence. 
The  bill  itself  for  regulating  the  practice  of  small- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  l95 

pox  inoculation,  and  checking  the  diffusion  of  that 
disease,  was  brought  before  the  House  of  Lords  on 
the  1st  of  July  by  Lord  Boringdon.     His  lordship, 
on  introducing  it  to  the  House,  took  occasion  to  ob- 
serve, that  the  principle  on  which  it  was  founded 
had  often  been  acted  upon  and  recognised  by  the 
legislature.     He  showed,  that  in  all  ci\ilised  commu- 
nities,  indiiiduals  were   restrained  from    exercising 
unlimited    dominion    over    their    persons    or    pro- 
perty ;  and  that  many  statutes  had  been  passed  for 
preventing  the  spreading  of  contagious  diseases.     He 
particularly  dwelt  upon  those  which  had  been  enacted 
in  order  to  stay  the  progress  of  the  plague.     Arguing 
on  these  premises,  he  rightly  contended  that  similar 
provisions  ought  to  be  put  in  force  against  the  plague 
of  small-pox.    He  therefore  recommended  that  regu- 
lations should  be  adopted  in  all  cases  where  this  dis- 
ease existed,  either  in  consequence  of  inoculation  or 
casual  infection.     His  lordship's  design  was  not  to 
interfere  with  the  will  of  parents  in  adopting  either 
vaccination   or    small-pox    inoculation.     "  If,   how- 
ever," said  he,  "  the  latter  be  chosen,  it  is  desirable 
that  the  surrounding  neighbourhood  should  as  much 
as  possible  be  protected  from  the  spreading  of  the 
contagion."     To  secure  this  very  desirable  object, 
the  bill  contained  sundry  clauses  and  enactments, 
which  I  am  sorry  to  say  are  still  much  called  for. 
Others  were  of  a  more  questionable  nature,  and  were 
rather  calculated  (in  this  country,  at  least,)  to  give 
an  air  of  levity  to  a  very  serious  subject.     In  the 
case  of  children  inoculated  at  the  expense  of  the 
parish,  it  was  very  properly  intended  that  the  vaccine 


196  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

should  alone  be  employed.  The  bill  was  opposed 
by  the  Lord  Chancellor,  and  by  Lord  Ellenborough. 
Both  these  noble  lords  contended  that  the  common 
law  as  it  now  stands  was  better  calculated  to  prevent 
the  spreading-  of  the  small-pox  than  any  of  the  pro- 
visions of  the  present  bill.  Lord  EUenborough,  after 
clearly  and  forcibly  explaining  the  common  law,  and 
ridiculing  some  of  the  clauses  of  Lord  Boringdon's 
bill,  is  reported  thus  to  have  spoken  of  vaccination 
itself.  "  No  doubt,"  he  observed,  "  it  was  of  some 
use,  but  he  did  not  concur  in  all  the  praise  bestowed 
upon  it  in  this  bill ;  but  if  the  noble  lord  considered 
it  a  complete  preventive  of  the  small  pox,  he  differed 
with  him  in  opinion.  At  the  same  time,  he  had 
shewn  his  respect  for  the  discovery,  for  he  had  had 
eight  children  vaccinated.  He  believed  in  its  efficacy 
to  a  certain  extent :  it  might  prevent  the  disorder 
for  eight  or  nine  years,  and  was  desirable  in  a  large 
city  like  this,  and  where  there  was  a  large  family  of 

After  a  few  words  from  Lord  Redesdale,  and  a 
short  reply  from  Lord  Boringdon,  the  bill  was  with- 
drawn. It  was  certainly  rather  a  crude  measure  ; 
the  enactments  had  not  been  maturely  considered  ; 
some  of  them  were  inconsistent  with  the  habits  of 
the  country,  others  were  impracticable  ;  and  the  solid 
principle,  alike  recognised  by  the  common  and  sta- 
tute law,  was  in  some  degree  overlaid  by  the  compa- 
ratively unimportant  machinery  of  the  bill.  If,  keep- 
ing steadily  in  view  the  principle  just  alluded  to,  it 
had  been  further  enacted,  that  no  one  should  be  per- 
mitted to  propagate  small-pox  by  inoculation  but  a  pro- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  197 

perly  qualified  professional  man,  and  had  the  laws 
which  forbid  the  exposure  of  persons  labouring  under 
contagious  diseases  been  more  clearly  explained  and 
enforced,  every  benefit  that  could  have  been  expect- 
ed from  legislative  interference  in  this  country  would 
have  been  obtained.  The  only  new  enactment  that 
was  required,  is  at  once  so  simple  and  so  just,  that 
one  can  scarcely  anticipate  any  opposition  to  it ;  and 
even  now,  were  it  adopted,  it  would  be  of  infinite 

The  fate  of  the  bill  was,  I  beheve,  not  unexpected 
by  Dr.  Jenner,  but  the  concluding  part  of  the  obser- 
vations of  Lord  EUenborough  were  not  less  unlooked 
for  than  incorrect  in  themselves,  and  injurious  in 
their  consequences.  1  have  seldom  seen  Jenner  more 
disturbed  than  he  was  by  this  occurrence,  and  not 
certainly  because  he  had  any  fears  that  the  unsup- 
ported assertion  of  his  lordship  would  prove  correct, 
but  because  it  unhappily  accorded  with  popular  pre- 
judices, and  when  uttered  by  such  a  person,  in  such 
an  assembly,  was  calculated  to  do  unspeakable  mis- 
chief. His  friends  took  the  same  view  of  the  sub- 
ject, and  were  of  opinion  that  something  should  be 
done  to  prove  to  the  Chief  Justice,  that  though  his  law 
might  be  good,  his  physic  was  bad.  "  Ponebat  enim 
rumores  ante  salutem  !  "  But  how  to  convince  so  dig- 
nified a  person,  speaking  from  his  pri\aleged  station  in 
the  Upper  House,  that  this  really  was  the  case ;  that 
he  was  unsettling  the  confidence  of  numberless 
anxious  parents  ;  and  that  by  attempting  to  deprive 
vaccination  of  more  than  half  its  virtues,  he  was  pro- 
moting the  practice  which  he  professed  himself  will- 

198  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

ing  to  control,  was  a  question  somewhat  difficult  of 

It  is  a  remarkable  thing,  that  all  evidence  which 
had  been  accumulated  on  the  subject  was  in  direct 
opposition  to  his  lordship's  opinion.  That  derived 
from  casual  cases  of  cow-pox  carried  us  back  to  a 
period  of  fifty  or  sixty  years,  and  the  direct  testi- 
mony from  the  history  of  vaccination  itself,  led 
clearly  to  the  conclusion,  that  the  protection  which 
it  afforded  against  subsequent  attacks  of  small-pox 
was  as  great  as  small-pox  itself  gives.  The  decla- 
rations, however,  of  the  Chief  Justice  too  much 
accorded  with  popular  prejudices,  and  the  anti-vacci- 
nists  were  doing  all  in  their  power  to  make  them 
effective  ;  and  doubtless  were  not  a  little  proud  of 
the  co-operation  of  his  lordship.  Jenner's  own  feel- 
ings on  the  subject  were,  I  believe,  somewhat  ex- 
cited by  the  incident  which  will  be  found  in  another 
part  of  this  volume.  The  noble  lord  who  had  very 
indiscreetly  put  forward  an  unfounded  statement  in 
Jenner's  hearing  at  St.  James's,  and  had  been  re- 
buked for  so  doing,  might,  it  was  supposed,  have  not 
forgotten  this  occurrence  when  descanting  on  the 
same  subject  in  another  place.  The  reader  may 
easily  make  allowance  for  the  sensitiveness  of  Dr. 
Jenner  on  the  subject ;  for,  though  he  was  the  last 
man  in  the  world  to  be  influenced  by  mere  personal 
considerations,  it  was  not  to  be  supposed  that  he 
should  be  unmoved  by  the  reiteration  of  sentiments 
deeply  affecting  the  cause  of  vaccination,  but  espe- 
cially when  uttered  by  an  individual  so  high  in  sta- 
tion and  authority.    He  therefore  felt  that  the  fallacy 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  199 

of  the  reasoning  should  be  exposed,  and  the  assump- 
tions on  which  it  was  founded  contradicted  by  well 
attested  and  conclusive  facts.  A  small  pamphlet, 
containing  such  materials,  was  prepared  by  myself; 
but  some  delay  having  taken  place  in  the  publication, 
the  subject  became  less  urgent,  and  it  was  allowed 
to  drop. 

I  now  gladly  turn  to  scenes  of  a  different  kind — 
scenes  more  congenial  to  Jenner,  more  in  unison 
with  the  prevailing  tone  of  his  character.  The 
atmosphere  of  a  large  city  never  accorded  well  with 
his  taste  :  still  less  could  he  endure  the  strife  en- 
gendered by  professional  jealousy  or  emulation. 
He  turned  away  from  them  with  aversion ;  and 
whenever  he  was  compelled  to  encounter  any  thing 
of  this  kind,  he  resumed  his  peaceful  and  rural  life 
with  increased  relish.  I  never  saw  this  more  strik- 
ingly exemplified  than  at  this  period.  He  had 
then  occasional  opportunities  of  breaking  loose  from 
all  the  sources  of  his  care,  and  he  enjoyed  himself 
amidst  the  beauties  of  his  neighbourhood  in  a  man- 
ner which  spoke  as  much  for  his  wisdom,  as  it  did 
for  the  purity  and  simplicity  of  his  mind. 

One  of  his  favourite  haunts  was  Barrow  Hill.  It 
is  situated  in  a  peninsula,  formed  by  the  first  and 
boldest  sweep  of  the  Severn.  It  rises  very  little 
above  the  surrounding  country,  and  the  stranger  on 
approaching  it  could  form  no  conception  of  the  na- 
ture of  the  scenery  it  commands.  The  road  from 
the  village  of  Frampton  passes  through  a  low,  but 
rich  and  well-wooded  part  of  the  vale ;  but  it  pro- 
mises nothing  in  the  way  of  picturesque  beauty  or 

200  LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER. 

grandeur.     The  ascent  from  the  bottom  of  the  hill 
to  the  top  is  a  beautiful  green  sloping  bank,  and 
the  greatest  elevation  is  very  inconsiderable.     It  was 
Jenner's  habit  to  seek  the  summit  when  the  sun  was 
going   down,    and   when    the   rapid   course   of  the 
sweeping-  tide  had  brought  the  Severn  to  its  highest 
level.     Under   such   circumstances,   the  \iew,  from 
whatever  point  it  was  contemplated,  was  full  of  love- 
liness.    Looking  southwards,  the  riA'er  expanded  to 
a  great  breadth,  and  in  consequence  of  the  situation 
of  a  prominent  headland  on  either  side,  it  assumed 
the  character  of  a  lake  spread  beneath  the  specta- 
tor's feet,   bounded  on   one  side  by  the  bold  and 
picturesque  features  of  the  forest  of  Dean,  and  on 
tlie  other  seeming  to  lose  itself  in  the  flat  surface  of 
the  vale,  which,  after  a  deep  woody  expanse,  is  itself 
terminated   by  the  hills.     In  the    distance  beyond 
this  land-locked  reach,  the  opening  into  the  Bristol 
Channel  bursts  upon  the  eye,  and  its  vicinity  to  the 
mighty  ocean  may  be  discerned  by  the  character  of 
the  vessels  w^hich  it  bears  upon  its  surface.     Not 
like  the  little  barks  which  he  in  wait  for  the  filling 
of  the  river  to  enable  them  to  pass  over  its  shoals 
and  its  sand-banks,  a  tall  and  stately  ship  may  now 
and  then  be  seen  stretching  across  the  estuary,  and 
bearing  her  cargo,  it  may  be,  from  the  Sister  Isle,  or 
"  Nations  besides  from  all  the  quartered  winds." 

At  the  close  of  a  summer's  day,  when  a  flood  of 
golden  light  rushes  through  the  openings  which  are 
formed  by  the  deep  valleys  in  the  forest  of  Dean, 
and  is  reflected  from  the  smooth  surface  of  the  water, 
the  tranquil  splendour  of  the  scene  is  very  captivat- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  201 

ing.  Tlie  lazy  vessels  which  had  been  lying  with 
their  sails  furled  now  begin  to  give  signs  of  life  and 
motion.  The  anchor  is  weighed,  and  the  wings  are 
expanded  to  the  evening  breeze,  which,  aided  by  the 
swift  and  high-swelling  tide,  carries  them  proudly 
along,  till  they  approach  almost  to  the  spectator, 
and  sweep  round  the  beautiful  bend  of  the  river  that 
nearly  encircles  the  spot  on  which  he  stands. 

Looking  westward  and  northward,  the  view  is 
bounded  by  the  forest  of  Dean.  At  one  part  it 
rises  gently  from  the  river  side  ;  at  another,  it  seems 
to  start  boldly  and  abruptly,  and  to  oppose  a  firm 
and  strong  barrier  to  the  farther  encroachments  of 
the  Severn.  The  church  of  Awre  stands  on  a 
sloping  verge ;  beyond  it,  rise  in  beautiful  succes- 
sion undulating  banks  covered  with  orchards  and 
oak-timber.  Close  to  the  banks  of  the  river,  and  at 
the  bottom  of  the  more  abrupt  rising  of  the  forest, 
lies  the  town  of  Newnham,  and  immediately  above 
it,  on  the  brow  of  the  hill,  is  the  village  of  Little 
Dean.  Carrying  the  eye  along  the  reach  of  the 
Severn,  from  Newnham,  a  bold  precipitous  bank  is 
seen :  it  finely  contrasts  with  the  surrounding  ob- 
jects, and  shews  its  bare  and  almost  perpendicular 
red  surface  where  the  contiguous  landscape  is  soft 
and  beautiful.  This  is  Westbury  Cliff,  and  here  is 
the  bone-bank,  which  has  been  already  spoken  of  as 
one  of  the  haunts  of  Jenner.  He  had  a  particular 
fondness  for  this  scenery.  It  was  endeared  to  him 
by  many  interesting  associations.  It  was  very  near 
the  residence  of  some  of  his  oldest  friends.  It  com- 
manded a  view  of  the  trees  which  overshadowed  his 

202  LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER. 

much-loved  home ;  and  he  could  also  see  Pyrton, 
Awre,  the  Hock  Crib,  Westbury  Cliif,  all  interesting 
to  him  from  the  many  and  happy  opportunities 
which  they  had  afforded  him  for  pursuing  his  favou- 
rite studies.  In  the  summers  of  the  years  1812,  J  3, 
and  14,  he  enjoyed  several  days  of  delightful  recrea- 
tion in  re-visiting  this  spot.  During  the  periods 
just  mentioned  he  had,  I  believe,  greater  freedom 
from  professional  care,  and  was  permitted  more 
tranquilly  to  meditate  on  the  great  blessings  which 
his  discovery  was  daily  conferring  on  mankind, 
than  at  any  former  period  since  its  promulgation. 
Instead  of  courting  the  elevation  which  it  naturally 
gave,  he  returned,  with  a  mind  uninfluenced  by 
the  distinction  he  had  acquired,  to  all  the  simple 
enjoyments  of  early  days. 

He  promoted  a  little  social  meeting,  which  he 
called  the  Barrow  Hill  Club.  The  members  were 
few,  consisting  of  himself,  Mr.  Gardner,*  Mr.  Henry 

*  Poor  Gardner  wrote  a  Poem,  entitled  Barrow  Hill,  de- 
scriptive of  its  scenery,  from  which  the  following  lines  are 

Whilst  warm  the  vivid  feelings  glow, 
Softly  I  '11  mount  yon  gentle  summit's  brow. 
And  gaze  below  where  rough  Sabrina  pours 
Along  the  bending  vale  her  Cambrian  stores. 
Charm'd  with  the  scene,  the  stream  prolongs  its  stay, 
And  gently  ling'ring  winds  its  lengthen'd  way. 
Triumphant  view  !   New  worlds  before  us  rise. 
Flush  on  the  gaze,  and  strain  the  busy  eyes  : 
The  far-off  blue-hill  where  the  mantling  cloud 
Weaves  round  its  lofty  brow  a  misty  shroud  ; 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  203 

Hicks,  the  Rev.  Robert  Halifax,  myself,  and  now  and 
then  an  occasional  visitor.  Two  or  three  times  in 
each  of  the  summers  just  mentioned,  we  were  in  the 
habit   of  meeting    at   the   Bell  Inn   in   Frampton. 

The  wide-stretcli'd  field  with  yellow  harvests  warm. 

The  whiten'd  cottage,  the  encircled  farm  : 

The  stream's  bold  reach  along  its  redd'ning  side. 

The  march  majestic  of  its  solemn  tide  ; 

The  shades  of  rugged  rock  and  fringing  wood. 

That  undulating  dance  adown  the  flood  ; 

Queen  of  the  western  streams,  hail  Severn,  hail ! 

AVide  boast  of  Cambria  !   glory  of  the  vale  ! 

As  Mr.  Gardner's  prose  is  better  than  his  poetry,  and  as  the 
following  letter  alludes  to  events  quite  in  harmony  with  those 
described  in  the  text,  I  subjoin  it. 

To  Dr.  Jenner. 

Frampton,  '2lsl  May,  1817. 
My  dear  Friend, 

I  received  yours,  with  the  vaccine  virus  inclosed,  by  Mr 
Pearson ;  I  very  much  thank  you  for  your  kindness.  I  have 
long  practised  the  method  of  inoculation  you  describe,  agreeable 
to  your  former  instructions.  From  some  unaccountable  causes, 
the  fame  of  vaccination  seems  to  decline  in  this  part  of  the 
country  :  I  find  my  ofl'ers  of  gratuitous  service  very  frequently 
rejected  even  by  those  whose  former  children  have  undergone 
the  operation. 

Some  parts  of  your  letter  awakened  in  my  bosom  emotions 
of  the  purest  delight ;  my  mind  was  thrown  back  to  the  days  of 
former  years — the  bread  and  cheese  dinner  under  the  fossil 
rock,  the  excursion  to  the  garden  cliff,  and  the  dinner  at  Fra- 
milode  passage  ;  and  then,  by  a  rapturous  association  of  ideas, 
I  was  transplanted  to  the  gardens  of  Berkeley,  when  in  a  sunny 
summer's  morning  we   have   traversed  the  town  in    search  of 

204  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

After  a  temperate  meal  there,  we  generally  retired 
to  the  hill.  On  such  occasions  Jenner's  manner  was 
peculiarly  attractive.  He  was  as  free  from  all  pride 
as  though  his  name  had  never  been  heard  of  beyond' 

the  most  beautiful  tulip,  polyanthus,  or  carnation — your  ho- 
noured departed  relative  being  the  chief  of  the  party.  But  the 
recollection  is  too  much — the  tear  flows  as  I  write. 

My  friend  Mr.  D.  Loyd  has  lately  presented  me  with  the 
works  of  the  Ayrshire  bard,  Burns,  which  I  never  had  before 
seen,  though  many  scattered  pieces  have  occurred  to  my  notice 
in  reviews  and  magazines.  He  is  a  poet  of  the  first  order,  and 
very  superior  to  Walter  Scott  or  Lord  Byron,  the  fashionable 
favourites  of  the  day. 

But  what  struck  me  very  forcibly,  was  the  masterly  piece  of 
biography,  written  by  Dr.  Currie,  which  occupies  the  whole 
of  the  first  volume.  I  never  saw  so  fine  a  performance  of  the 
kind  :  it  unites  the  variegated  expanded  eloquence  of  Burke 
with  the  philosophical  precision  of  Hume  ;  it  is  equally  con- 
spicuous for  just  taste  and  sound  criticism.  He  has  aptly  de- 
fined the  nature  of  poetic  talent,  and  truly  appreciated  the 
character  of  its  possessor  ;  and  although  I  am  one  of  the  lowest 
of  the  tribe,  yet  I  know  1  have  some  faint  sparks  of  its  fire  ; 
and  I  feel,  very  sensibly  feel,  the  truth  of  Dr.  Currie's  obser- 
vations. I  have  felt  it  through  my  whole  pilgrimage  through 
this  wilderness  world ;  yet  I  know  not  how  it  is,  T  feel  at  sixty 
much  less  indolence  than  I  did  when  I  was  thirty. 

Currie  far  exceeds  Gregory  as  a  biographer  :  the  latter's  Life 
of  Chatterton  is  comparatively  a  poor,  a  very  poor  performance. 
I  should  suppose  that  the  author  of  the  Memoirs  of  the  Scottish 
Bard  must  be  a  good  physician  ;  he  certainly  possesses  the 
chief  requisite,  "  a  vigoi'ous,  comprehensive,   and   philosophic 


I  will  take  the  earliest  opportunity  of  seeing  you  at  Berkeley, 
but  it  cannot  be  before  the  Midsummer  holidays,  which  com- 
mence 20th  of  June.      I  can  walk  home  with  great  ease. 

Cannot  Mr.  Halifax,  yourself,  &:c  make  a  party  at  the  Rock, 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  205 

the  limits  of  the  district  which  the  eye  surveyed. 
His  mind  was  full  of  alacrity,  and  the  playfulness  of 
his  mirth  most  admirably  blended  with  the  instruc- 
tive tone  of  his  conversation,  enlivened  as  it  was 
by  the  beauty  of  the  scene,  and  by  early  recollec- 

The  year  1814  was  one  of  the  most  memorable  in 
our  memorable  times.  The  abdication  of  Napoleon, 
the  restoration  of  the  Bourbon  dynasty  to  France, 
the  visit  of  the  allied  sovereigns  to  England,  and  the 
prospect  of  peace  and  repose  to  the  world,  gave  rea- 
son to  hope  that  the  great  ones  of  the  earth,  who, 
amidst  strife  and  bloodshed,  had  expressed  their 
obligations  to  the  author  of  vaccination,  would  not 
forget  him  in  the  day  of  their  triumph  and  of  their 
glory.  He  had,  in  no  small  degree,  indirectly  aided 
the  cause  of  their  arms  ;  and  something  more  than 
mere  empty  compliment  w^as  due  to  him  for  his  sig- 
nal services. 

He  had  occasion  to  \dsit  London  in  the  end  of 
April,  1814,  and  took  up  his  residence  at  No.  7, 
Great  Mary-le-bone  Street.  This,  I  believe,  was  the 
last  visit  he  ever  paid  to  the  metropolis.  He  so- 
journed  there  for  more  than  three  months.     His 

similar  to  that  of  ours  in  the  summer  of  1782  (thirty-five  years 
since!  "  Tempus  fiigit !  ")  I  can  provide  the  bread  and  cheese 
and/«/  ale.  This  reverend  gentleman  is  a  truly  generous  and 
worthy  character.  He  has  kindly  volunteered  an  annual  de- 
posit on  my  behalf,  a  favour  unrequested  by  any  one,  and  of 
which  I  never  could  have  entertained  an  idea,  since  our  ac- 
quaintance has  been  comparatively  short. 

I  remain  yours  sincerely, 

Edward  Gardner. 

206  LIFE    OF    DR     JENNER. 

stay  was  somewhat  prolonged  in  expectation  of  the 
arrival  of  the  allied  sovereigns.  The  Duchess  of 
Oldenburg,  sister  to  the  Emperor  of  Russia,  had 
had  several  interviews  with  him,^  and  she  was  also 
present  at  a  subsequent  period  when  he  was  presented 
to  the  Emperor  himself. 

Jenner  had  a  peculiar  delicacy  of  perception  in  all 
that  regarded  the  grace  and  dignity  of  the  female 
character.  His  conversations  with  the  duchess  de- 
lighted him  exceedingly,  and  made  some  amends  for 
the  impatience  with  which  he  endured  a  London  life. 
Writing  to  myself  on  this  subject,  on  the  18th  of 
May,  and  urging  me  to  pay  him  a  visit  there,  which 
I  did,  he  says,  "  Though  I  can't  get  away,  yet  I  am 
quite  sick  of  the  life  I  lead  here,  and  certain  I  am 
that  your  presence  would  relieve  me.  The  mighty 
potentates  will  soon  be  here  ;  and,  I  suppose,  I  shall 
see  some  of  them.  The  Duchess  of  Oldenburg  is  a 
more  interesting  being  than  I  ever  met  with  in  a 
station  so  elevated."  He  concludes  this  letter  with 
an  incident  of  a  domestic  nature.  "  Poor  Mrs. 
Jenner  *  has  suffered  severely  during  my  absence. 
So  ill  was  she,  that  I  held  myself  in  readiness  daily 
to  go  down  on  the  arrival  of  the  post.  My  last  ac- 
counts have  been  very  pleasant.  Judge  what  a  life 
of  disquietude  I  have  here." 

The  account  of  his  interview  with  the  Emperor  I 
insert  very  nearly  in  his  own  words.     "  I  was  very 

*  She  was  constantly  attended  by  Mr.   Wood,  one  of  Dr 
Jenner's   oldest  and    most  attached    friends.     This  gentleman 
enjoyed  the  doctor's  confidence,   and  attended    to  all  his  affairs 
durina;  his  absence  from  Cheltenham. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  207 

graciously  received,  and  was  probably  the  first  man 
who  had  ever  dared  to  contradict  the  autocrat.  He 
said,  'Dr.  Jenner,  your  feelings  must  be  delightful. 
The  consciousness  of  having  so  much  benefited  your 
race  must  be  a  never-failing  source  of  pleasure,  and 
I  am  happy  to  think  that  you  have  received  the 
thanks,  the  applause,  and  the  gratitude  of  the  world.' 
I  replied  to  His  Majesty  that  my  feelings  were  such 
as  he  described,  and  that  I  had  received  the  thanks 
and  the  applause,  but  not  the  gratitude,  of  the  world. 
His  face  flushed ;  he  said  no  more,  but  my  daring 
seemed  to  give  displeasure.  In  a  short  time,  how- 
ever, he  forgot  it,  and  gave  me  a  trait  of  character 
which  shewed  both  great  goodness  of  heart  and 
knowledge  of  human  nature.  My  inquiries  respect- 
ing lymphatic  diseases,  and  tubercles,  and  pulmo- 
nary consumption  had  reached  the  ears  of  the  Grand 
Duchess.  She  was  present,  and  requested  me  to  de- 
tail to  her  brother,  the  Emperor,  what  I  had  formerly 
said  to  her  Imperial  Highness.  In  the  course  of  my 
remarks  I  became  embarrassed.  She  observed  this, 
and  so  did  the  Emperor.  '  Dr.  Jenner,'  said  she, 
'  you  do  not  tell  my  brother  what  you  have  to  say  so 
accurately  as  you  told  me.'  I  excused  myself  by 
saying  that  I  was  not  accustomed  to  speak  in  such  a 
presence.  His  Majesty  grasped  me  by  the  hand,  and 
held  me  for  some  time,  not  quitting  me  till  my  con- 
fidence was  restored  by  this  warm-hearted  and  kind 
expression  of  his  consideration."  This  circumstance 
gave  Dr.  Jenner  much  satisfaction. 

After  the   extraordinary  events  which  led  to  the 
expulsion  of  Napoleon,  and  when  kings  and  princes 

208  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

and  warriors  who  had  contributed  to  his  downfall 
were  about  to  visit  the  metropolis  of  that  country 
which  had  invariably  opposed  his  ambitious  designs 
with  uncompromising  hostility, — it  was  thought  that 
Dr.  Jenner,  who  by  his  discovery  had  saved  our  own 
fleets  and  armies  from  the  pestilential  ravages  of 
small-pox,  and  had  rendered  not  less  important  ser- 
vice to  the  people,  than  to  the  military  force  of 
every  potentate  in  Europe, — it  was  thought  that  such 
an  individual,  amidst  the  general  shouts  of  triumph 
and  of  victory,  would  not  be  forgotten  ;  that  a  con- 
gress of  sovereigns,  brought  together  by  a  most  re- 
markable combination  of  events,  would  feel  happy  to 
signalize  collectively,  as  they  had  done  individually, 
an  invention  not  the  least  wonderful  of  those  which 
marked  an  era  of  wonders. 

Dr.  Jenner  himself  could  not  but  feel  a  personal 
interest  in  such  a  combined  and  powerful  display  of 
general  respect,  should  those,  who  on  this  memorable 
occasion  were  the  representatives  of  the  civilised 
world,  think  fit  to  shew  it.  The  nature  of  his 
services  was  worthy  a  commemoration  of  this  kind, 
and  many  thought  that  it  would  have  been  ea- 
gerly adopted.  In  this  expectation,  however,  they 
were  disappointed.  Ingenuity  was  exhausted  in 
heaping  honours  on  those  who  had  been  engaged  in 
taking  away  man's  life,  whilst  the  modest  and  unob- 
trusive individual,  who  could  count  millions  preserved 
through  his  means,  was  permitted  to  enjoy  his  own 
self-satisfaction  without  any  peculiar  marks  of  public 

Most  of  the  distinguished  foreigners  were  desirous 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  20!) 

of  being  introduced  to  him.  In  addition  to  the  Em- 
peror of  Russia  and  his  sister,  he  received  a  respect- 
ful intimation  on  the  part  of  the  King  of  Prussia, 
appointing  a  time  for  an  interview.  His  majesty  was 
the  first  crowned  head  who  adopted  the  practice  of 
vaccination  in  his  own  family ;  Dr.  Jenner  having 
sent  virus  for  the  inoculation  of  the  children  of  the 
princess  royal  of  Prussia  so  early  as  the  year  1799. 
The  regulations  which  have  been  acted  on  in  the 
Prussian  dominions  have  been  so  efficacious  as  to 
give  that  country  almost  a  complete  immunit}'  from 
small-pox.  He  also  had  interviews  with  Blucher, 
Platoff,  and  most  of  the  principal  personages. 

It  is  now,  perhaps,  of  little  moment  to  refer  to 
occurrences  which  regarded  merely  temporal  ho- 
nours or  advantages,  and  which  have  not  any  neces- 
sary connexion  with  Jenner's  character  or  reputation. 
It  is  right,  however,  in  attempting  to  delineate  the 
history  of  any  individual,  to  bring  forward  the  events 
and  transactions  which  made  up  the  sum  of  his 
experience  in  passing  through  life.  It  is  on  this 
principle  that  I  mention  the  design  that  was  enter- 
tained by  some  of  his  friends  of  addressing  the  allied 
sovereigns  on  his  behalf.  Count  Orloff,  then  Russian 
ambassador  to  our  court,  who  had  a  great  respect 
and  friendship  for  him,  took  a  different  view  of  this 
subject,  and  suggested  that  Jenner  himself  should 
memorialize  the  assembled  monarchs  on  the  score  of 
his  claims  as  an  universal  benefactor.  He  shrank 
from  such  a  project,  and  it  is  better  that  it  should 
have  been  so  met  by  him  than  that  he  should  have 
acted  upon  it,  even  though  complete  success  might 
have  been  the  result. 

VOL.    II.  P 

210  LIFE    OF    DR    JENNER. 

On  looking  back,  even  at  the  distance  of  a  few 
years,  on  events  which  when  they  arose  appeared 
all  important,  it  is  astonishing  how  their  character 
changes  if  viewed  in  connexion  with  higher  and 
more  enduring  objects.  The  smiles  and  the  favours 
of  earthly  potentates  might  have  been  coveted  for 
Jenner ;  he  himself  might  have  played  the  courtier 
on  such  an  occasion,  and  he  might  have  had  his 
reward ;  but  what  would  that  have  availed  him  ?  and 
what  satisfaction  would  it  give  to  those  who  now 
honour  and  revere  his  name  had  he  been 

"  Stuck  o'er  with  titles,  or  hung  round  with  strings," 

if  such  outward  distinctions  had  been  purchased  by 
a  surrender  of  the  smallest  portion  of  his  own  per- 
sonal integrity  or  dignity  ? 

Another  plan  was  at  this  time  devised  which  had 
a  different  aim ;  and  one  which,  I  think,  it  would 
have  been  gratifying  to  have  seen  carried  fully  into 
effect.  The  mothers  whose  offspring  had  already 
been  protected  by  tlie  vaccine  shield,  the  daugh- 
ters whose  beauty  had  been  preserved  by  its  benign 
influence,  intended  to  unite  in  offering  a  tribute 
of  their  gratitude  to  the  author  of  vaccination.  To 
this  object  they  were  moved  by  the  strongest  feel- 
ings that  can  actuate  the  female  breast.  They  re- 
membered the  anxieties  and  perils  inseparably  con- 
nected with  the  progress  of  small-pox,  in  whatever 
form  it  was  communicated.  Protracted  suffering, 
hideous  deformity,  shocking  to  the  patient,  frightful 
to  the  beholder,  often  terminated  by  death,  or  by 
permanent  injury  to  the  individual,  blasting  a  mo- 
ther's joys  or  blighting  her   fondest  hopes ;   these. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  211 

and  greater  evils,  more  or  less  embittered  the  hap- 
piness of  every  family  in  the  land  before  the  adop- 
tion of  vaccination.  Mothers,  seeing  their  offspring 
rescued  from  such  a  scourge ;  daughters,  knowing 
that  their  beauty,  their  health,  their  life,  had  been 
preserved ;  and  that,  too,  by  the  well-directed  labours 
of  one  of  the  most  meritorious  and  disinterested 
of  their  fellow-countrymen,  did  think  that  it  became 
them  to  bear  public  and  unequivocal  testimony  to 
such  great  and  distinguished  benefits.  Such,  at 
least,  were  the  sentiments  of  some  of  the  British 
fair.  They  were  associated  with  many  of  their  best 
and  tenderest  aifections ;  and  they  were  willing  that 
the  author  of  vaccination  should  not  "  fall  away " 
till  he  experienced  both  their  force  and  their  since- 
rity. They  were  anxious  to  combine  in  one  great  and 
substantial  effort  the  whole  female  influence  of  the 
realm,  for  the  double  purpose  of  cheering  and  re- 
warding the  author,  and  of  promoting  the  practice 
of  vaccination. 

This  praiseworthy  design  promised,  at  one  period, 
to  be  attended  with  considerable  success.  It  was 
ardently  promoted  by  many  ladies,  and  a  noble- 
man who  has  ever  felt  the  deepest  respect  for  Jenner, 
I  mean  Lord  Segrave,  applied  to  her  late  Ma- 
jesty Queen  Charlotte  to  patronize  the  scheme,  to 
which  she  was  graciously  pleased  to  consent.  It  also 
found  favour  in  the  eyes  of  some  of  the  highest  per- 
sonages in  the  kingdom ;  and  there  is  great  reason 
to  believe  that,  l)ut  for  the  distresses  of  the  country 
after  a  long  and  arduous  warfare,  it  would  have  been 
crowned  with  success. 

p  2 

212  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

All  these  things  passed  away ;  and  we  find  Jenner 
again  at  the  end  of  the  summer  of  this  year  (1814) 
in  the  midst  of  his  domestic  circle  at  Cheltenham. 
Many  events  connected  with  the  practice  of  vaccina- 
tion itself  kept  him  in  a  state  of  agitation  ;  and  his 
family  distresses  were  by  no  means  slight.  I  had 
witnessed  many  of  them  myself ;  and  in  a  letter  writ- 
ten to  me  at  this  period,  he  thus  expresses  himself: 
"  You  know  how  actively  I  have  been  employed  here 
since  my  return  from  town ;  and  the  inexpressible 
miseries  I  have  endured  from  domestic  affliction.  The 
three  servants  are  still  in  bed,  I  think  convalescent ; 
but  there  is  no  marked  termination  of  the  fever  ex- 
cept in  Frank,  who  suffers  only  from  hunger,  as 
nothing  seems  to  satisfy  him.  Mrs.  Jenner  is  rather 
better ;  but  there  is  another  on  the  sick  list — alas  ! 
myself.  I  was  seized  on  Sunday  with  cholera,  and 
sad  work  it  has  made  with  me.  Within  these  four 
hours  things  have  changed  for  the  better,  or  I  could 
not  have  answered  your  letter  by  return  of  post." 

Though  the  potentates  did  not,  either  in  their  indi- 
\'idual  capacity  when  in  England,  or  when  assembled 
in  congress  at  Vienna,  confer  any  mark  of  distinc- 
tion on  the  author  of  vaccination,  some  of  their  sub- 
jects did,  nevertheless,  bear  him  nobly  in  their  me- 
mory, and  testify  their  admiration  in  the  manner 
recorded  in  the  following  characteristic  document. 
I  give  it  exactly  as  it  was  sent,  con\dnced  that  all 
will  respect  the  feelings  which  incited  the  warm- 
hearted inhabitants  of  Briinn  to  bring  the  historical 
recollections  of  their  country,  the  renowned  deeds  of 
their  ancestors,  into  close  alliance  with  the  honour 

LIFE    UF    UR.    JENNER.  213 

they  were  anxious  to  bestow  on  the  inhabitant  of 
another  land,  whose  only  claim  to  their  veneration 
and  esteem  formed  a  striking  contrast  to  the  great 
events  to  which  their  letter  alludes.  The  imperfect 
English,  interspersed  with  half  Latin  and  half  Ger- 
man idioms,  though  it  may  raise  a  smile  on  the 
cheek  of  some  fastidious  critic,  has  added,  in  my 
mind,  a  deeper  interest  to  the  communication. 

To  the  Right  Honourable  Physician  EdwardJ  enner, Discoverer 
of  the  Cow-pock,  the  greatest  Benefactor  of  Mankind. 

At  London. 

Most  honourable  Doctor, 

At  the  most  distant  frontier  of  East  Germany,  in  a  coun- 
try where  the  Remain's  army  two  thousand  years  before 
triumphing,  and  444  the  savages  Huns  under  the  com- 
mande  of  Attila,  and  791  the  Emperor  Charles,  the  Huns 
with  success  combatting,  passed,  and  where  the  Swedes 
under  Gustav  the  Great  1615  have  made  tremble  the  ground 
of  the  country  by  the  thousands  of  cannons,  and  there 
where  even  1740  the  Prussians  and  1805  the  French  war- 
riors victorious  appeared,  in  that  remarkable  country  had 
the  vaccined  youth  from  Briinn,  with  the  most  cordial  sen- 
timents of  gratitude  to  Thee,  a  constant  monument  with 
thine  breast-piece  in  the  65th  year  of  thine  age  erected,  even 
in  the  same  time  as  the  great  English  nation,  by  her  con- 
stancy and  intrepidity,  rendered  the  liberty  of  the  whole 
Europa,  and  as  the  greats  regents  Alexandre  and  William 
passed  through  that  country.  Accept  generously,  great  man, 
that  feeble  sign  of  veneration  and  gratitude ;  and  Heaven 
may  conserve  your  life  to  the  most  remote  time ;  and  every 
year,  in  the  presence  of  many  thousand  habitants,  a  great 
feast  near   that  temple  is  celebrated  for  the  discovery  of 

214  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

vaccine.     We  will  us  estimate  happy,  if  we  can  receive  few 
lignes  to  prove  us  the  sure  reception  of  that  letter. 
Most  honourable  Doctor, 

yours  most  obliged  servants, 

Medicinae  Doctor  Rincolini,  physician. 

^  (-first  surgeon    and    vacciner  of 

Llavigeb,  J  ^^      .      °      .  ^^  .. 

I  Vaccnie  Institute  at  Brunn. 

Briinn  in  Mo7-avia,  the  20^^  October. 

A  drawing  of  the  "  monument/'  as  it  is  called, 
accompanied  this  letter.  In  the  centre  of  the  temple 
the  bust  of  Jenner  stands  upon  a  pedestal,  on  which 
is  the  following  inscription  : 

Divo  Anglo 
Eduardo  Jenner, 


iEtatis  ejus  Anno 

Vaccinata  Brunensis 



I  am  not  certain  that  "  the  vaccined  youth  at 
Briinn"  ever  received  Dr.  Jenner's  reply  to  this  their 
cordial  and  animated  address.  Should,  however, 
these  pages  reach  their  hands,  they  may  be  assured 
that  their  kindness  and  their  generous  warmth  in 
addressing  the  discoverer  of  cow-pox  was  most 
deeply  felt  and  acknowledged  by  him.  I  was  with 
him  when  the  document  arrived  ;  and  it  gave 
him  unqualified  gratification.  I  know  that  it  was 
his  intention  to  have  expressed  such  feelings  for 
himself;  but  as  I  am  not  equally  certain  that  this 
his  wish  was  accomplished,  it  the  more  becomes  me 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER,  215 

to  record  his  sentiments,  lest  any  one  should  ima- 
gine that  he  was  uninfluenced  by  an  address  which 
did,  indeed,  awaken  more  pleasing  emotions  than 
almost  any  other  testimony  he  received. 

Another  communication,  of  a  some v\  hat  different 
description,  I  have  great  satisfaction  in  submitting  to 
the  reader.  I  regret  that  it  did  not  arrest  my  atten- 
tion when  carrying  on  the  discussion  on  the  iden- 
tity of  small-pox  and  cow-pox  in  the  first  volume. 
The  testimony  of  two  such  men  as  Soemmering  and 
Hoffman  is  worthy  of  all  respect  and  consideration. 
I  can  scarcely  conceive  any  thing  more  striking  than 
the  manner  in  which  that  testimony  was  given.  It 
is  not  the  less  valuable  from  being  founded  on  the 
very  same  observations  which  guided  the  decision  of 
Jenner.  Standing  as  it  does,  it  claims  respect  and 
attention ;  but  when  supported,  as  it  has  been,  by 
proofs  of  a  different  description,  it  carries  with  it 
the  force  of  demonstration.  Should  any  one  take 
an  interest  in  this  question,  they  will  not,  I  trust, 
find  their  trouble  misapplied  in  reading  the  letter  of 
Soemmering  in  conjunction  with  the  evidence  con- 
tained in  the  fifth  and  other  chapters  of  the  pre- 
ceding volume. 

Dear  Sir,  Munich,  Nov.  \si,  1814. 

I  have  the  honour  of  presenting  to  you  the  diploma  of 
our  Royal  Academy  of  Sciences,  as  a  due  acknowledgment 
of  the  superiority  of  that  salutiferous  genius,  by  whose  infi- 
nite merit  mankind  stands  delivered  for  ever  from  the  most 
hideous  and  dreadful  of  all  diseases. 

Bavaria  can  boast  of  being  the  country  in  which  your 
glorious  discovery  not  only  found  the  highest  applause,  ])ut 

216  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

which  from  the  very  first  beginning  till  the  present  day  con- 
tinued regularly  and  stedfastly  its  universal  introduction. 

As  for  my  own  part,  having  myself  in  my  youth  applied  to 
study  most  minutely  the  appearances  of  the  small-pox,  and 
having  examined  it  often  through  the  microscope  even  after 
artificial  injections  of  the  cutaneous  vessels,  and  recollecting 
the  features  of  a  certain  sort  of  small-pox,  and  at  the  first 
look  on  the  cow-pox  was  struck  with  its  identity  with  the 
small-pox  in  their  mildest — but,  alas  !  by  far  rarest  form ; 
amongst  others,  I  remember  perfectly  well  of  having  ob- 
served, with  my  worthy  friend  the  late  Dr.  Lehr,  of  Frank- 
fort on  the  Mayn,  particularly  in  two  cases,  after  inocula- 
tion with  the  small-pox  virus,  on  the  arm  of  healthy  children 
six  weeks  old,  on  the  breast  of  their  equally  healthy  mothers 
only  one  single  small-pox  without  any  other  pustule  besides 
any  where  else.  This  pearl-like  pustule,  surrounded  with  a 
fine  red  areola,  had  perfectly  the  same  appearance  as  the 
cow-pox,  kept  such  a  mild  and  short  course,  that  my  friend 
doubted  whether  such  an  extraordinary  slight  inoculation 
could  be  sufficient  to  the  purpose.  His  doubts  were  the 
reason  why  I  was  called  by  him  in  consultation  in  these 
cases.  Our  meritoriously  most  famous  physician  in  Ger- 
many in  regard  to  small-pox,  Dr.  Ch.  L.  Hoff^man,  Physi- 
cian to  the  late  Elector  of  Mayence,  a  lynx-eyed  man, 
though  more  than  eighty  years  old,  regarding  attentively  the 
first  cow-pox  shewn  to  him,  energetically  exclaimed,  "  This 
pox  surely  will  secure  against  the  small-pox^  being  indeed 
nothing  else  but  a  real  and  true  genuine  small-pox  of  the  mild- 
est sort ;  and  you  all  know  that  ten  thousand  poxes  give  no 
more  security  than  a  single  one.'' 

He  used  to  tell  me  confidently,  as  a  result  of  his  long  ex- 
perience, "  Beheve  me,  friend,  there  exists  a  certain  form 
or  a  particular  sort  of  small-pox,  so  mild,  so  regular,  and  of 
so  short  a  duration, — in  short,  of  such  benignity, — that  the 
patient,  whatever  regimen  he  follows,  this  sort  of  small-pox 
by  no  means  will  kill  him  ;  nay,  even  in  any  way  hurt  him." 

LIFE    OF    UR.    JENNER.  217 

But  I  must  own  I  never  saw  a  physician  so  extremely  care- 
ful in  the  choice  of  the  virus.  He  never  lost  a  patient  in- 
oculated by  himself  under  many  thousands ;  and  saw  but 
one  child  marked,  by  the  open  fault  of  the  mother. 

Give  me  leave  to  add  to  these  observations,  perhaps  long 
before  known  to  vou,  that  I  invented  and  introduced  the  deno- 
mination,  "  guarding-poxes,"  now  almost  generally  adopted, 
amongst  other  reasons  amply  detailed  in  my  dissertation, 
"  Priifung  der  Schulz-oder  Kuh  blattern  durch  Gogen  imp- 
fung  mit  kinder  blattern." 

I  wished  to  denote  by  this  denomination  my  idea  of  the 
perfect  identity  of  the  two  diseases,  "  morbos  non  sua  natura 
sed  gradu  diversi." 

May  the  blessings  of  so  many  millions   whose  lives  you 
saved,  or  whose  deformities  you  prevented,  contriljute  to  ex- 
hilirate  the  days  of  their  benefactor.     I  am,  dear  Sir, 
With  the  profoundest  veneration. 

Your  obedient  and  humble  servant, 
Dr.  S.  Th.  vox  Soemmering, 

R.  B.  Geheimer  Rath. 

The  establishment  of  literary  and  scientific  insti- 
tutions in  our  provincial  towns  forms  a  striking  fea- 
ture in  the  character  of  the  present  times.  The  bear- 
ing and  fructifying  of  the  plant  of  knowledge,  which, 
to  use  language  that  I  love  to  quote,  seems  to  havebeen 
appointed  to  this  autumn  of  the  world,  was  anxiously 
watched  by  Jenner.  He  even  outran  the  spirit  of 
the  age,  in  attempting  to  cultivate  this  goodly  tree. 
In  this  spirit  he  endeavoured  to  establish  a  literary 
and  philosophical  institution  in  Cheltenham  in  the 
year  1814.  Several  preliminary  meetings  were  held 
at  his  house^  No.  8,  St.  George's  Place,  in  the  end 
of  the  preceding  year.    On  the  3rd  of  February  1814, 

218  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

the  first  public  meeting  was  held  at  the  Assembly 
Rooms,  when  Dr.  Jenner  was  formally  elected  Pre- 
sident of  the  Cheltenham  Philosophical  and  Lite- 
rary Society ;  and  Mr.  T.  Morhall,  Secretary.  At 
this  time,  the  number  of  members  had  increased  to 
thirty.  Papers  were  read  by  Dr.  Parry  (now  of 
Bath),  Dr.  Boisragon,  and  myself. 

The  Institution  did  not  meet  with  that  encourage- 
ment which  had  been  anticipated.  Shortly  after  its 
establishment,  Dr.  Jenner's  bereavement  by  the 
death  of  his  wife,  and  his  consequent  retirement 
to  Berkeley,  put  a  stop  to  his  exertions,  and  it  soon 
fell  to  the  ground. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  219 



A  CALAMITY,  which  had  manifestly  been  long  sus- 
pended over  Jenner,  and  which  he  had  often  looked 
forward  to  with  distressing  apprehensions,  was  now 
at  hand.  During  the  whole  of  the  last  year,  Mrs. 
Jenner's  health,  at  all  times  feeble,  became  evidently 
more  impaired.  In  the  spring,  however,  she  seemed 
to  rally  a  little  ;  and  the  fears  which  were  justly  en- 
tertained for  her  safety,  though  not  altogether  re- 
moved, were  in  part  mitigated.  About  the  end  of 
August,  in  addition  to  her  usual  pulmonic  symptoms, 
she  experienced  an  attack  of  bronchitis.  Such  a 
seizure  in  such  a  person  was  more  alarming  than  it 
would  have  been  under  other  circumstances.  She 
was  so  slender,  so  attenuated,  and  so  much  deprived 
of  all  vigour  of  constitution  by  protracted  illness, 
that  she  could  not  have  existed  except  under  the 
most  constant  care  and  vigilance.     For  many  years 

220  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

she  had  lived  almost  in  an  artificial  climate  ;  and  for 
a  considerable  time  before  her  last  attack  she  was  con- 
fined entirely  to  her  room. 

I  saw  her  very  frequently  at  this  time,  and  ha 
constant  opportunities  of  witnessing  both  her  hus- 
band's anxiety  and  her  own  patience  and  resig- 
nation. I  visited  her  at  Cheltenham  the  night  be- 
fore she  expired  (Sept.  13,  1815);  and  when  she 
was  in  full  expectation  of  the  fatal  event.  The  im- 
pression made  upon  my  mind  by  the  scene  altogether 
I  can  never  forget.  She  had  long  been  preparing 
for  her  final  account,  and  her  departure  was  marked 
by  those  accompaniments  which  generally  attend  the 
death  of  the  righteous. 

I  was  with  Dr.  Jenner  the  day  after  this  disastrous 
event :  he  grasped  my  hand  with  great  emotion,  and 
said,  "  Baron,  I  am  a  wretch !"  Whoever  has  attended 
to  the  imperfect  delineation  of  his  character,  which 
these  pages  contain,  will  readily  perceive  that  feelings 
of  this  kind  were  not  likely  to  be  of  a  transient 
nature.  His  sensibiUty,  though  lively  and  acute, 
was  capable  of  receiving  the  deepest  and  most  abiding 
impressions.  The  death  of  Mrs.  Jenner  may  be  con- 
sidered as  the  signal  for  his  final  removal  from  pub- 
lic life.  He  retired  immediately  to  Berkeley,  and 
never,  except  for  a  day  or  two,  quitted  it  again. 
His  spirit,  wounded  and  subdued,  dwelt  with  affec- 
tionate recollections  on  the  memory  of  her  whom  he 
had  lost ;  but  it  is  not  to  be  supposed,  that  he  spent 
his  time  in  unavailing  sorrow;  for  it  will  soon  appear 
that  the  latter  years  of  his  life,  though  darkened  by 
domestic  affliction,  were  passed  in  perfect    confor- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  221 

mity  with  that  devotion  to  the  pursuit  of  useful 
knowledge  which  distinguished  his  early  years.  The 
following  strikingly  proves  the  truth  of  this  state- 

Berkeley,  Sunday  Night. 
My  dear  Baron, 
I  know  no  one  whom  I  should  like  to  see  here  better  than 
yourself ;  and  as  often  as  you  can  find  a  little  leisure,  pray 
come,  and  exercise  your  pity.  I  am,  of  course,  most 
wretched  when  alone  ;  as  every  surrounding  object  then  the 
more  forcibly  reminds  me  of  my  irreparable  loss.  Every 
tree,  shrub,  flower,  seems  to  speak.  But  yet  no  place  on 
earth  would  at  present  suit  me  but  this,  and  I  trust  my 
friends  will  not  endeavour  to  take  me  away ;  for,  strange  and 
contradictory  as  it  may  seem,  the  bitter  cup  has  a  kind  of 
relish  in  it  here,  which  it  could  afford  no  where  else. 

Give  me  a  task,  and  I  will  execute  it  as  well  as  I  can.  Tell 
me  which  subject  you  want  first.  Put  it  down  on  a  slip  of 
paper  when  you  come.  I  mean  a  list  of  what  I  promised 

God  bless  you. 

Sincerely  yours, 

E.  Jenner. 

One  of  the  first  events  which  called  him  from  his  se- 
clusion was  of  a  very  tragical  description.  A  desperate 
conflict  had  taken  place  between  a  gang  of  poachers 
and  the  gamekeepers  *  of  Lord  Segrave,  in  which  one 
of  the  latter  lost  his  life.  Dr.  Jenner,  as  a  magistrate, 
was  obliged  to  exert  himself  on  this  occasion,  and  he 
assisted  materially  in  procuring  and  arranging  that 
chain  of  evidence  by  which  the  guilt  was  most  clearly 

*  In  .January,  1810. 

222  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

brought  home  to  the  murderers;  two  of  whom  suffered 
the  extreme  penalty  of  the  law,  and  their  companions, 
twelve,  I  believe,  in  number,  were  transported  for 

Lord  Segrave  distinguished  himself  not  less  by 
his  personal  intrepidity  than  by  his  judgment  and 
discernment  in  detecting  and  capturing  the  leaders 
of  the  gang. 

Dr.  Jenner  attended  the  trial  at  Gloucester,  and 
honoured  me  by  staying  in  my  house.  He  was  very 
much  affected  by  the  result  of  it.  Most  of  the  cul- 
prits were  young  men,  and  the  sons  of  respectable 
farmers  ;  and  though  he  laboured  for  the  punish- 
ment of  the  guilty,  he  could  not  but  lament  the  con- 
sequences of  the  tragedy,  which  carried  such  lamen- 
tation and  woe  into  so  many  families  in  his  neigh- 

During  one  of  my  visits  to  him  at  Berkeley  in  the 
month  of  October  of  this  year,  I  was  seized  with  vio- 
lent rigors,  head-ache,  and  all  the  signs  denoting  the 
approach  of  a  severe  and  acute  disease.  I  made  pre- 
parations for  my  speedy  return  home,  but  luckily  for 
me  I  was  prevented,  and  to  his  determination  on  this 
occasion,  and  his  subsequent  kind  and  judicious  me- 
dical treatment,  I  probably  owe  my  existence. 

The  disease  turned  out  to  be  inflammation  about  the 
pharynx,  the  fauces  and  the  tonsils.  During  the 
whole  of  it  I  had  many,  many  opportunities  of  wit- 
nessing the  admirable  qualities  of  this  truly  great 
man.  His  assiduities  to  myself  were  unceasing.  He 
punctured  my  throat  three  different  times ;  and  as 
an  ordinary  lancet  was  rather  too  short  for  the  pur- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  223 

pose,  devised  an  ingenious  contrivance  for  ob\iating 
this  difficulty. 

While  I  was  at  his  house  an  express  came  to  him 
from  Bath,  announcing  the  alarming  illness  of  his 
friend  Dr.  Parry.  He  went  off  the  next  morning  and 
returned  the  same  evening,  as  he  was  uneasy  about 
me ;  I  having  been  delirious  in  the  night. 

Dr.  Parry  had  been  seized  with  apoplexy.  He 
knew  his  friend  Jenner  when  he  went  into  the  room. 
"  He  looked  at  me,"  said  he,  "  earnestly  for  some 
time,  then  gTasped  my  hand,  and  by  piteous  moans 
and  signs  expressed  how  strongly  he  felt  his  situation." 

In  the  course  of  the  following  summer  Jenner  had 
a  considerable  illness.  I  found  him  very  much  pulled 
down  by  it.  He  had  neglected  himself.  He  was 
walking  in  the  garden  when  I  arrived. 

We  had  a  great  deal  of  conversation  respecting  vac- 
cination and  the  conduct  of  the  National  Vaccine  In- 
stitution ;  the  Board  having  refused  to  attend  to  his 
cautions  touching  the  interference  of  cutaneous 
diseases  with  the  progress  of  the  vaccine  vesicle. 
"  I  am  afraid,"  he  observed,  "  that  the  extreme 
ignorance  of  medical  men  on  this  subject  wiU 
destroy  the  advantages  which  the  world  ought  to 
derive  from  the  practice."  I  confirmed  this,  by 
what  I  had  lately  seen.  "  I  want,"  he  continued,  "  my 
medical  friends  to  rally  round  me,  and  to  propose 
some  scheme  for  the  more  effectual  diffusion  of  the 
genuine  information  that  is  required.  The  present 
constitution  of  the  National  Vaccine  Institution  is 
bad.  The  Marquis  of  Lansdowne  and  myself  had 
arranged  an  excellent  plan ;  but  the  change  of  the 

224  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

ministry  knocked  it  on  the  head,  and  George  Rose 
and  Sir  Lucas  Pepys  concocted  the  present  imperfect 
scheme."  Altogether  he  seemed  rather  dispirited,  and 
somewhat  disquieted  by  reports  of  failures,  and  by  the 
disingenuous  conduct  of  many.  I  slept  at  Berkeley 
and  saw  him  in  the  morning.  He  was  in  bed,  and  I 
strictly  enjoined  him  not  to  go  out  as  he  had  done. 
"  Tell  Catherine  and  Robert  so,"  said  he,  "  for  they 
think  I  am  shamming ;  and  they  would  drag  me  about 
to  the  Ridge,  and  I  don't  know  how  many  other 
places."  I  soon  had  cheering  accounts,  as  the  sub- 
joined letter  will  show. 

My  dear  Doctor, 

Having  just  heard  that  a  person  is  going  from  hence  to 
Gloucester  to-morrow  morning,  I  write  to  tell  you  that  our 
^'  stern  alarms"  will  soon  be  "  changed  to  merry  meetings.'^ 

I  am  in  every  respect  better.  The  pain  in  my  head  gone ; 
my  respiration  easy ;  expectoration  lessened ;  but  there  is 
now  no  impediment  to  the  separation  of  the  mucus  from  the 
membranes.  Still,  however,  there  is  that  susceptibility  that 
a  single  inhalation  of  air  colder  than  the  temperature  of  my 
bedchamber  instantly  makes  me  hoarse.  I  took  several 
doses  of  the  squills,  but  have  omitted  it  from  its  singular 
effects.  It  called  to  my  remembrance  the  terrible  conse- 
quences of  the  dose  of  cayenne,  by  giving  a  glow  that  almost 
called  up  pyrosis.  The  difference,  however,  was  as  great  as 
one  to  fifty.  But  does  not  this  indicate  a  state  of  stomach 
that  calls  for  some  repairs  ?  I  mentioned  to  you  that  eating 
or  drinking  any  thing  hastily  produced  palpitation,  and  that 
this  has  been  the  case  with  me  for  some  time  past.  This 
palpitation  entirely  ceases  when  digestion  has  gone  on  to  a 
certain  extent.  Flatus  in  the  stomach  has  the  same  effect. 
It  first  came  on  some  years  ago  from  a  fright,  but  I  think  I 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  225 

have  felt  more  of  it  within  these  last  twelve  months  than 
usual :  much  of  it  depends  on  the  state  of  mind.  Depression 
is  sure  to  produce  it,  and  spontaneous  exhilaration  (not  wine) 
to  take  it  off.  We  must  talk  a  little  of  this  on  a  future  day. 
I  did  not  leave  my  bed  till  yesterday  afternoon,  and  had  no 
conception  I  should  have  suffered  such  a  diminution  of  mus- 
cular strength.  To-day  I  feel  a  great  increase  of  strength, 
but  was  excessively  faint  till  I  took  a  little  animal  food,  and 
a  small  quantity  of  wine,  largely  diluted  with  water. 

I  am  thinking  of  taking  some  infusion  of  colomba  with 
soda,  as  a  tonic  suitable  for  such  a  stomach  as  mine.  But, 
perhaps,  I  shall  see  you  ere  long.  I  am  tired.  So  adieu,  my 
dear  Baron,  with  best  affections,  truly  yours, 

E.  Jenner. 

9  o'clock,  Friday  night,  2nd  August,  1817. 

In  the  former  volume  I  placed  the  evidence  re- 
specting the  existence  of  the  variolae  among  the  in- 
ferior animals,  I  trust,  in  its  true  light.  That  the 
disease  is  sometimes  met  vdth  in  the  horse  was  de- 
monstrated by  the  observations  of  Jenner,  and  cor- 
roborated by  the  experience  of  Drs.  Loy,  Sacco,  and 
others.  The  attentive  reader  will  likewise  have  ob- 
served, that  the  mistake  in  considering  that  disease, 
which  is  vulgarly  called  the  grease,  as  the  source  of 
the  cow-pox,  was  subsequently  corrected  by  Dr. 
Jenner  himself.  It  was  shewn  that  the  horse*  is  lia- 
ble, as  well  as  the  cow,  to  an  eruptive  disease  of  a 
variolous  character ;  and  that  that  disease,  when 
communicated  to  man,  is  capable  of  affording  pro- 
tection against  small-pox,  even  though  it  had  never 
passed  through  the  cow.     For  the  most  part,  how- 

*  See  vol.  i.  p.  242. 
VOL.  II.  Q 

226  LIFE    OF    DR.   JENNER. 

ever,  the  equine  affection  was  seldom  recognised  in 
the  dairies  except  in  connexion  with  a  similar  dis- 
order in  the  cows.  The  last  time,  I  believe,  that  Dr. 
Jenner  had  an  opportunity  of  tracing  this  connexion 
was  in  1817,  and  I  copy  the  following  memorandum 
from  a  manuscript  written  on  the  1st  of  April  of  that 

"  Rise  and  progress  of  the  equine  matter  from  the 
farm  of  Allen  at  Wansell.  From  a  horse  to  Allen  ; 
from  Allen  to  two  or  three  of  his  milch  cows  ;  from 
the  cows  to  James  Cole,  a  young  man  who  milked 
at  the  farm ;  from  James  Cole  to  John  Powell  by 
inoculation  from  a  vesicle  on  the  hand  of  Cole  ;  and 
to  Anne  Powell,  an  infant ;  from  Powell  to  Samuel 
Rudder  ;  from  Rudder  to  Sophia  Orpin,  and  to  Henry 
Martin ;  from  H.  Martin  to  Elizabeth  Martin.  All 
this  went  on  with  perfect  regularity  for  eight 
months,  when  it  became  intermixed  with  other  mat- 
ter, so  that  no  journal  was  kept  afterwards.  Proof 
was  obtained  of  the  patients  being  duly  protected." 

I  find  other  entries  to  the  same  effect.  One  on 
the  17th  of  May  runs  thus:  "Took  matter  from 
Jane  King  (equine  direct),  for  the  National  Vaccine 
Estabhshment.  The  pustules  beautifully  correct." 
The  matter  from  this  source  was,  I  believe,  very  ex- 
tensively diffused.  I  received  supplies  of  it ;  and  it 
was  likewise  sent  to  Scotland.  I  may  mention,  at 
the  same  time,  that  some  years  before  this  period 
Mr.  Melon  of  Lichfield  had  found  the  equine  virus  in 
his  neighbourhood.  He  sent  a  portion  to  Dr.  Jen- 
ner ;  and  I  believe  it  proved  efficacious. 

In  the  following  year  I  sent  him  some  equine  mat- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  227 

ter,  which  I  obtained  from  the  hands  of  a  boy  who 
had  been  infected  directly  from  the  horse.  In  this 
case  the  disease  assumed  a  pustular  form,  and  ex- 
tended over  both  arms. 

April  25th,  1818. 

Yesterday  H.  Shrapnell  brought  me  the  equine  virus  and 
your  drawing,  which  conveys  so  good  an  idea  of  the  disease, 
that  no  one  who  has  seen  it  can  doul)t  that  the  vesicles  con- 
tain the  true  and  genuine  life-preserving  fluid.  I  have  in- 
serted some  of  it  into  a  child's  arm ;  but  I  shall  be  vexed  if 
you  and  some  of  your  young  men  at  the  Infirmary  have  not 
done  the  samcAvith  the  fluid  fresh  from  the  hand.  On  Wed- 
nesday, at  half-past  five,  I  am  threatened  with  a  batch  of 
fossil-hunters.  Halifax  heads  the  gang.  Will  you  trust 
yourself  among  such  folk  ?  With  best  aff"ections,  yours, 
my  dear  doctor,  very  truly,  Edward  Jenner. 

After  recounting  the  history  of  the  variolas  vac- 
cinae in  the  former  volume,  I  observe  (p.  240), 
"  from  these  facts,  it  may  fairly  be  inferred  that  the 
disease  will  hereafter  be  found  among-  cows  in  other 
parts  of  the  world."  This  prediction  has  been  veri- 
fied in  a  very  remarkable  manner  by  occurrences  in 
the  northern  parts  of  Bengal.  In  reading  the  account 
of  this  epizootic,  as  drawn  up  by  Mr.  MTherson, 
superintendant  of  vaccination  at  Moorshedabad,  one 
would  almost  think  that  he  was  copying  the  lan- 
guage of  Lancisi,  or  Lanzoni,  or  Layard,  who  had 
witnessed  similar  pestilences  in  Europe ;  and  it  is 
not  less  remarkable  that  the  same  names  are  given 
to  it  by  the  natives,  by  which  they  designate  the 
variolse  in  the  human  subject.     While  I  cannot  help 

Q  2 

228  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

rejoicing  in  this  additional  testimony  to  the  truth  of 
the  doctrines  which  I  have  advocated,  I  cannot  re- 
frain from  expressing  my  surprise  that  the  ample 
historical  records  which  completely  prove  the  fre- 
quent existence  of  variolse  among  cattle  should  have 
been  so  entirely  forgotten.  Mr.  M'Pherson's  ac- 
count is  altogether  so  curious  and  important  that  I 
deem  it  necessary  to  subjoin  it. 

On  inquiring  amongst  the  natives,  I  learned  that  the  cows 
in  Bengal  are  subject  to  a  disease,  which  usually  makes  its 
appearance  about  the  latter  end  of  August  or  early  in  Sep- 
tember, to  which  the  same  names  are  given  as  to  variolee  in 
the  human  subject,  viz.  bussunt,  mhata,  or  gotee  ;  and  on 
the  24th  of  August  I  was  informed  that  several  cows  be- 
longing to  a  native  at  Moidapore  were  affected.  I  conse- 
quently determined  on  again  attempting  to  regenerate  the 
vaccine  virus  from  the  original  source. 

The  animals  which  were  at  first  affected,  amounting  in 
one  shed  to  eighteen  or  twenty,  had  been  for  a  day  or  two 
previously  dull  and  stupid ;  they  were  afterwards  seized  with 
distressing  cough,  and  much  phlegm  collected  in  the  mouth 
and  fauces.  The  animals  had  apparently,  at  this  time,  no 
inclination  for  food,  or,  at  all  events,  they  were  unable  to 
satisfy  their  hunger  :  their  sufferings  seemed  to  be  greatest 
on  the  5th  and  6th  days,  when  consideraljle  fever  and 
pvistules  made  their  appearance  all  over  the  body,  especially 
on  the  abdomen,  which  terminated  in  ulceration,  the  hair 
falling  off  wherever  a  pustule  had  run  its  course.  The 
mouth  and  fauces  appeared  to  be  the  principal  seat  of 
the  disease,  being  in  som€  instances  one  mass  of  ulceration, 
which  in  all  probability  extended  to  the  stomach  and  alimen- 
tary canal. 

In  those  cases  where  the  mouth  was  very  much  affected, 
the    animals  died  apparently  from  inanition  ;     whereas  in 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  229 

those  cases  in  which  the  power  of  mastication,  or  even  of 
swallowing,  was  retained,  recovery  was  much  more  rapid 
than  might  have  been  expected  from  the  previous  severe 
sufferings  and  reduced  state  of  the  animals  :  the  mortality 
may  be  calculated  at  from  15  to  20  per  cent. 

From  the  above  description  of  the  disease,  the  board  will 
immediately  observe,  that  it  assumes  a  much  more  serious 
complexion  in  this  country  than  we  have  been  taught  to 
beheve  it  does  at  home.  I  say  taught,  because,  I  presume, 
it  has  fallen  to  the  lot  of  few  to  witness  the  disease  in  Eng- 
land ;  and  it  must  be  inferred,  from  Dr.  Jenner's  and  other 
medical  writings  on  this  subject,  that  the  animal  not  only 
continued  to  secrete  milk,  but  that  the  milk  was  used  ;  while, 
in  this  country,  the  little  that  is  secreted  is  never  made  use 
of,  and  perhaps,  owing  to  this  very  circumstance,  the  gual- 
lahs  (or  milkers)  in  India  are  not  affected  with  cow-pox,  as 
is  the  case  with  this  description  of  persons  in  Gloucester- 
shire, and  other  counties  in  England,  where  the  disease  is 
most  prevalent. 

It  is  an  extraordinary  fact,  and  worthy  of  remark,  that, 
while  the  cows  were  thus  affected,  no  case  of  variolee  amongst 
the  natives  in  the  village  presented  itself ;  and  although  the 
people  were  ardently  averse  from  handling  or  going  much 
amongst  the  cattle  at  the  time  of  disease,  still  they  all 
scouted  the  idea  of  infection,  stating  they  never  heard  of  any 
one  contracting  disease  from  the  cow;  consequently  they 
were  under  no  alarm  on  that  score. 

In  consequence  of  the  extreme  jealousy  with  which  all  my 
inquiries  on  this  subject  were  watched  by  the  Hindoos, 
coupled  with  my  own  anxiety  to  conceal  the  object  in  view, 
I  should  have  found  very  great  difficulty  in  prosecuting  my 
investigations,  had  not  the  disease  assumed  the  character  of 
an  epidemic ;  all  the  cattle  in  the  neighbourhood  becoming 
affected,  and,  amongst  others,  two  belonging  to  one  of  my 
own  vaccinators.  I  had  them  covered  with  blankets,  leaving 
merely  the  udder  and  teats  exposed  to  the  air ;  on  the  se- 

530  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

venth  day,  two  small  pustules  made  their  appearance  on  the 
teats  of  one,  which  dried  up  on  the  10th,  and  the  crusts 
were  removed  on  the  12th  day. 

From  these  crusts  eleven  native  children  were  inoculated ; 
no  effects  whatsoever  were  produced  on  six  of  this  num1)er ; 
two  had  very  slight  inflammation  on  the  arms,  on  the  third 
and  fifth  days  ;  two  had  considerable  local  inflammation  and 
shght  heat  of  surface  on  the  fifth,  sixth,  and  seventh  days ; 
but  no  vesicle  formed,  although  there  was  marked  induration 
round  tlie  puncture.  The  remaining  child's  arm  was  slightly 
inflamed  on  the  fourth  morning,  and  a  vesicle  was  apparent 
the  next  day,  which  continued  to  increase  till  the  9th  day, 
when  I  was  much  gratified  to  find  that  it  assumed  all  the 
characteristics  of  true  vaccine. 

The  poor  little  child,  the  subject  of  this  experiment,  was 
about  five  months  old,  and  suffered  much  from  fever  for 
four  days,  by  which  he  was  greatly  reduced,  but  very  soon 

Two  children  were  vaccinated  from  this  patient,  with  the 
most  complete  success;  but  the  symptomatic  fever  was 
more  severe  than  I  have  ever  ol)served  it  in  former  cases. 
Five  children  were  vaccinated  from  those  just  mentioned, 
and  the  result  was  equally  successful ;  after  which  no  difti- 
culty  was  experienced  in  disseminating  the  disease. 

With  the  view,  however,  of  satisfying  myself  that  the 
true  cow-pox  was  introduced,  I  had  two  of  the  children  who 
had  been  vaccinated  with  the  fresh  virus  inoculated  with 
small-pox,  and  both  were  happily  found  to  be  secure.  Ano- 
ther instance  of  the  preservative  powers  of  the  new  lymph 
deserves  mention.  Five  children,  in  the  Gorah  Bazaar  at 
Burhampore,  were  vaccinated,  and  shortly  afterwards  were 
accidentally  exposed  to  variolous  contagion,  by  residing  in 
the  same  huts  where  the  disease  was  raging  very  dreadfully, 
but  not  one  of  those  vaccinated  was  in  the  slightest  degree 
affected  by  variolce. 

Many  of  the  children  belonging  to  his  majesty's  49th 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  231 

regiment,  and  others  in  the  families  of  the  residents,  both 
civil  and  military,  at  this  station  and  its  vicinity,  have  been 
vaccinated  with  the  regenerated  virus.  My  friend.  Dr. 
French  (who  invariably  has  recourse  to  Bryce's  test),  Mr. 
Skipton,  the  superintending  surgeon,  and  several  other  me- 
dical gentlemen  have  expressed  themselves  completely 
satisfied  with  the  result. 

It  is  a  gratifying  fact,  that  since  the  introduction  of  the 
new  lymph,  the  symptomatic  fever  has  been  more  marked, 
and  the  natives  have  much  greater  confidence  in  the  efficacy 
of  the  operation  5  in  proof  of  which  I  need  merely  mention, 
that  the  number  presented  for  vaccination,  within  the  last 
three  months,  has  much  exceeded  that  of  any  similar  period 
for  the  previous  two  years. 

Variola  has  been  more  or  less  prevalent  in  this  neigh- 
bourhood for  the  last  seven  months,  and  is  now  committing 
dreadful  ravages  in  several  parts  of  the  city.  Many  instances 
are  daily  presenting  themselves  of  the  disease  attacking 
those  who  have  been  previously  affected,  either  naturally  or 
by  inoculation;  and  1  am  credibly  informed  that  several  of 
the  latter  have  fallen  victims  to  this  dreadful  scourge.  It  is 
melancholy  to  reflect,  that  a  set  of  ignorant  and  mercenary 
beings  (such  as  the  Tickadars  in  this  country)  are  permitted 
annually  to  regenerate  the  disease,  and  thereby  keep  up  a 
continual  source  of  contagion,  by  which  thousands  of  lives 
-  are  sacrificed. 

Accompanying  I  have  the  pleasure  to  send  some  vaccine 
crusts  and  ivory  points,  armed  with  virus,  taken  two  days 
since,  from  which  I  entertain  no  doubt  the  disease  will  be 
readily  introduced  in  Calcutta ;  and  should  more  be  re- 
quired, it  shall  be  immediately  supplied. 

I  take  this  opportunity  of  acquainting  the  board,  that  I 
have  applied  to  government  for  one  month's  leave  of  absence 
from  my  station  to  visit  the  Presidency,  which  I  hope  to 
reach  by  the  12th  proximo,  when  it  will  afford  me  much 

232  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

pleasure  to  yield  any  farther  information  that  may  be  re- 
quired on  this  interesting  subject. 

Moorshedabad,  November  2dth,  1832. 

(See  Transactions  of  the  Medical  and  Physical  Society  of 
Calcutta,  vol.  vi.) 

In  connexion  with  this  subject,  it  is  of  importance 
to  remark,  that  the  Variolse  Equinse  have  recently 
been  observed  in  Bohemia  by  M.  C.  G.  Kahlert,  M.D. 
and  assistant  professor  of  the  veterinary  art  in  the 
University  of  Prague.  The  work  containing  this  me- 
moir was  most  kindly  transmitted  to  me  by  Dr.  de 
Carro  of  Carlsbad.  (See  Almanach  de  Carlsbad  for 

In  the  course  of  the  year  1818a  virulent  epidemic 
small-pox  prevailed  in  many  parts  of  Great  Britain 
as  well  as  on  the  Continent.  At  the  same  time  an 
increased  hostility  was  evinced  to  the  practice  of 
vaccination.  Doubts  of  its  efficacy,  which  had  been 
artfully  excited  in  England,  were  propagated  to 
other  parts  of  the  world.  Dr.  Jenner  received  inti- 
mations of  this  kind  from  a  gi'eat  many  quarters, 
and  professional  gentlemen  of  some  name  took  up 
the  opinion  of  the  anti-vaccinists,  and  almost  de- ' 
clared  themselves  converts  to  their  doctrines.  The 
events  which  occurred  at  Edinburgh,  and  several 
other  places  in  Scotland,  seemed  to  the  persons  to 
whom  I  allude,  to  justify  this  conduct.  The  small- 
pox there,  was  unusually  fatal  and  malignant.  It 
killed  a  very  large  proportion  of  those  whom  it  at- 
tacked in  the  natural  way  ;  and  it  likewise  spread  to 
many  who  had  previously  had  small-pox,  as  well  as 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER,  233 

cow-pox.  Dr.  Jenner  believed  imperfect  vaccination, 
or  some  cause  which  interfered  with  the  regular  and 
complete  progress  of  that  affection,  to  be  the  main 
sources  of  such  evils.  He  admitted  that  small-pox 
might  succeed  perfect  vaccination,  just  as  small-pox 
does  succeed  small-pox ;  but  the  great  number  of 
failures  which  were  reported  to  have  occurred,  he 
thought,  could  only  be  accounted  for  by  supposing 
that  some  circumstances  interrupted  the  proper  in- 
fluence of  vaccination  on  the  system.  One  of  these 
he  conceived  to  be  the  existence  of  cutaneous  disease  ; 
and  this  led  to  the  publication  of  his  circular  letter, 
which  was  intended  to  draw  forth  the  opinions  of 
professional  men  on  this  point.  There  was  a  very 
solid  foundation  for  his  statements  on  this  subject, 
though  many  have  hesitated  concerning  them  ;  but, 
be  this  as  it  may,  there  can  be  no  doubt  of  the  truth 
of  his  main  proposition,  namely,  that  where  vaccine 
failures  were  very  frequent,  there  must  have  been 
some  imperfection  either  in  the  virus  or  in  the 
progress  of  the  affection.  This  fact  is  rendered 
abundantly  manifest  by  the  different  degrees  of  suc- 
cess which  have  attended  the  practice  of  different 
individuals.  After  very  minute  inquiry  I  do  not 
know  of  more  than  six  or  eight  cases  of  small-pox 
after  cow-pox  among  all  Dr.  Jenner's  patients.  This 
proportion  is  probably  no  more  than  might  have  oc- 
curred, had  he  inoculated  for  smaU-pox  instead  of 

Some  of  the  difficulties  which  perplexed  the  sub- 
ject in  Edinburgh,  arose  from  a  degree  of  uncertainty 
that  prevailed  regarding  the  character  of  the  epi- 

234  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

demic  at  its  first  appearance.  Dr.  Hennen  was  in- 
clined to  think  that  the  disease  was  varicella  or 
chicken-pox,  of  a  malignant  character.  He  soon  was 
obliged  to  abandon  this  notion.  It  however  tended, 
I  conceive,  to  render  the  investigations,  which  were 
carried  on  at  Edinburgh,  somewhat  more  intricate 
than  they  otherwise  would  have  been.  Dr.  Thomp- 
son, indeed,  went  further  than  Dr.  Hennen  ;  and  in 
a  very  elaborate  work  endeavoured  to  prove  that  the 
varicella,  instead  of  being  a  distinct  and  peculiar  dis- 
ease, as  had  been  generally  supposed,  was  only  a  variety 
or  modification  of  small-pox.  He  was  led  to  this  con- 
clusion from  the  gTcat  prevalence  of  the  eruptive  dis- 
ease among  those  who  had  previously  had  small-pox  as 
well  as  cow-pox  ;  and  hence  he  believed  it  possible, 
that  in  many  previous  epidemics,  where  similar  events 
had  taken  place,  the  truth  had  been  obscured  by 
gi\'ing  the  disease  a  specific  name,  such  as  swine- 
pock,  or  chicken-pock  ;  when,  in  fact,  it  was  a  disease 
of  a  variolous  nature  and  origin  ;  *  and  like  to  that 
which  then  raged  in  Edinburgh,  and  other  places. 
This  latter  position,  I  think,  has  been  almost  demon- 
strated ;  and  it  can  scarcely  now  be  doubted  that  the 

*  Dr.  Sacco,  of  Milan,  has  taken  another  view  of  this  question. 
See  his  paper  in  the  Appendix,  No.  IV.  This  document  was 
kindly  extracted  and  translated  for  me  from  Hufeland's  Jour- 
nal, by  Dr.  Prichard  of  Bristol.  Dr.  Sacco  unquestionably  is 
the  most  extensive  vaccinator  in  the  world.  All  that  comes 
from  him  on  this  subject  is  peculiarly  worthy  of  attention  ;  and 
I  have  much  satisfaction  in  availing  myself  of  his  support  to 
the  opinion,  which  I  have  uniformly  avowed,  that  the  protec- 
tion aflbrded  by  the  genuine  Variola3  Vaccinae  is  not  of  a  partial 
or  evanescent  character. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  235 

iinvvilliiigness  to  believe  that  small-pox  could  occur 
twice  in  the  same  person,  had  suggested  the  expe- 
dient of  getting  rid  of  the  difficulty  by  giving  the 
disorder  a  new  appellation.  Whether  the  other  part 
of  the  position  has  been  equally  well  made  out,  I 
shall  not  presume  to  decide.  My  own  impression, 
however,  from  all  that  I  have  seen,  is,  that  the  vari- 
cella, strictly  so  called,  is  a  disease  sid  generis ;  and 
that  it  is  not  of  the  same  nature  as  variola. 

A  remark  of  Dr.  Hennen,  in  his  very  excellent  paper 
on  eruptive  diseases,  satisfies  me,  that  he  was  very 
near  the  truth  when  he  asserted  the  affinity  between 
small-pox  and  cow-pox.  It  is  very  singular  that  me- 
dical men  should  have  been  so  averse  to  admit  this 
doctrine,  which  had  been  so  clearly  announced  by 
Dr.  Jenner  ;  and  should  have  exerted  their  ingenuity 
in  detecting  differences,  instead  of  tracing  analogies, 
which,  when  duly  understood,  tend  to  remove  all 

"  So  perfectly  con"vinced  am  I,"  observed  Dr.  Hen- 
nen, "  of  the  preventing  and  modifying  powers  of  the 
vaccine  inoculation,  that  I  should  never  hesitate 
about  employing  it,  even  though  it  were  probable 
that  my  patient  had  imbibed  the  small-pox  infec- 
tion ;  nor  should  I  be  deterred  from  the  practice  by 
the  idle  supposition  of  the  nurse  that  I  was  too  late, 
or  the  learned  objection  of  the  doctor  that  the  two 
diseases  could  not  co-exist ;  experience  very  clearly 
demonstrating,  that  there  is  still  something  in  the 
mutual  relations  of  these  diseases  to  each  other  that 
has  not  yet  been  satisfactorily  elucidated.''' 

I   cannot  of  course   quote   this   latter  sentiment 

236  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

without  deriving  satisfaction  from  the  con\dction 
that  so  acute  an  observer  had  taken  that  view  of  the 
subject  which  it  has  been  my  great  object  to  explain 
and  confirm^  both  by  past  history  and  recent  expe- 
rience. I  cannot  doubt  that  had  the  investigation 
been  pursued  by  Dr.  Hennen,  and  had  all  the  evi- 
dence which  has  since  been  acquired  been  laid  before 
him,  I  should  have  found  him  a  firm  supporter  of 
the  doctrine  which  I  have  espoused. 

In  the  former  volume  I  quoted  the  emphatic  lan- 
guage of  Dr.  Thompson  expressive  of  his  opinions  of 
vaccination,  after  it  had  passed  through  the  fiery 
ordeal  at  Edinburgh.  I  cannot  do  less  than  give 
some  of  the  sentiments  of  Dr.  Hennen  on  the  same 
occasion. — "  After  the  most  mature  deliberation,  I 
must  explicitly  avow,  that  nothing  has  occurred  in 
these  cases  which  has  in  the  smallest  degree  shaken 
my  opinion  of  the  great  and  pre-eminent  importance 
of  the  practice  of  vaccination  ;  whether  we  view  it 
as  a  preventive  of  small-pox  in  a  vast  majority  of 
cases,  or  as  a  most  effectual  neutralizer  of  its  malig- 
nity in  the  comparatively  few  instances  in  which, 
from  some  pecuUarity  of  constitution,  or  some  ano- 
maly in  the  process  hitherto  not  fully  developed,  it 
has  failed  to  afford  this  permanent  security. 

"  On  the  contrary,  it  appears  to  me  that  the  whole 
series  of  cases  which  I  have  given,  present  the  most 
triumphant  evidence  in  favour  of  vaccination,  and 
place  in  a  most  conspicuous  point  of  view  the  infinite 
advantages  to  be  derived  from  the  process  when  duly 

*  See  Edin.  Medical  and  Surgical  Journal,  vol.  xiv.  page  456. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  23/ 

There  can  be  no  doubt  that  during  the  first  years 
of  vaccine  inoculation  there  had  been  great  careless- 
ness and  inattention  in  conducting  the  practice.  At 
this  time,  too,  (1818)  there  were  numerous,  and,  I 
believe,  well-founded  complaints  of  the  bad  quality 
of  the  vaccine  lymph  itself.  Dr.  Jenner  received 
hints  of  this  kind  from  Italy,  from  America,  and 
many  parts  of  England.  These  unfavourable  ac- 
counts were  generally  coupled  with  some  sinister 
and  injurious  rumours  touching  his  owti  confi- 
dence in  vaccination.  Here,  then,  we  have  an  accu- 
mulation of  evils  and  misrepresentations,  which 
could  not  fail  materially  to  annoy  him.  There  was 
great  clamour  about  the  prevalence  of  small- pox 
after  vaccination,  a  general  complaint  of  the  dete- 
rioration of  the  vaccine  lymph,  and  lastly,  a  repeti- 
tion of  the  absurd  statement  of  his  distrust  of  his 
own  solemn  asseverations.  Strange  enough !  at  this 
very  time,  when  people  were  willing  to  under- 
value and  undermine  vaccination  in  this  country,  a 
neighbouring  nation,  somewhat  jealous  of  the  fame 
of  England,  put  forth  claims  to  that  invention.  The 
manner  in  which  the  French  managed  this  affair 
has  been  already  stated.  I  recur  to  it  here  chiefly 
to  mark  the  peculiarity  of  Jenner's  situation.  His 
countrymen  were  depreciating  his  discovery  at  the 
moment  that  another  people  esteemed  it  so  highly, 
as  almost  to  make  it  a  subject  of  national  con- 

The  greatly  exaggerated  statements  on  the  subject 
of  the  vaccine  failures,  and  the  hesitating  manner  in 
which  respectable  individuals  spoke  on  the  subject. 

238  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

threatened  to  lead  to  a  considerable  abandonment 
of  the  practice.  Under  such  circumstances^  the  excel- 
lent and  honourable  Sir  Gilbert  Blane,  whose  services 
at  the  commencement  of  vaccination  have  already 
been  commemorated,  proved  by  the  most  conclusive 
reasoning,  and  an  appeal  to  the  most  authentic 
documents,  that  the  importance  of  the  vaccine  dis- 
covery was  in  no  essential  points  lowered  by  the 
failures  which  were  alleged  to  have  taken  place. 

In  order  to  bring  this  matter  to  the  test  of  calcu- 
lation, he  selected  four  periods,  each  of  fifteen  years, 
for  the  purpose  of  exhibiting  the  comparative  mor- 
tality of  small-pox.  The  last  series  comprehended 
the  time  in  which  the  vaccine  inoculation  had  been 
so  far  diffused  as  to  produce  a  notable  effect  on  the 
deaths  from  this  disease.  The  result  of  the  whole  was, 
that  even  under  the  very  imperfect  practice  of  vaccina- 
tion which  had  taken  place  in  the  metropolis,  23,134 
lives  had  been  saved  in  the  fifteen  years  alluded  to  ; 
that  is,  from  1804  to  1818  inclusive.  "It  will  be 
seen  by  an  inspection  of  the  tables,"  Sir  Gilbert  adds, 
"  that  in  that  time  there  have  been  great  fluctua- 
tions in  the  number  of  deaths.  This  has  been  owing 
partly  to  the  small-pox  inoculation  of  out-patients 
having  by  an  unaccountable  infatuation  been  kept 
up  at  the  small -pox  hospital  for  several  years  after 
the  virtue  of  vaccination  had  been  fully  confirmed. 
The  greater  number  of  deaths  in  1805  may  chiefly 
be  referred  to  this  cause.     Since  the  suppression  *  of 

*  Small-pox  inoculation  of  out-patients  was  discontinued, 
April  28,  1808.  The  small-pox  inoculation  of  in-patients  was 
persisted  in  till  the  30th  of  June,  18-22  !  ! ! 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  239 

this  practice,  the  adoption  of  vaccination,  though 
in  a  degree  so  incomplete,  in  consequence  of  public 
prejudice  created  entirely  by  mischievous  publica- 
tions, has  been  unable  to  prevent  a  considerable 
though  fluctuating  mortality  from  small-pox.  The 
late  mortality  from  small-pox,  though  little  more 
than  half  of  what  it  was  in  former  times,  might  have 
been  entirely  saved,  if  vaccination  had  been  carried 
to  the  same  extent  as  in  many  cities  and  in  whole 
districts  on  the  Continent  of  Europe,  in  Peru  and 

Sir  Gilbert  next  showed,  that  making  every  allow- 
ance for  the  adverse  circumstances  which  had  been 
reported,  vaccination,  if  duly  and  vigorously  prac- 
tised, was  able  to  control,  and  even  to  extirpate, 
small-pox.  He  fully  admitted  the  occurrence  of 
those  cases  of  mitigated  small-pox  after  vaccination 
which  were  then  prevalent.  He  showed,  however, 
from  their  general  mildness,  that  they  could  scarce 
be  called  faihires ;  for  though  vaccination  some- 
times fails  in  preventing  small-pox,  it  seldom  fails  to 
prevent  death. 

I  should  have  great  satisfaction  in  entering  more 
at  large  into  the  reasoning  of  Sir  Gilbert,  had  it  been 
compatible  with  the  design  of  this  work.  This 
essay  produced  a  very  beneficial  effect  on  the  public 
mind.  It  contained  a  clear,  temperate,  and  authentic 
statement  of  facts ;  and  although  it  conceded  more 
to  the  anti-vaccinists  than  was  necessary,  it  proved 
that  even  if  every  case  of  vaccination  were  to  be 
followed  by  the  mild  or  mitigated  small-pox,  it 
would  be  an  unspeakable  benefit  to  mankind,  by  dis- 

240  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

arming  that  disease  of  all  its  virulence  and  all  its 
danger.  Tlie  whole  character  of  this  production, 
and  the  just  and  animated  style  in  which  the  learned 
and  venerable  baronet  advocated  the  cause  of  truth 
and  humanity,  was  very  acceptable  to  Dr.  Jenner. 
Although  he  was  not  disposed  to  go  so  far  as  Sir 
Gilbert,  he  nevertheless  looked  upon  the  production 
as  so  judicious,  and  so  full  of  sound  and  incontro- 
vertible argument,  that  he  was  very  anxious  to  ex- 
tend its  circulation  beyond  the  limits  of  the  book  in 
which  it  was  originally  printed."*^ 

"  From  some  unaccountable  delay,"  he  observes, 
"  the  last  volume  of  the  Transactions  of  the  Me- 
dico-Chirurgical  Society  did  not  reach  me  till  a 
few  days  ago.  I  dashed  at  your  paper  the  mo- 
ment I  opened  it ;  and  I  should  set  no  value  on 
my  feelings  if  I  could  not  with  truth  assure  you, 
that  its  perusal  afforded  me  the  highest  gratifi- 
cation. It  is  exactly  the  thing  the  public  have 
long  wanted.  A  statement  so  clear  and  so  decisive 
cannot  fail  to  make  a  beneficial  impression  even  in 
its  present  state  of  confinement ;  but  if  I  may  be 
allowed  to  burst  the  blue  walls  of  its  prison-house,  I 
would,  with  yours  and  the  consent  of  the  Society,  set 
it  free,  and  give  it  the  liberty  of  ranging  the  world 
over.  Two  or  three  hundred  copies  might  be  dispersed 
with  certainty  of  great  advantage.  In  such  a  case 
would  you  like  to  make  any  additions  ?  I  know  you 
would  not  wish  to  crowd  it  with  examples  of  the  ex- 
tinction of  small-pox,  where  vaccination  had  been 
universally  adopted ;  but  to  the  powerful  ones  you 

*  Medico-Chirurgical  Transactions. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  241 

have  fiflduced,  there  is  one  observation  more  that 
might  be  made  with  the  most  striking  effect ;  and 
that  is,  the  absence  of  the  disease  from  our  armies 
during  nearly  the  whole  of  the  late  war,  which  took 
place  in  consequence  of  a  mandate  from  the  com- 
mander-in-chief, namely,  that  every  recruit  on  join- 
ing his  regiment  should  be  immediately  vaccinated, 
unless  he  bore  the  incontestible  proofs  of  his  pre- 
vious security.  This,  when  contrasted  with  the  re- 
collection of  the  incessant  losses  by  small-pox  among 
the  troops  in  former  wars,  becomes  a  most  interesting 

"  With  regard  to  the  mitigated  disease  which 
sometimes  follows  vaccination,  I  can  positively  say, 
and  shall  be  borne  out  in  my  assertion  by  those  who 
are  in  future  days  to  follow  me,  that  it  is  the  off- 
spring entirely  of  incaution  in  those  who  conduct 
the  vaccine  process.  On  what  does  the  inexpli- 
cable change  which  guards  the  constitution  fi'om 
the  fang  of  the  small-pox  depend  ?  On  nothing  but 
a  correct  state  of  the  pustules  on  the  arm  excited  by 
the  insertion  of  the  virus ;  and  why  are  these  pus- 
tules sometimes  incorrect,  losing  their  characteristic 
shape,  and  performing  their  office  partially  ?  But 
having  gone  pretty  far  on  this  subject  in  my  former 
letter,  I  shall  not  trouble  you  with  a  twice-told  tale." 

This  letter  is  not  dated,  but  I  presume  it  must 
have  been  written  about  the  beginning  of  August 

VOL.    IT.  R 

242  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 



It  is  now  nearly  forty  years  since  the  practice  of 
vaccination  was  publicly  adopted  in  England.  In 
drawing  this  subject  to  a  close,  it  becomes  me  to 
revert  to  the  opinions  of  Jenner,  to  compare  his 
doctrines  with  the  experience  acquired  during  the 
whole  of  that  long  period ;  and  to  ascertain  how  far 
they  have,  thereby,  been  confirmed  or  refuted.  I 
could  wish  at  the  same  time  to  devote  some  atten- 
tion to  questions  of  a  subsidiary  nature ;  to  point 
out  the  connexion  of  his  discovery  with  the  increase 
of  population,  and  to  explain  how  it  may  have  con- 
tributed to  an  increase  or  decrease  of  the  mortality 
attendant  on  other  affections. 

The  discussions  which  have  been  published  in  the 
first  volume  respecting  the  history  of  the  Variolse 
and  the  Variolse  Vaccinae,  and  the  illustrations 
thereby  given  of  the  sentiments  and  statements  of 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  243 

Jenner,  will  render  the  first  of  these  objects  of  compa- 
ratively easy  attainment.  We  are  not  now  perplexed 
with  difficulties  respecting  the  origin  or  nature  of 
cow-pox ;  nor  is  there  any  room  for  much  specula- 
tion as  to  its  prophylactic  powers,  that  is  to  say, 
these  powers  are  alike  in  nature  with  those  belong- 
ing to  small-pox  itself ;  and,  if  human  science  could 
enable  us  to  detect  those  changes  in  the  constitution 
which,  for  the  most  part,  render  an  individual  who 
has  had  small-pox,  insusceptible  of  future  attacks, 
then  we  might  explain  why  the  Variolse  Vaccinse 
exerts  a  similar  influence.  Such  being  the  fact,  the 
main  questions  which  it  behoves  us  to  put  are  these  : 
1st,  Has  the  cow-pox  retained  those  distinctive 
marks  which  characterised  it  when  it  was  first  dis- 
covered? 2ndly,  Has  the  true  virus,  after  passing 
through  the  constitutions  of  hundreds  or  thousands 
of  individuals,  lost  in  any  degree  its  prophylactic 
powers  ?  Does,  in  short,  the  affection,  at  this  day, 
wear  the  same  aspect,  and  produce  the  same  effect, 
as  on  its  first  introduction  ? 

I  have  endeavoured  to  calculate  the  proportions 
of  failures  in  vaccination  ;  but  there  is  much  greater 
difficulty  in  arriving  at  the  exact  truth  in  this  matter 
than  might  at  first  be  conceived.  This  difficulty 
arises  more  from  the  imperfection  of  our  observa- 
tions than  from  the  nature  of  the  subject  itself.  In 
situations  where  vaccination  has  been  performed  with 
great  care,  the  number  of  cases  of  failure  is  ex- 
tremely small :  whereas,  the  reports  of  failures  from 
other  quarters  are  so  numerous,  that,  were  they 
not    counteracted  by  better  testimony,   men's  con- 

R  2 

244  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

fidence  in  vaccination  might  be  shaken.  It  is  quite 
fair  to  conclude,  when  great  discrepancies  occur, 
that  there  must  be  some  fault  either  in  the  observer 
or  the  reporter  ;  for  it  is  not  possible  that  such  dif- 
ferences should  exist  if  the  practice  had  l>een  con- 
ducted with  equal  attention. 

Without,  therefore,  dwelling  farther  on  this  sub- 
ject at  present,  I  believe  that  the  experience  of  every 
well-conducted  public  institution,  as  well  as  of  every 
individual  who  has  fairly  investigated  the  present 
and  past  state  of  vaccine  inoculation,  will  justify  me 
in  affirming  that  cow-pox  is  now  what  it  was  at  the 
beginning.  There  are  instances  where  the  same 
virus  has  been  passed  from  one  human  subject  to 
another  for  more  than  thirty  years,  and  its  transmis- 
sion during  that  period  must  have  been  through 
fifteen  or  sixteen  hundred  different  individuals,  yet 
no  degeneration  of  its  properties  has  taken  place. 
Though  the  vaccinations  which  have  been  performed 
by  Dr.  Jenner  and  his  followers  in  this  district  fully 
warrant  this  statement,  it  is  nevertheless  always 
proper  to  employ  recent  lymph  from  the  cow  when 
it  can  be  procured. 

I  need  scarcely  observe  that  results  of  this  kind 
can  have  been  obtained  only  where  the  greatest  at- 
tention was  paid  to  the  perfectness  of  the  virus  in 
the  first  instance,  as  well  as  during  every  subsequent 
inoculation.  I  have  already  shewn  how  much  Dr. 
Jenner  insisted  upon  the  necessity  of  this  caution, 
because  he  knew  that  the  virus  might  be  deteriorated 
in  many  ways ;  and  that  it  was  possible  by  inoculating 
with  such  to  produce  a  spurious  or  imperfect  vesicle 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  245 

which  gave  no  real  protection.  It  is  undeniable 
that  a  very  large  number  of  reported  failures  are  to 
be  ascribed  to  the  ignorance  of,  or  want  of  attention 
to,  these  important  points.  It  must,  nevertheless 
be  admitted,  that  small-pox  has  occurred  after  the 
most  perfect  vaccination.  The  number  of  such 
cases,  as  far  as  the  experience  of  this  district  goes, 
I  should  say,  is  not  greater  than  that  of  small-pox 
after  small-pox.*"  This  statement  appears  to  me  to 
be  made  out  from  two  sources.     There  are  parishes 

*  There  are  no  sufficient  data  to  enable  us  to  determine  the 
exact  proportion  of  persons  that  may  be  attacked  with  small- 
pox after  having  been  vaccinated.  By  far  the  most  valuable 
document  that  has  appeared  in  this  country  has  been  obtained 
from  the  Royal  Military  Asylum  at  Chelsea.  The  return  em- 
braces a  period  from  1803  to  1833.  The  number  of  children 
reputed  to  have  had  small-pox  previous  to  admission  was  2532  : 
of  which  number,  1887  were  boys,  645  girls.  The  number  of 
boys  reputed  to  have  been  vaccinated  previous  to  admission  was 
245)8;  of  girls,  562.     Making  a  general  total  of  3060. 

The  number  who  had  small-pox,  after  reputed  small-pox, 
was  26  :  15  boys  and  11  girls.  The  number  who  had  small-pox 
after  reputed  vaccination  was  24  :   19  boys  and  5  girls. 

The  number  vaccinated  at  the  Asylum  subsequent  to  admis- 
sion was  628  :  460  boys,  168  girls.  Of  this  whole  number, 
only  2  boys  and  1  girl  caught  the  small-pox. 

The  number  who  died  of  small-pox  at  the  Asylum  was 
4  boys  and  1  girl  ;  of  these  5  children,  3  had  the  disease  after 
reputed  small-pox,  and  2  had  never  been  vaccinated  or  under- 
o-one  small-pox  before.  (See  Appendix  to  Report  from  Select 
Committee  on  the  Vaccine  Board). 

This  document,  so  far  as  it  goes,  fully  supports  Dr.  Jenner's 
assertion,  that  the  protection  afforded  by  vaccination  duly  per- 
formed is  quite  equal  to  that  afforded  by  small-pox  itself. 

246  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

in  this  county  where  vaccination  has  been  assidu- 
ously and  skilfully  performed  from  the  commence- 
ment. They  have  enjoyed  an  almost  complete 
immunity  from  small-pox,  even  though  this  disease 
has  been  raging  in  the  surrounding  neighbourhood. 
Again,  it  has  been  found  that,  when  small-pox  has 
made  its  appearance,  and  spread  epidemically,  it 
attacked  both  those  who  had  had  small-pox  pre- 
viously, and  those  who  had  been  vaccinated.  This 
single  fact,  if  there  were  none  other,  proves  the 
affinity  of  the  two  affections  ;  and  the  identity  of  the 
laws  by  which  they  are  governed. 

The  records  from  which  a  body  of  mecUcal  statis- 
tics may  be  collected  are  yet  far  from  being  complete. 
Facts  enough,  however,  have  been  accumulated  to 
enable  us  to  prove  that  the  mean  duration  of  human 
life  has  very  much  increased  in  those  countries 
where  ci-vdlisation  and  medical  science  prevail. 

From  accurate  calculations  made  in  this  country, 
it  would  seem  that  there  has  been  a  surprising  in- 
crease in  the  duration  of  life  within  the  last  fifty  years. 
In  1 780  the  annual  mortality  of  England  and  Wales 
was  calculated  to  be  one  in  for fj/ ;  in  1821,  the 
yearly  mortality  was  one  in  fifty-ciglit,  or  one  in 
sixty ;  so  that  in  forfj/  years  the  mortality  has 
decreased  nearly  one-third.  In  order  to  point  out 
the  connexion  between  this  decrease  and  the  prac- 
tice of  vaccination,  it  is  proper  to  observe,  that  the 
ratio  has  materially  increased  since  the  year  1 80 1 . 
In  that  year  the  calculation  was  one  in  fortj/seven, 
affording  only  a  difference  of  seven  between  that  and 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  24/ 

the  preceding  twenty  years  :  whereas,  the  difference 
in  the  succeeding  twenty,  that  is  to  say,  from  1801 
to  1821,  was  no  less  than  thirteen. 

It  is  not  easy  to  ascertain  precisely  how  much  of 
this  addition  to  the  duration  of  human  life  is  to  be 
ascribed  to  the  influence  of  vaccination.  The  great 
improvements  that  have  taken  place  in  all  the  phy- 
sical sciences,  the  increased  attention  which  has 
been  bestowed  on  Medical  Police,  the  advances  that 
have  been  made  both  in  the  knowledge  and  prac- 
tice of  medicine  itself ;  all  have  contributed  to  these 
interesting  results :  but  the  effect  of  controlling  or 
subduing  the  mortality  of  such  a  scourge  as  small- 
pox, must  have  been  great  and  extensive.  Leaving 
this  part  of  the  subject  for  the  present,  I  shall  pro- 
ceed to  elucidate  another,  for  which  more  precise 
and  accurate  data  have  been  afforded.  Tlie  mor- 
tality of  children  has  always  been  a  painful  subject 
of  meditation.  This  mortality  varies  considerably 
in  cities  and  towns,  villages  and  country  parishes. 
Some  very  valuable  information  has  been  published 
on  this  topic  by  Mr.  Roberton,  of  Manchester,  in 
his  work  on  the  mortality  and  physical  management 
of  children.  According  to  his  tables  it  would  appear 
that  the  mortality  of  children  under  ten  years  of  age, 
in  cities  and  large  towns,  was  ,51.39  ;  in  smaller  towns 
and  cities,  it  is  48.9/  ;  in  village  parishes,  49.90  ;  in 
agricultural  parishes,  it  is  35.40.  It  would  appear 
that  the  mortaUty  of  those  under  ten  in  foreign 
countries  approaches  that  of  our  own.  In  the 
German  tables,  it  is  reported  to  be  43  per  cent,  for 
the   country,   47.7   for  small   towns,  and   50.2  for 

248  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

Ijarge  cities.  Duvillard  gives  44.89  as  the  average 
of  the  kingdom  of  France,  which  is  within  a  fraction 
of  the  rate  of  infantile  mortahty  in  this  country,  it 
being  44.91. 

It  is  somewhat  remarkable  that  the  same  ratio  of 
mortality  in  after-life  does  not  hold  between  this 
country  and  those  just  mentioned.  If  the  calcula- 
tions made,  at  least,  be  correct,  it  would  seem  that 
while  the  average  annual  mortality  in  England  and 
Wales  is  about  one  in  shvti/,  that  of  France  is  oiie  in 
forty.  In  Prussia  and  Naples  it  is  stated  to  vary 
from  1  in  33  to  1  in  35.  In  Wirtemberg  it  is  1  in  33. 
The  countries  which  are  said  to  approach  nearest  to 
England  are  the  Pays  de  Vaud,  Sweden,  and  Hol- 
land :  the  first  affording  an  average  of  1  in  49  ;  the 
latter  two,  1  in  48.  Should  the  facts  really  be  as 
above  stated,  they  afford  astonishing  testimony  to 
the  superior  salubrity  of  England  over  the  most 
favoured  spots  of  Europe. 

Notwithstanding  the  proofs  of  the  power  of  vacci- 
nation in  diminishing  the  mortality  from  small-pox, 
it  has  been  a  question  whether  infantile  mortality 
has  been  diminished ;  it  having  been  supposed  that 
the  beneficial  effects  of  vaccination  were  counter- 
vailed by  a  greater  mortality  in  the  other  diseases 
of  children.  This  very  discouraging  statement  was 
published  by  Dr.  Watt,  of  Glasgow,  in  an  appendix 
to  his  work  on  Chincough.  This  opinion,  which 
was  hastily  adopted  and  unwisely  promulgated,  has 
unquestionably  had  a  great  effect  in  retarding  the 
progress  of  vaccination.  It,  unfortunately,  gave 
countenance   to   some    of  the   worst   prejudices   of 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  249 

those  who  were  opposed  to  the  practice.  It  has 
now,  however,  been  demonstrated  that  his  conclu- 
sions rested  upon  a  fallacy  which  ought  to  have  been 
avoided.  He  expressed  himself  as  utterly  astonished 
to  find  the  number  of  deaths  under  ten  years  as 
great  in  1812  as  it  had  been  in  1783.  In  making 
this  calculation  he  seems  to  have  forgotten,  that 
Glasgow,  during  that  period,  had  more  than  doubled 
its  working  population.  This  important  fact  is  very 
fully  illustrated  by  Mr.  Roberton.  In  the  year 
1/83,  the  per  centage  of  deaths  under  ten  years  for 
Glasgow,  was  53.48,  while  the  annual  mortality  of  all 
ages  was  26.7.  In  the  six  years  preceding  1812, 
the  per  centage  of  deaths  under  ten  years  is  55.49, 
and  the  annual  mortality  of  all  ages  is  1  in  40.8.  It 
thus  appears  that  the  relative  proportion  of  deaths 
under  the  tenth  year  is  greater  in  the  latter  than  in 
the  former  period  :  but,  if  we  take  into  account 
the  increased  population  of  that  city,  it  will  be 
seen  that  the  actual  mortality  under  ten  years,  in 
1812,  was  nearly  one-third  less  than  in  the  first- 
mentioned  period.  It  is  somewhat  remarkable,  that 
the  tables  published  by  Dr.  Watt  himself  did  not 
lead  him  to  the  correction  of  his  error.  In  his  first 
period,  namely,  from  1780  to  1785,  the  population  of 
Glasgow  was  reckoned  at  44,360,  and  the  mortality 
was  1  in  26.7  ;  while  in  the  last-mentioned  period, 
namely,  from  1801  to  1811,  the  population  had 
amounted  to  96,977,  while  the  mortality  was  only 
1  in  40.8. 

Dr.  Casper,  in  his  essay  on  the  mortality  among 
chikh'en  in  Berlin,  has  fully  proved,  that  whilst  the 

250  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

mortality  from  small-pox  has  been  evidently  dimi- 
nished, that  from  other  diseases  has,  in  like  manner, 
lessened.  In  twenty  years  antecedent  to  the  first 
introduction  of  cow-pox,  the  deaths  under  puberty 
were  as  51  to  100.  In  eight  years  succeeding  1814, 
the  deaths  were  only  42  in  100.  Dr.  Casper  was 
not  satisfied  with  these  general  results ;  for  he  has 
proved,  by  the  most  direct  and  conclusive  evidence, 
that  the  other  diseases  of  children  have  really  be- 
come less  fatal  as  vaccination  has  been  more  gene- 
rally employed.  In  four  years  previous  to  1790,  the 
deaths  among  children  from  all  chseases,  exclusive 
of  small-pox,  were  39  in  100.  In  four  years  pre- 
vious to  1823,  they  were  only  34  in  100.  According 
to  the  same  authority,  the  two  diseases,  namely, 
measles  and  scarlet-fever,  which  were  supposed  to 
have  increased  in  severity  since  the  introduction  of 
vaccination,  have  been,  in  fact,  neither  more  prevalent 
nor  more  fatal,  but  rather  an  actual  diminution  of 
the  mortality  from  measles  has  taken  place.  All  that 
I  have  been  able  to  learn  in  this  district  fully  con- 
firms this  statement.  The  healthiness  of  children 
has  been  augmented  rather  than  diminished  ;  and  if 
in  any  epidemic  of  measles  or  scarlet-fever  a  greater 
mortality  should  arise,  it  may  fairly  be  ascribed 
to  the  increased  number  exposed  to  its  influence, 
rather  than  to  any  exacerbation  in  its  type  or  cha- 

Since  the  introduction  of  vaccination  the  morta- 
lity of  those  under  two  years  of  age  has  been  greatly 
diminished  :  but  between  this  age  and  that  of  ten,  it 
is   affirmed   that  the    mortality  has    proportionally 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  251 

increased.  The  inference  drawn  from  this  state- 
ment has  been,  that  as  small-pox  in  former  times 
chiefly  extended  its  ravages  by  sweeping  away  chil- 
dren under  two  years,  what  is  gained  in  the  saving 
of  life  by  vaccination,  is  lost  by  an  increased  mor- 
tality fi'om  the  other  infantile  diseases.  It  seems 
that  a  greater  number  of  childi'en  now  die  of  measles 
than  formerly ;  but  there  is  no  satisfactory  proof 
that  this  disease  itself  has  become  more  severe  since 
the  practice  of  vaccination.  There  is,  in  short,  no 
e^ddence  that  in  a  given  number  of  cases  of  measles 
the  mortality  is  greater  than  when  small-pox  was 
prevalent.  It  is  clear,  that  unless  facts  of  this  kind 
can  be  adduced,  the  argument  is  of  no  value  ;  and 
the  phenomenon  can  be  explained  on  more  accurate 
principles.  Formerly,  a  variolous  epidemic  so  com- 
pletely swept  away  the  population  under  ten  years 
of  age,  as  to  leave  comparatively  few  to  be  exposed 
to  the  influence  of  other  epidemics.  Mr.  Roberton 
has  confirmed  this  statement  by  authentic  documents 
deduced  from  the  history  of  variolous  epidemics  in 
Warrington  and  Chester.  In  the  latter  place,  Dr. 
Haygarth  reports  that  there  were,  in  the  year  1774, 
546  deaths  ;  of  these,  334  were  under  ten  years,  and 
202  were  caused  by  small-pox. 

This  part  of  the  subject  has  been  very  ably 
treated  by  Mr.  Edmonds.  From  his  tables  it  ap- 
pears that  the  mortality  in  England  under  five  years 
of  age  is  now  only  half  as  great  as  it  formerly  was  sup- 
posed to  have  been.  He  has  shewn  that  this  is  the 
case  both  absolutelj/  and  relativelj/  to  the  mortality 
at  all  other  ages.     It  is  believed  by  the  best  authori- 

252  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

ties,  that  before  the  introduction  of  vaccination,  there 
died  under  the  age  of  five  years,  out  of  one  hundred 
born,  sixty  in  London,  and  forty  in  all  England. 
During  the  twenty  years  ending  with  1830,  there 
died  under  the  age  of  five  years,  out  of  one  hundred 
born,  only  thirty  in  London,  and  twenty  in  all  Eng- 

On  the  whole,  I  feel  perfectly  assured  that  vacci- 
nation has  not  only  had  a  direct  and  positive  in- 
fluence in  subduing  or  diminishing  the  mortality 
from  small-pox,  but  that  it  has,  likewise,  had  a  be- 
neficial effect  in  maintaining  the  human  constitu- 
tion against  the  attacks  of  other  diseases.  There  is 
much  reason  to  believe  that  small-pox  left  those 
whom  it  attacked,  much  more  susceptible  of  illness. 
Scrofula,  for  example,  in  all  its  forms,  was  certainly 
very  often  excited ;  and,  in  particular,  pulmonary 
consumption.  The  time,  perhaps,  is  not  yet  arrived 
for  drawing  accurate  conclusions  regarding  the  in- 
crease or  decrease  of  such  diseases.  It,  nevertheless, 
appears  from  the  London  Bills  of  Mortality,  that 
since  the  year  1808,  the  deaths  from  pulmonary 
consumption  have  been  decreasing,  and  it  is  unde- 
niable, that  the  mortality  from  all  diseases  above 
ten  years,  is  nearly  as  much  diminished  as  that 
under  ten. 

I  might  fill  a  volume  in  recording  the  evidence 
that  vaccination,  when  extensively  and  efficiently 
performed,  can  extirpate  small-pox.  Wherever  the 
practice  has  been  judiciously  followed  up,  its  success, 

*  See  British  Medical  Almauack,  1837. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 


in  this  respect,  has  been  nearly  complete.  The  mea- 
sures taken  by  the  government  of  Sweden  have  already 
been  mentioned  in  the  former  volume  of  this  work. 
The  following  document  will  tell  with  what  success. 

In  the  year  1779  the  small-pox  destroyed  15,000  persons. 
1784  .  .  .     12,000 






For  a  period  of  eight  years  not  a  single  case  of 
small-pox  occurred  in  the  dominions  of  His  Danish 
Majesty.  The  whole  inhabitants  had  been  vaccinated. 

Between  1752  and  1762,  the  small-pox  carried 
off  in  Copenhagen  alone  2644  victims  ;  from  1762  to 
1772,  it  carried  off  2116  ;  from  1772  to  1782,  2233  ; 
from  1782  to  1792,  2785  ;  but  from  the  introduction 
of  vaccination,  in  )  802,  to  the  end  of  1818,  only  153 
persons  have  died  of  the  small-pox ;  namely. 




































(See  Annals  of  Philosophy,  August,  1819.) 

I  am  not  ignorant  of  the  history  of  the  variolous 
epidemics  which  of  late  years  have  prevailed  in  dif- 

254  LIFE    OF    BR.    JENNER. 

ferent  parts  of  Europe.  I  know  that  in  Lombardy, 
in  Denmark,  and  in  France,  as  well  as  in  England 
and  other  places,  disasters  of  this  kind  have  taken 

It  has  been  imagined,  from  occurrences  which 
arose  during  these  epidemics,  that  the  protecting 
power  of  vaccination  is  weakened  by  the  lapse  of 
years  :  not  having  myself  witnessed  any  facts  of  this 
description,  I  cannot  decide  whether  or  not  the 
opinion  is  well  founded.  The  experience  of  this 
district,  the  birthplace  of  vaccination,  does  not 
countenance  the  idea.  All  those  that  I  have  heard 
of  who  were  vaccinated  thirty  or  more  years  ago, 
appear  to  have  resisted  small-pox  contagion  as 
much  as  if  they  had  previously  had  that  disease.  I 
may  also  add,  that  I  have  never  seen  but  one  fatal 
case  of  small-pox  after  vaccination,  during  the  whole 
of  my  professional  life,  although  my  acquaintance 
with  the  medical  gentlemen  of  this  and  the  adjoin- 
ing counties  was  very  extensive,  especially  when  I 
held  the  appointment  of  Physician  to  the  General 
Infirmary.  As  far,  therefore,  as  my  knowledge 
goes,  I  would  repeat  Dr.  Jenner's  maxim,  and  say, 
that  vaccination,  duly  performed,  will  protect  the 
constitution  as  much  as  small-pox  itself. 

It  can  scarcely,  in  my  opinion,  be  doubted,  where 
small-pox  has  prevailed  after  cow-pox,  that  there  has 
been  some  imperfection  in  the  vaccine  process,  and 
that  thereby  another  maxim  of  the  author  of  vacci- 
nation is  illustrated,  which  tells  us,  that  these  im- 
perfections may  be  propagated,  and  that  they  will 
afford  varying  degrees  of  protection,   according  as 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  255 

they    recede    from,    or    approach    to,   the    perfect 

I  am  especially  struck  with  the  force  of  these 
remarks  when  I  look  at  some  of  the  recent  accomits 
from  Denmark.  From  Dr.  Wendt's  book,  it  appears 
that  re-vaccination  is  employed  in  the  Danish  army 
to  counteract  the  contagion  of  variola.  He  men- 
tions, that  in  the  year  1835,  out  of  31/3  persons 
between  the  ages  of  twenty  and  twenty-five,  21/5 
were  successfully  re-vaccinated,  while  998  resisted 
the  infection.  This  is  an  enormous  proportion  ;  for 
every  one  of  the  larger  number  would  have  been 
liable  to  an  attack  of  small-pox.  I  cannot  avoid 
thinking,  therefore,  that  the  first  vaccinations  had 
been  imperfect. 

The  results  of  re-vaccination  in  the  Prussian 
army  have  Hkewise  led  to  the  belief  that  the  suc- 
ceptibility  to  small-pox  among  the  vaccinated  is 
annually  increasing.  Thus,  of  100  re-vaccinations  in 
1833,  31  were  successful;  37  in  1834;  39  in  1835; 
and  43  in  1836.  How  it  may  be  in  other  parts  of 
the  world,  I  cannot  say ;  but  I  am  constrained  to 
repeat,  that  nothing  has  happened  in  this  vicinity  to 
countenance  such  a  statement.  I  cannot,  therefore, 
arrive  at  any  other  conclusion  than  that  the  defect 
is  not  in  vaccination  itself,  but  in  the  manner  of  con- 
ducting the  process,  or  in  the  employment  of  imper- 
fect virus. 

Amid  all  these  discouraging  circumstances,  it  is 
with  the  greatest  satisfaction  I  refer  to  the  bills  of 
mortality  for  London  during  the  year  1 837 ;  which 
give   only  217  deaths   by    small-pox.     This    is   the 

256  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

smallest  number  that  has  ever  been  recorded  in  any 
one  year  since  the  first  establishment  of  this  register. 
It  would  be  a  glorious  triumph  if,  through  the  ex- 
ertions of  the  different  vaccine  establishments,  Lon- 
don should  be  fi'eed  even  for  a  season  from  this 

It  is  calculated  that  within  the  last  fifteen  years 
the  population  of  Europe  has  been  augmented  by 
nearly  twenty-nine  millions.*  The  cessation  of  hos- 
tilities and  the  cultivation  of  the  arts  of  peace  will, 
in  some  degree,  account  for  this  great  increase.  It 
will,  nevertheless,  be  found  that  the  removal  of  one 
prolific  source  of  mortality,  by  the  introduction  of 
vaccination,  has  tended  materially  to  this  result. 
In  Prussia,  where  the  practice  was  very  early 
adopted,  it  is  proved  by  accurate  statistical  investi- 
gations, that  from  the  years  1817  to  182/,  the  in- 
crease of  population  amounted  to  1,849,561.  In 
this  period  are  included  some  of  those  years  in  which 
Dr.  Casper  demonstrated  the  great  diminution  in 
the  number  of  deaths  among  children  at  Berlin. 

In  Sweden  and  in  Denmark,  where  vaccination 
was  also  adopted  and  enforced  by  the  influence  of 
the  government,  population  has  been  making  rapid 
strides.  In  the  latter  country  the  increase  is  cal- 
culated at  the  rate  of  two  per  cent.  In  Sweden  it  is 
not  quite  so  much.  In  European  Russia  it  is  sup- 
posed that  from  the  year  1815  to  the  present  time 
7,000,000  have  been  added  to  its  population.  It  is 
important    to  remark,  that  this  increase  is  not  so 

*  N.B.  This  was  written  in  18-31. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JKNNER.  2')/ 

much  owing  to  an  access  of  births,  as  to  the  (hmi- 
niition  in  the  number  of  deaths. 

In  Austria  the  results  are  as  striking  and  satisfac- 
tory. According  to  the  returns  pubHshed  by  the 
geographical  board  at  Vienna,  it  is  inferred  that  the 
increase  on  the  population  of  1815,  has  in  twelve 
years  amounted  to  more  than  27  per  cent.  The 
population  being  in  1815,  27,000,000;  more  than 
7,000,000  have  been  since  added  to  its  numbers. 

It  is  a  remarkable  fact  that  the  rate  of  increase 
has  been  slower  in  France  than  in  many  other  parts 
of  Europe.  From  the  work  lately  published  by  the 
Baron  Dupin,  it  appears,  that  the  annual  increase  on 
each  milhon  is  6536.  This  gives  a  total  annual 
augmentation  of  about  200,000. 

The  rate  of  increase  in  Great  Britain  and  Ireland 
has  been  nearly  double  that  of  France :  Great  Bri- 
tain ha\'ing  increased  by  200,000  annually ;  and 
Ireland  in  at  least  the  same  ratio.  So  that  the 
actual  increase  in  the  population  of  the  United  King- 
dom has  in  the  same  space  of  time  equalled  that  of 

The  following  statement,  taken  from  the  work  of 
M.  Dupin,  affords  an  interesting  view  of  the  rate  of 
increase  in  the  population  of  the  principal  states  in 

Annual  increase  upon  each  million  of  inhabitants. 
Prussia         .  27,027  Russia         .         10,527 

Britain  .  16,6(57  Austria        .         10,114 

Netherlands  12,372  France         .  6,-536 

Two  Sicilies  11,111 

M.  Dupin    ascribes   the  low   rate   of  increase  in 

VOL.  II.  s 

258  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

France,  in  some  decree,  to  the  neglect  of  vaccina- 
tion, particularly  in  the  south,  which  appears  to  be 
much  behind  the  north  in  every  improvement.  It 
is,  however,  most  important  to  repeat  that,  though 
the  number  of  inhabitants  in  France  has  not  in- 
creased in  the  same  ratio  with  other  countries,  the 
degree  of  mortality  is  materially  diminished.  The 
births  are  said  to  be  less  numerous  than  they  were 
in  the  year  1780  ;  and  yet  it  is  affirmed  that  the 
annual  addition  made  to  the  population  is  greater 
by  44,000  than  it  was  at  that  period. 

M.  Berard  gives  the  same  cheering  statements, 
though  somewhat  in  a  different  way.  In  1/80  the 
deaths  annually  in  France  were  as  1  in  30.  From 
1817  to  1824  they  were  as  1  in  40 :  while  it  ap- 
peared that,  during  the  same  period,  the  difference 
between  the  deaths  and  the  births  was  nearly  200,000 
in  favour  of  the  latter.  The  cause  of  this  beneficial 
alteration  in  the  rate  of  mortality  is  well  illustrated 
in  the  Memoir  of  M.  Benoiston  de  Chateauneuf,  who 
has  proved  that,  in  1 780,  fifty  out  of  every  hundred 
new  born  infants  died  in  the  two  first  years  of  life  ; 
at  present,  only  38.3  :  which  gives  an  augmentation 
of  one-fourth  (of  lives)  in  the  hundred.  It  is  during 
this  infantile  period  of  life  that  the  influence  of  vac- 
cination is  most  sensibly  evinced,  and  much  of  this 
favourable  result  is,  doubtless,  to  be  ascribed  to  it.  In 
the  subsequent  periods  of  life,  results  nearly  as  gratify- 
ing have  been  ascertained  by  M.  Chateauneuf :  thus, 
formerly,  before  ten  years  of  age,  55  died ;  at  pre- 
sent, 43.7  :  21.5  reached  the  age  of  fifty  ;  now  32.5  : 
fifteen  attained  the  age  of  sixty  ;  now,  twenty-four. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  259 

It  is  admitted  on  all  hands  that  our  population 
has  been  increasing  rapidly  since  the  beginning  of 
the  present  century.  There  has  not  only  been  a 
much  larger  proportion  of  births  ;  but,  what  is  more 
to  my  purpose,  a  considerable  diminution  in  the 
proportion  of  deaths.  In  the  early  part  of  the  pre- 
ceding century  the  proportion  of  births  to  deaths,  in 
three  successive  decades,  was  as  follows. 








900  to  1000 




903  to  1000 




912  to  1000 

After  the  year  1/40  this  losing  account  began  to 
alter,  and  the  proportion  of  births  to  deaths  to  in- 
crease steadily,  but  slowly.  In  the  year  1800  the 
births  were  263,408,  the  deaths  were  193,476  ;  giving 
a  proportion  of  births  to  deaths  of  1361  to  1000. 
In  the  year  1810  the  ratio  had  increased  to  1 5 1 8  to 
1000.  And  in  the  year  1820,  the  numbers  stood 
thus:  births,  334,007;  deaths,  208,153.  Propor- 
tion, 1605  to  1000. 

The  same  results  are  still  more  strikingly  exempli- 
fied by  a  reference  to  the  population  of  England  and 
Wales  since  the  beginning  of  the  last  century,  as 
deduced  by  Mr.  Rickman  from  the  births  only.  In 
fifty  years,  namely,  from  I7OO  to  1750,  the  increase 
amounted  only  to  900,092  ;  whereas  in  fifty  years, 
from  1770  to  1821,  the  increase  was  no  less  than 
4,657,000.  Great  as  this  increase  is,  it  is  rendered 
more  remarkable  in  that  by  far  the  greatest  amount 

s  2 

260  LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER. 

of  it  has  taken  place  within  the  last  twenty  years  of 
the  period,  nearly  three  milhons  having  been  added 
in  that  time.* 

It  is  impossible  to  say  what  may  have  been  the 
exact  effects  of  vaccination  in  producing  these  re- 
sults ;  but  that  they  must  have  been  very  great  no 
one  can  doubt  who  is  aware  of  the  comparative  mor- 
tality of  infantile  diseases,  and  the  great  proportion 
that  it  bears  to  the  total  number  of  deaths  at  all 

Tt  is  at  once  my  duty,  while  it  yields  me  pleasure, 
to  present  the  gratifying  details  which  have  just  been 
closed,  in  connexion  wdth  the  personal  feelings  and 
character  of  Jenner  himself.  Unhappily,  his  race  was 
run  before  the  full  tide  of  gratulation,  with  which  the 
discoverer  of  vaccination  might  now  be  hailed,  had 
reached  his  ear.  The  reader,  however,  cannot  fail 
to  observe  that,  even  from  the  outset,  Jenner  s  con- 
fidence was  as  firm  as  it  was  just  and  well-founded. 
But,  after  all,  it  is  a  marvellous  subject ;  and  even 
those  who  have  watched  its  progress,  who  have 
anticipated  and  longed  for  the  success  that  has 
attended  it,  cannot,  when  the  accumulated  evi- 
dence is  brought  fully  to  bear  upon  the  lives  and 
happiness  of  kindreds,  and  tongues,  and  nations, 
avoid  wondering  at  the  signal  mercies  with  which,  in 
these  days,  Providence  has  crowned  the  exertions  of 
one  of  our  fellow  creatures. 

*  See  evidence  on  the  poor-laws  taken  before  the  House  of 
Lords  (18;>1)  ;  but  especially  the  tables  and  remarks  delivered 
in  by  John  Barton,  esq.  See  also  the  excellent  work  on  medi- 
cal statistics  by  Dr.  Hawkins. 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER.  261 

Wonderful  as  have  been  the  events  of  the  last  years, 
great  as  has  been  the  advancement  of  human  know- 
ledge, and  rapid  as  has  been  the  progress  in  all  the 
arts  calculated  to  promote  the  comfort  and  con- 
venience of  life,  the  most  remarkable  phenomenon 
is,  certainly,  not  that  we  have  subdued  the  ele- 
ments to  our  use — not  that  we  can  multiply  at  will  the 
products  of  our  ingenuity — not  that  we  have  brought 
mechanical  agents  to  take  the  place  of  active  and 
intelligent  beings  ;  but  that  we  have  been  enabled  to 
stay  the  power  of  death — to  keep  him  for  a  season 
from  his  victims — and  to  say  that  the  day  of  grace 
and  preparation  has  been  lengthened. 

In  thus  exulting  in  the  benefits  of  vaccination,  it 
will  be  seen  that  I  cannot  fall  in  with  the  lamenta- 
tions of  the  whining  economists  who  look  upon  an 
increase  of  population  with  an  evil  eye,  and  permit 
selfish  and  limited  views  of  what  is  best  for  the  well- 
being  of  the  community  to  interfere  with  the  richest 
blessings  of  Pro\adence  to  man*. 

As  we  approach  towards  the  conclusion  of  Jenner's 
life,  his  opinions,  whether  on  vaccination  or  any  other 
subject,  assume  a  more  solemn  and  impressive  cha- 
racter. The  matured  reflections  of  a  well- disciplined 
mind,  conscientiously  and  perseveringly  directed  to 
any  scientific  object,  will  always  command  attention  ; 
but  when  the  immediate  consequences  of  such  inves- 

*  La  Place,  in  a  conversation  with  Sir  James  Mackintosh,  at 
Madame  de  Romford's,  said,  that  the  vaccine,  when  it  supplants 
the  small-pox,  will  add  three  years  to  the  medium  duration  of 
human  life. — See  Life  of  Mackintosh,  vol.  ii.  page  322. 

262  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

tigation  touch  the  Hves  and  security  of  the  public, 
a  deeper  interest  is  added  to  the  inquiry.  No  man 
more  strongly  felt  the  power  of  such  truths  than 
Jenner  :  in  short,  the  whole  of  his  labours  were  pre- 
eminently distinguished  by  their  intimate  alhance 
with  great  results  bearing  immediately  on  the  well- 
being  and  happiness  of  society.  Under  a  keen  sense 
of  his  responsibility  he  wrote,  and  it  is  this  circum- 
stance which  gives  to  all  his  communications  an  air 
of  trustworthiness  and  sincerity  that  entitles  them 
to  the  utmost  consideration. 

The  value  of  his  labours,  when  gauged  by  this  rule, 
has  by  no  means  been  appreciated.  It  has  not  been 
duly  felt  either  by  his  professional  brethren  or  by  the 
public,  that  there  was  a  moral  grandeur  associated 
with  his  humility  and  perseverance.  The  time,  I 
trust,  is  coming  when  justice  will  be  rendered  to  his 
memory;  when  it  will  be  acknowledged  that  those 
qualities  which  give  the  principal  excellence  to  scien- 
tific pursuits  did,  in  a  pecuhar  manner,  adorn  and 
dignify  his  mind.  Why,  it  may  be  asked,  should  I 
recur  to  this  train  of  feeling  ?  Because  it  is  but  jus- 
tice to  him,  and  holds  out  to  medical  men  an  exami)le 
worthy  of  all  imitation. 

In  the  greater  number  of  discussions  that  occupy 
the  attention  of  professional  men,  such  qualities  sel- 
dom maintain  a  prominent  place.  The  play  of  inge- 
nuity, the  contention  of  wit  or  learning,  the  subtle 
exercises  of  the  understanding,  may  all  in  turn  divide 
their  care,  and  afford  temporary  subjects  for  amuse- 
ment or  instruction.     Such  have  been   the  founda- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  263 

tions  of  most  medical  theories.  In  general  their  ap- 
plication to  practice  is  too  indefinite  and  uncertain 
to  render  the  authors  of  them  amenable  to  any  other 
than  a  speculative  or  intellectual  tribunal,  whose 
awards  do  not  necessarily  infer  any  moral  delin- 
quency. It  was  not  so  with  regard  to  vaccination  ; 
and  doubtless  every  word  written  by  Jenner  on  that 
subject  came  from  him,  not  as  an  indi\ddual  emulous 
of  distinction,  but  desirous  of  advancing  truth  and 
promoting  the  essential  well-being  of  his  fellow-crea- 
tures. The  envy  and  rivalship  that  he  encountered, 
tended  very  much  to  obscure  and  counteract  these 
excellences.  He  was  always  looked  upon  as  a  sus- 
pected witness,  even  though  his  evidence  was  corro- 
borated by  an  abundance  of  impartial  and  disinter- 
ested testimony.  At  the  outset  of  the  investigation 
such  fastidiousness  was  not  unbecoming  ;  but  to  see 
it  persisted  in  after  every  reasonable  doubt  had  been 
removed,  and  with  no  other  effect  than  to  damage  a 
good  cause,  and  to  inflict  unnecessary  pain  on  a  just 
and  generous  man,  is  a  lamentable  proof  of  the  blind- 
ness of  the  understanding,  and  of  the  obliquity  of  the 

The  feelings  of  hostility  towards  him  became  more 
virulent  and  vindictive  with  every  alleged  case  of 
failure.  He  was  held  answerable  for  every  supposed 
misadventure  of  this  kind,  while  the  real  merits  of 
his  discovery  were  artfully  overlooked,  and  his  cau- 
tions and  admonitions,  in  too  many  cases,  disre- 
garded. Under  the  pressure  of  popular  obloquy  of 
this  description,  he  continued  firm  to  his  principles, 

264  LIFE     OF    DR.    JENNER. 

and   vindicated   his    doctrines    with    mildness    and 

"  I  have  searched"  (says  he,  writing  to  a  corres- 
pondent) "  in  vain  for  a  record  respecting  the  person 
you  name  to  me,  who  has  had  the  small-pox  after 
being  vaccinated  by  me  ten  years  ago.  From  the 
date  you  fix,  it  probably  took  place  at  the  time  I  per- 
mitted persons  of  all  descriptions,  not  only  those  of 
the  town,  but  from  the  districts  around,  to  come  to 
me  weekly.  The  small-pox  was  at  their  heels^  and 
this  drove  them  to  my  house  in  immense  numbers. 
I  was  literally  mobbed,  driven  to  a  corner,  and  made 
a  prisoner,  necessitated  to  submit  to  their  will.  '  The 
man  shall  do  me  neoct.''  '  No,  he  sha'nt ;  he  shall  do 
me,'  was  the  language  I  was  often  obliged  to  hear 
and  submit  to.  For  many  successive  inoculating 
days  the  numbers  that  assembled  were,  on  the 
average,  about  three  hundred.  The  taking  of  notes, 
or  the  observance  of  anything  like  order  and  regu- 
larity, was  out  of  the  question.  However,  I  perse- 
vered with  patient  submission,  and  completely  gained 
the  grand  point  I  aimed  at :  the  small-pox  was  sub- 
dued in  every  direction.  Though  this  was  the  for- 
tunate result,  yet  it  would  be  absurd  to  suppose  that 
out  of  this  vast  body  all  could  go  through  the  disease 
with  that  correctness  which  protects  them  from  small- 
pox infection  ;  in  numerous  instances,  indeed,  they 
did  not  afford  me  an  opportunity  of  judging  of  their 
security  by  ever  returning  to  shew  me  their  arms ; 
and  this  teazing  occurrence  not  unfrequently  hap- 
pened among  the  common   people  of  Cheltenham, 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  265 

when  I  vaccinated  on  a  reduced  scale.  But  now, 
sir,  more  immediately  to  the  consideration  of  your 
communication.  Let  us  admit  that  the  individual  in 
question  went  through  the  vaccine  in  all  its  stages 
with  the  most  perfect  regularity,  and  that,  at  the  ex- 
piration of  ten  years,  she  became  infected  with  the 
small-pox,  and  had  that  disease  with  as  much  regu- 
larity as  if  she  never  had  been  under  the  influence  of 
vaccination.  What  then  ?  Is  the  small-pox  itself  a 
perfect  and  constant  guarantee  against  future  infec- 
tion ?  Where  is  the  medical  man,  possessed  of  expe- 
rience in  his  profession,  and  of  an  inquiring  mind, 
who  will  not  answer  this  question  in  the  negative  ? 
Cheltenham  is  certainly  not  exempt  from  this  devia- 
tion in  a  general  law  of  the  animal  economy,  as  it 
exhibits  abundant  testimony  of  the  contrary  ;  one 
instance,  indeed,  is  so  very  remarkable,  that  it  is 
worthy  of  being  recorded :  I  allude  to  that  of  the 
lady  of  Mr.  Gwinnett,  who  has  had  the  small-pox 
Jive  times. 

"  When  the  small-pox  appeared  in  Cheltenham  two 
summers  ago  in  one  of  the  lanes  which  leads  out 
of  the  High  Street,  though  the  situation  was  ex- 
posed, and  numbers  of  children  who  had  been  vac- 
cinated were  within  reach  of  the  infection,  yet 
none  of  them  took  the  disease.  However,  it  hap- 
pened that  a  young  fellow,  who  had  been  inoculated 
some  years  ago  for  the  small-pox  at  Upton,  was  not 
so  fortunate.  He  became  infected,  and  had  this  dis- 
temper with  some  degree  of  severity.  His  case,  by 
the  way,  was  one  of  those  which  illustrates  the  truth 
of  my  observation  respecting  the  cause  that  proves 

266  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

an  impediment,  in  either  inoculation,  to  that  con- 
stitutional change  which  nature  demands  as  a  safe- 
guard against  future  infection.  This  young  man,  at 
the  time  of  his  being  inoculated,  had  Tinea  Capitis, 
and  for  some  years  after. 

"  Not  long  since  I  was  called  to  a  footman  in  a  gen- 
tleman's family,  whose  case  was  precisely  similar  to 
that  just  stated,  except  that  it  was  more  severe.  On 
examining  the  inoculated  arm,  I  found  the  cicatrix 
more  extensive  than  usual,  which  convinced  me  of 
some  irregularity  in  the  progress  of  the  disease. 
And  here  I  will  observe,  as  a  good  practical  remark, 
if  you  are  ever  called  upon  to  form  a  prognostic  as 
to  safety  in  a  vaccinated  child,  that  a  cicatrix  much 
beyond  the  usual  boundary,  should  always  be  looked 
upon  with  a  suspicious  eye  ;  for  it  is  impossible  that 
the  progress  of  the  vesicle  can  have  been  correct 
when  this  appearance  presents  itself;  and  in  the 
vaccine,  you  know,  the  appearance  of  the  arm  is  our 
oiili/  guide. 

"  I  find  myself  imperceptibly  drawn  into  practical 
remarks  ;  and,  as  this  is  the  case,  I  will  mention  one 
more,  on  which  I  cannot  lay  too  much  stress,  namely, 
robbing  the  vesicles  too  frequently  of  their  contents. 
How  often  have  I  seen,  where  there  has  been  but 
one  only,  that  this  poor  solitary  thing,  which  is  ex- 
pected to  perform  an  office  of  such  immense  import- 
ance, has  been  cut  and  mangled  day  after  day  in  the 
rudest  manner !  This  has  not  only  happened  in  the 
early  periods  of  the  vaccine  practice,  but  the  evil 
still  exists,  as  I  witnessed  it  on  an  infant  in  Chelten- 
ham not  many  months  before  my  departure ;  and  \^ 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  267 

have  been  doomed  again  and  again,  in  spite  of  all 
my  remonstrances,  to  be  a  spectator  of  this  danger- 
ous practice  both  in  London  and  elsewhere."* 

The  foregoing  very  interesting  letter  (written  in 
1817)  contains  a  summary  of  all  his  doctrines,  to- 
gether with  some  of  the  most  important  practical 
directions  for  conducting  vaccination.     The  case  of 
the   Honourable    Mr.   Grosvenor   has   been   already 
particularly  detailed.     In  one  of  Jenner's  note  books 
of  this  date,  I  find  some  additional  facts  recorded 
which  it  is  not  unsuitable  to  lay  before  the  reader 
in  this  place.     "  I  vaccinated  this  young  gentleman 
in  a  puny  state  of  health  at  about  a  month  old. 
Lady  Grosvenor  was  timid,  and  prevailed  on  me  to 
de\date  from  my  usual  mode  of  practice ;    and  to 
make  one  puncture  only ;  and  the  pustule  it  excited 
was  unfortunately  deranged  in  its  progress  by  being 
rubbed  by  the  nurse.   The  small-pox,  which  followed, 
went  through  its  course  in  a  shorter  period  than  usual, 
and  scarcely  left  any  mark."     Again,  he  observes  to 
another  correspondent  about  the  same  time,  "  The 
failures  of  small-pox  inoculation  far  exceed  those  of 
the  vaccine  in  those  districts  where  I  have  vaccinated 
on  a  large  scale.     This  is,  in  proportion  to  the  num- 
bers, as  the  latter,  I  imagine,  exceed  the  former  by 
ten  to   one ;  and  of  what  import  are  the  few  that 
have  occurred,  as  they  have  not  produced  fatal  con- 
sequences ? "     Let  us  contrast  these  statements  with 
his  remarks  on  one  of  those  varioloid  epidemics,  as 
they  were  called.     "  I  wish  it  were  in  my  power  to 
give  you   any   information   respecting   the   circum- 
*  Letter  to  Dr.  Colcy,  from  Dr.  Jenncr's  Journal,  181-5  to  1820. 

268  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

stance  you  mention  at  East  Sheen.  I  have  not  been 
within  a  hundred  miles  of  the  spot  these  three  years. 
But  it  strikes  me  as  very  extraordinary  that  more 
than  twenty  individuals  assembled  together,  and 
who  came  from  different  districts,  and  consequently 
were  vaccinated  by  different  practitioners,  should  all 
have  had  this  eruptive  disease,  which  w^as  called  the 
small-pox.  I  really  cannot  conceive  that  such  a 
thing  could  have  happened,  if  they  had  been  vacci- 
nated by  a  cobbler.  I  am  told,  too,  that  the  usher 
of  the  school  shared  the  same  fate  as  the  boys." 

The  purport  of  these  extracts  is  to  show,  first, 
Dr.  Jenner's  great  carefulness  in  conducting  the 
process  of  vaccination  ;  and  secondly,  his  consequent 
success.  Although  he  could  not  always  watch  the 
progress,  I  have  reason  to  know  that  the  estimate 
of  his  success,  as  given  above,  has  not  been  falsified 
by  disastrous  events  since  his  death. 

I  will  now  submit  to  the  reader  an  extract  from  a 
letter  to  Sir  Gilbert  Blane,  written  in  1819,  which 
more  immediately  bears  upon  the  varioloid  disease 
as  it  appeared  in  Scotland  about  that  time.  "  I 
have  often  said,  and  I  still  declare  it,  that  if  ever 
anything  occurred  which  militated  against  my  early 
assertion  respecting  vaccination,  namely,  that  if 
properly  conducted,  it  would  afford  a  security 
against  small-pox  as  perfect  as  the  inoculation  of 
small-pox  itself,  I  would  immediately  proclaim  it 
to  the  world.  The  principle  of  vaccination  is  good, 
it  is  immutable ;  but  its  application  has  been  bad, 
and  continues  to  be  so.     The  practice  is  conducted 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  269 

heedlessly  in  many  respects,  but  chiefly  with  inatten- 
tion to  a  subject  I  brought  before  the  public  so  long 
since  as  the  year  1804.  The  paper,  a  copy  of  which 
I  now  send  you,  came  out  that  year  in  the  Medical 
and  Physical  Journal  for  the  month  of  August." 

The  minuteness  of  his  attention  to  every  devia- 
tion from  the  correct  progress  of  the  vaccine  vesicle 
will  clearly  explain  the  reason  of  the  all  but  uni- 
form success  of  his  practice.  I  wish  to  impress 
this  fact  most  strongly  ;  because  every  medical  man, 
by  similar  caution,  might  obtain  the  same  results. 
I  could  add  many  extracts  from  his  journals  and 
letters,  all  proving  his  unceasing  vigilance  and 
caution.  The  state  of  the  virus  to  be  inserted,  the 
condition  of  the  skin  of  the  person  about  to  be 
vaccinated,  the  character  of  the  vesicle  itself,  and 
the  necessity  of  allowing  one,  at  least,  to  run  its 
course  undisturbed,  were  points  uniformly  insisted 
on.  In  compliance  with  the  doctrines  often  stated 
in  these  volumes,  and  when  alarm  possessed  some 
minds  for  the  security  of  their  offspring,  and  would 
have  induced  them  to  put  that  subject  to  the  test  by 
the  employment  of  small-pox  inoculation,  he  invari- 
ably dissuaded  from  this  practice.  He  considered  it 
dangerous  to  the  individual  as  well  as  to  the  com- 
munity. He  was  aware  that  equal  security  and  less 
risk  was  to  be  obtained  by  re-vaccination.  Out  of 
numberless  proofs  of  this  kind  I  select  the  following 
from  one  of  his  journals  written  nearly  twenty-six 
years  ago  :  "  Whenever  there  is  a  shadow  of  doubt 
upon  the   mind  respecting  a  child  being  perfectly 

270  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

vaccinated,  I  always  recommend  the  insertion  of  a 
little  vaccine  fluid."  * 

Another  fact  illustrates  the  accuracy  of  his  obser- 
vation and  the  correctness  of  his  judgment.  His 
doctrines  led  him  to  believe  that  whatever  offered 
an  impediment  to  vaccination  would  stand  in  the 
way  of  variolation  likewise.  "  Vaccinated  Richard 
Stephens,  a  recruit  in  the  Gloucester  Militia,  in  one 
arm;  Henry  Jenner,  in  the  other  arm,  aged  19. 
He  has  Strophilus  Pilaris  of  Willan,  and  has  been 
exposed  to  small-pox  without  effect.  This  man  re- 
mained uninfected."     (Journal,  February  1812.) 

This  was  one  of  the  facts  which  induced  Dr.  Jenner 
to  believe  that  cutaneous  affections  interfered  with 
the  progress  of  vaccination.  But  why  refer  to  private 
journals  and  unpublished  documents  ?  The  same 
thing  has  been  announced  times  out  of  number  by 
Dr.  Jenner  in  every  form.  The  following  sentence 
concludes  a  pamphlet  first  published  in  1808,  and 
republished  verbatim  in  1811.  "At  the  com- 
mencement of  vaccination,  I  deemed  this  test  of 
security  (i.  e.  the  insertion  of  small-pox  matter) 
necessary ;  but  I  now  feel  confident  that  we  have 
one  of  equal  efficacy,  and  infinitely  less  hazardous, 
in  the  re-insertion  of  the  vaccine  lymph." 

When  I  read  these  and  other  most  plain  and  in- 
telligible propositions  laid  down  by  such  a  man  as 
Jenner,  and  find  those  who  ought  to  be  better  ac- 
quainted with  the  subject  reasoning  as  if  they  had 

*  LeUer  to  Mrs.  Fleet,  Darent,  near  Dartford,  Kent,  No- 
vember 17tli,  1811. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  2/1 

no  existence,  disregarding  his  accumulated  experi- 
ence, and  disfiguring  a  simple  and  beautiful  system 
by  their  dogmatical  and  unsatisfactory  commenta- 
ries, I  almost  despair  of  the  successful  progress  of 
scientific  truth  in  our  profession.  But  the  very 
same  fact  was  announced  at  a  still  earlier  period, 
more  hesitatingly,  it  is  true,  but  still  with  sufficient 
clearness  and  form  to  mark  well  the  mind  of  the 
writer.  The  very  first  paper  of  instructions  pub- 
lished, I  believe,  by  Jenner  in  the  commencement  of 
1 799,  contained  these,  among  other  important  state- 

"  A  little  practice  in  vaccine  inoculation  attentively 
conducted,  impresses  on  the  mind  the  perfect  cha- 
racter of  the  vaccine  pustule ;  therefore,  when  a 
deviation  arises,  of  whatever  kind  it  may  be,  com- 
mon prudence  points  out  the  necessity  of  re-inocu- 
lation, first,  with  vaccine  virus  of  the  most  active  kind, 
and  secondly,  should  this  be  ineffectual,  with  vario- 
lous virus.  But  if  the  constitution  shows  an  insus- 
ceptibility/ of  one,  it  commonly  does  of  the  other" 

For  some  time  before  his  death  he  was  employed 
in  reviewing  his  own  opinions,  and  in  comparing 
them  with  the  facts  which  had  been  obtained  from 
the  experience  of  his  brethren  throughout  the  world. 
Had  his  life  been  spared,  it  was  his  intention  to 
have  presented  to  the  public  a  digest  of  the  whole, 
matured,  and,  as  far  as  possible,  perfected  by  his 
own  uninterrupted  investigations.  Though  this  his 
deliberate  judgment  has  not  been  thus  set  down,  it 
is  satisfactory  to  know  that  enough  has  been  re- 
corded to  leave  us  in  full  possession  of  all  his  views. 

2/2  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

The  reported  failures  of  vaccination,  and  the  oc- 
currence of  several  violent  variolous  epidemics  in 
different  parts  of  the  country,  induced  him  to  endea- 
vour to  rouse  the  attention  of  professional  men  to 
those  points  in  the  practice  of  vaccination  which  he 
deemed  essential  to  its  success.  With  such  inten- 
tions, he  printed  a  circular  letter  early  in  1821,  which 
was  sent  to  most  of  the  respectable  medical  men  in  the 
kingdom  ;  in  it  he  directed  their  observation  to  the 
three  following  questions  : — First,  whether  the  vac- 
cine vesicle  goes  through  its  course  with  the  same 
regularity  when  the  skin  is  under  the  influence  of 
any  herpetic  or  other  eruptive  disease,  as  when  it  is 
free  from  such  affections ;  secondly,  whether  the 
existence  of  such  eruptive  diseases  causes  any  re- 
sistence  to  the  due  action  of  vaccine  lymph  when  in- 
serted into  the  arms  ;  thirdly,  whether  cases  of 
small-pox  after  vaccination  had  occurred  to  the 
observer  ;  and  if  so,  whether  such  occurrences  could 
be  ascribed  to  any  deviation  in  the  progress  of  the 
vaccine  pustule,  in  consequence  of  the  existence  of 
herpetic  or  other  eruptions  at  the  time  of  vaccination. 

From  personal  knowledge,  I  have  no  doubt  that 
his  doctrines  on  this  point  are,  in  the  main,  per- 
fectly correct.  There  are  some  who  think  and  teach 
differently ;  but  to  say  the  least  of  it,  this  is  neither 
wise  nor  prudent.  It  is  admitted  on  all  hands,  that 
the  progress  of  the  vaccine  pustule,  from  its  fii'st 
appearance  till  it  has  done  its  office  in  the  constitu- 
tion, is  a  delicate  and  a  very  important  one.  That 
so  small  an  outward  appearance  should  produce  such 
extensive  changes  in  the  animal  frame,  is  one  of  the 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  273 

most  remarkable  phenomena  in  pathology.  It  is 
likewise  admitted  by  those  who  do  not  hold  Jenner's 
opinions,  that  the  more  decided  interference  with 
the  vaccine  vesicle  will  mar  its  full  salutary  effects ; 
why,  therefore,  it  may  be  asked,  may  not  a  less  per- 
ceptible disturbance  produce  similar  results  ?  As  it 
is  not  my  purpose  or  object  here  to  enter  into  minute 
detail,  and  as  I  am  much  more  anxious  about  sound 
and  useful  practice,  I  would  again  strongly  urge  all 
who  conduct  vaccine  inoculation  to  look  upon  the 
subject  in  a  plain  practical  point  of  view.  Seeing, 
therefore,  that  our  aim  is  to  rescue  the  constitution 
from  the  attacks  of  an  extremely  malignant  and  fatal 
disease,  by  means  of  a  very  slight  affection,  it  is  im- 
possible to  be  too  cautious  in  every  thing  that  regards 
the  latter. 

It  is  bare  justice  to  Dr.  Jenner  to  exact  the  per- 
formance of  these  conditions  ;  but  it  is  an  act  of  more 
imperative  duty  as  regards  the  safety  of  the  vacci- 
nated, and  the  welfare  of  the  community.  I  would 
hope  and  beUeve  that  the  effect  of  the  circular  has 
been  to  draw  men's  attention  more  to  these  points, 
and  to  prevent  that  loose,  unsatisfactory,  and  un- 
scientific practice,  which  could  not  but  lead  to  disap- 
pointment, and  injure  the  character  of  vaccination. 

The  answers  which  Dr.  Jenner  received  to  his  cir- 
cular were  numerous,  and  in  general  satisfactory. 
I  will  not  refer  to  any  from  his  professional  brethren  ; 
but  the  following  letter  from  the  excellent  rector  of 
Leckhamstead,  near  Buckingham,  speaks  so  judi- 
ciously and  wisely,  and,  besides,  contains  some 
facts  so  valuable,  that  I  am  induced  to  present  it.  The 

VOL.  II.  T 

274  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

writer,  it  will  be  remembered,  distinguished  himself 
as  an  ardent  and  successful  promoter  of  vaccination  ; 
and  his  testimony  is  of  great  value. 

Leckhamstead,  near  Buckingham,  June  29,  1820. 

Dear  Sir, 

Your  letter  did   not   reach    Buckingham  till  June    23rd, 
though  dated  the  12th.     The  object  of  inquiry  appears  to  be 
the  extent  to  which  cutaneous  diseases  reject  or  modify  the 
vaccine  virus,  so  as  to  render  the  efficacy  and  security  doubt- 
ful.    I  have  looked  over  a  number  of  copies  of  communica- 
tions to   Dr.  Harvey,  and  will  with  great  pleasure  send  you 
the  transcripts  of  the  interference  of  variolous  and  vaccine 
infection,  and  the  superseding  power  of  the  latter  if  applied 
in  time,  six  of  which  took  place  at  Old  Stratford  in  1816, 
among  the   children  of  one  family,  being  the   whole  time 
vmder  the  same  roof.     The  distress  and  alarm  at  that  time 
were   extremely   great,    as  the  inhabitants  were  recovering 
from  the    measles  when    the    small-pox   broke    out.       The 
anxiety  of  the  parents  was  such  that  I  was  induced,  con- 
trary   to    my    own    opinion,    to     vaccinate    several  where 
the  fever  of  measles  had  not  completely  subsided :    the  con- 
sequence   of  which   was    nothing  more  than  that  the  vac- 
cine virus  lay  dormant  in  its  cell  till  the  field  was  clear,  and 
came  into  action   two  or  three  days  later;    but  afterwards 
proceeded  in  as  regular  and  decided    a  manner  as  in  con- 
stitutions which  were  not  previously  engaged. 

I  discovered  at  a  very  early  period  that  the  itch  was  not 
an  impediment;  as  to  the  shingles,  I  cannot  speak.  The 
grand  rejecting  agent  in  infants  is  the  tooth  rash,  or,  as  it 
is  here  commonly  called,  the  red  gum,  especially  while 
it  continues  bright  and  active.  Dr.  William  Cleaver  (when 
Bishop  of  Chester)  promoted  an  extensive  variolous  in- 
ocvdation    in   his    diocese.     Some  years  after,  he    asked  me 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  275 

if  I  could  account  for  the  very  frequent  failure  of  communi- 
cating the  infection  to  young  children.  I  told  him  that  it 
applied  equally  to  the  vaccine;  though  frequently,  if  the 
virus  was  fresh  and  active,  it  would  be  suspended  in  its 
career  for  a  time  only,  but  push  forward  with  success  at  last. 
I  beg  to  assure  you.  Sir,  that  nothing  I  have  met  with 
has,  in  the  slightest  degree,  shaken  my  faith  in  the  vaccine. 
I  have  seven  children,  the  eldest  sixteen,  all  vaccinated  by 
myself;  and  of  14,305,  all  within  a  few  miles  of  this  place, 
I  have  never  heard  of  a  single  fatal  disappointment ;  and  of 
only  two  or  three  cases  of  modified,  or  what  I  should  feel 
inclined  to  call  superficial,  or  cutaneous  small-pox.  As  to 
remote  or  derivative  diseases,  I  know  of  no  such  thing  fairly 
to  be  ascribed  to  the  cow-pox ;  and  I  have  ample  means  of 
knowing  if  such  a  thing  had  taken  place,  as  the  people  of 
my  two  parishes,  and  many  in  the  neighbourhood,  are,  some- 
how or  other,  continually  coming  under  my  consideration  for 
medical  assistance.  My  communications  of  late  years  have 
been  to  Dr.  Harvey,  according  to  the  directions  of  the  Na- 
tional Establishment ;  but  I  have  met  with  no  demand  for 
inoculation  since  February  1S20,  simply  from  the  absence  of 
any  stimulating  alarm.     I  am,  dear  Sir, 

With  the  highest  respect. 
Your  most  obedient  humble  servant, 

T.  T.  A.  Reed,  Rector  of  Leckhamstead. 

Mr.  Reed  had,  in  1806,  printed  and  distributed  a 
little  tract  for  the  encouragement  of  those  who  enter- 
tained any  doubt  respecting  the  efficacy  of  vaccine 
inoculation.  It  contains  a  brief  and  conclusive  his- 
tory of  the  practice  of  vaccination,  and  is  peculiarly 
honourable  to  this  benevolent  clergyman,  who  so 
actively  exerted  himself. 

In  connexion  with  Dr.  Jenner's  letter  on  the 
influence  of  eruptive  diseases  on  the  progress  of  the 

T  2 

276  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

vaccine  vesicle,  I  now  proceed  to  mention  another  on 
a  subject  which  had  occupied  his  attention  for  many 
years.  This,  his  last  pubUshed  work,  came  out  in 
1822.  It  was  entitled,  "A  Letter  to  Charles  Henry 
Parry,  M.D.  F.R.S.  &c.  &c.  &c.  on  the  Influence  of 
Artificial  Eruptions  in  certain  Diseases  incidental  to 
the  Human  Body."  It  is  not  my  intention  to  enter 
much  at  length  into  the  doctrines  contained  in  this 
publication.  It  was  printed  in  the  quarto  form,  and 
extended  to  about  sixty-six  pages.  It  was  some- 
what remarkable  that  Jenner's  first  published  obser- 
vations referred  to  the  preparation  of  the  tartar 
emetic,  and  that  his  last  were  directed  to  the  agency 
of  this  medicine  in  curing  disease.  This  subject 
occupied  his  mind  very  intensely  for  some  time 
before  his  death,  and  it  afi'ords  (I  think)  a  proof  that 
he  had  permitted  his  favourite  method  of  reasoning 
by  analogy  to  carry  him  farther  than  perhaps  was 
wise.  He  threw  out  his  opinions,  however,  with 
great  modesty,  putting  them  forward  rather  as  ques- 
tions or  speculations  than  as  doctrines  or  dogmas. 
It  contained,  nevertheless,  many  excellent  practical 
facts  and  observations.  It  would  open  up  a  large 
field  of  physiological  and  pathological  remark  were  I 
to  attempt  to  give  an  account  of  the  views  which  he 
entertained.  For  those  who  are  desirous  of  infor- 
mation on  these  points,  I  must  refer  to  the  publica- 
tion itself.  It  is  interesting,  nevertheless,  to  find 
Jenner  at  the  close  of  a  long  life  busied  with  topics 
calculated  to  advance  our  knowledge  of  diseases, 
and  add  to  our  means  of  removing  them.  He  car- 
ried on  an  extensive  correspondence  with  his  pro- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  277 

fessional  friends  ;  he  collected  cases  illustrative  of 
his  opinions  ;  and  altogether  pursued  his  work  with 
as  much  ardour  and  earnestness,  as  if  he  had  been 
commencing  his  career,  and  never  had  effected  any 
thing  for  mankind.* 

Not  many  months  after  the  publication  of  this 
paper,  Dr.  Parry  lost  his  father  ;  Jenner  w^as  one  of 
his  oldest  and  most  attached  friends.  He  went  to 
Bath  to  attend  his  funeral,  which  took  place  about 
the  middle  of  January  1822.  "  Poor  Parry !  "  he  ob- 
serves. "  I  have  just  returned  from  Bath,  where  I 
went  to  attend  his  remains  to  the  silent  tomb.  The 
manifestations  of  regard  and  affection  exhibited  by 
all  ranks  from  Sion  Hill  to  the  Abbey,  bore  unequi- 
vocal testimony  to  his  worth  and  talents." 

The  Observations  on  the  Migrations  of  Birds  were 
read  before  the  Royal  Society  on  November  27,  1823. 
They  were  presented  to  Sir  Humphrey  Davy  by 
the  Rev.  G.  C.  Jenner,  who,  to  use  his  own  words, 
"  had  the  peculiar  happiness  to  accompany  his  uncle 
in  most  of  the  investigations  of  the  phenomena  of  mi- 
gration." "  Had  it  pleased  Pro\idence  to  have  spared 
him  a  little  longer,  he  might  probably  have  corrected 
some  inaccuracies  in  the  style  and  order  of  his 
paper,  that  may  now,  perhaps,  appear  conspicuous  to 
the  reader,  but  which  I  did  not  conceive  myself  jus- 
tified in  attempting." 

It  was  not  the  intention  of  the  paper  to  give  a 
general  history  of  the  migration  of  birds^  but  rather 

*  During  tlie  progress  of  these  his  last  labours,  he  was 
assisted  by  Mr.  now  Dr.  John  Fosbroke,  for  whose  success  and 
well-being  he  always  expressed  an  anxious  concern. 

2/8  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

to  communicate  some  facts,  with  respect  to  the  cause 
which  impels  the  bird,  at  certain  seasons  of  the  year, 
to  quit  one  country  for  another.  He  first  proves  by 
well-selected  incidents,  that  birds  do  migrate  ;  and  of 
course  he  rebuts  that  doctrine  which  ascribes  their 
disappearance  to  a  state  of  hybernation. 

I  cannot  quit  this  production  without  alluding 
to  its  character  as  a  literary  composition.  Though 
it  did  not  receive  the  last  polish  of  the  author  s 
hand,  there  are  several  parts  of  it  which  have  evi- 
dently been  finished  with  great  care.  Some  of  the 
descriptions,  indeed,  are  exceedingly  beautiful ;  and 
could  not  have  been  written  by  any  one  who  did  not 
unite  scientific  accuracy  with  a  poetical  imagination. 
The  following  passage,  I  feel  assured,  will  fully  justify 
these  remarks  : 

"  First,  the  robin,  and  not  the  lark,  as  has  been 
generally  imagined,  as  soon  as  twilight  has  drawn 
the  imperceptible  line  between  night  and  day,  be- 
gins his  lonely  song.  How  sweetly  does  this  harmo- 
nize with  the  soft  dawning  of  day  !  He  goes  on  till 
the  twinkling  sunbeams  begin  to  tell  him  his  notes 
no  longer  accord  with  the  rising  scene.  Up  starts  the 
lark ;  and  with  him  a  variety  of  sprightly  songsters, 
whose  lively  notes  are  in  perfect  correspondence  with 
the  gaiety  of  the  morning.  The  general  warbling 
continues,  with  now  and  then  an  interruption,  for 
reasons  before  assigned,  by  the  transient  croak  of 
the  raven,  the  screaming  of  the  jay  and  the  swift,  or 
the  pert  chattering  of  the  daw.  The  nightingale, 
unwearied  by  the  vocal  exertions  of  the  night,  with- 
draws not  proudly  by  day  from  his  inferiors  in  song, 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  279 

but  joins  them  in  the  general  harmony.  The  thrush 
is  wisely  placed  on  the  summit  of  some  lofty  tree,  that 
its  loud  and  piercing  notes  may  be  softened  by  distance 
before  they  reach  the  ear ;  while  the  mellow  black- 
bird seeks  the  inferior  branches.  Should  the  sun, 
having  been  eclipsed  with  a  cloud,  shine  forth  with 
fresh  effulgence,  how  frequently  we  see  the  goldfinch 
perch  on  some  blossomed  bough,  and  hear  his  song 
poured  forth  in  a  strain  peculiarly  energetic,  much 
more  sonorous  and  lively  now  than  at  any  other 
time ;  while  the  sun  full  shining  on  his  beautiful 
plumes,  displays  his  golden  wings  and  crimson  chest 
to  charming  advantage.  The  notes  of  the  cuckoo 
blend  with  this  cheering  concert  in  a  perfectly 
pleasing  manner,  and  for  a  short  time  are  highly 
grateful  to  the  ear ;  but  sweet  as  this  singular  song 
is,  it  would  tire  by  its  uniformity  were  it  not  given  in 
so  transient  a  manner.  At  length,  the  evening  ad- 
vances, the  performers  gradually  retire,  and  the  con- 
cert softly  dies  away.  The  sun  is  seen  no  more.  The 
robin  again  sets  up  his  twilight  song,  till  the  still 
more  serene  hour  of  night  sends  him  to  the  bower  to 
rest ;  and  now,  to  close  the  scene  in  full  and  perfect 
harmony,  no  sooner  is  the  voice  of  the  robin  hushed, 
and  night  again  spreads  a  gloom  over  the  horizon, 
than  the  owl  sends  forth  his  slow  and  solemn  tones. 
They  are  more  than  plaintive  and  less  than  melan- 
choly ;  and  tend  to  inspire  the  imagination  with  a 
train  of  contemplations  well  adapted  to  the  serious 
hour.  Thus  we  see  that  birds,  the  subject  of  my 
present  inquiry,  have  no  inconsiderable  share  in  har- 
monising some  of  the  most  beautiful  and  interesting 
scenes  in  nature." 

280  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 




It  is  a  source  of  great  satisfaction  to  all  who  were 
acquainted  with  Jenner,  to  reflect  on  the  moderation 
and  wisdom  with  which  he  conducted  himself  during 
the  whole  of  the  painful  controversy  that  arose  out 
of  his  discovery.  He  had  a  mind  of  peculiar  deli- 
cacy, and  he  regarded  his  fair  fame  with  trembling 
jealousy;  but  he  knew  that  his  researches  had  been 
conducted  with  perfect  fairness,  that  he  had  no 
personal  or  selfish  feelings  to  gratify,  and  that  a 
magnanimous  and  virtuous  desire  to  render  his 
knowledge  a  source  of  advantage  to  his  fellow-crea- 
tures, guided  all  his  actions.  Though  often  stung 
by  the  severe  and  unmerited  reproaches  of  open 
enemies,  and  wounded  still  more  by  the  desertion 
of  his  familiar  friends  ;  yet,  under  these  circum- 
stances, of  all  others  most  trying  to  the  spirit  of  man, 
and  most  likely  to  stir  up  within  him  the  hot  and 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  281 

vehement  passions  of  our  nature,  he  was  enabled  to 
preserve  hunself  cahn  and  unruffled.  The  attempts 
to  injure  his  reputation,  to  impeach  his  moral  cha- 
racter, or  to  interfere  with  that  distinction  and  re- 
ward which  his  country  conferred  upon  him,  caUed 
forth  no  angry  expressions.  His  composure  and  his 
forgiving  disposition  under  trials  of  this  kind  cannot 
be  too  much  admired,  or  too  often  held  up  for  ex- 

He  was  blest  with  a  helpmate,  who  not  only  herself 
experienced  "  peace  amidst  billows,"  but  was  per- 
mitted to  extend  the  influence  of  that  spirit  which 
sustained  and  comforted  her  to  all  around.  When 
vexed  and  harassed,  he  knew  where  to  seek  refuge  ; 
he  knew  where  dwelt  love  and  truth ;  he  knew  where 
to  flee  from  unjust  judgments,  and  to  make  his  appeal 
where  it  never  was  made  in  vain.  I  do  not  mean  to 
affirm  that  Dr.  Jenner  at  all  times,  or  during  the 
whole  course  of  his  life,  participated  in  the  deep 
and  inexhaustible  sources  of  strength  and  consola- 
tion which  so  manifestly  nourished  the  heart  and 
guided  the  understanding  of  his  partner ;  but  I 
should  act  unjustly  by  that  principle  which  directed 
her,  were  I  not  to  avow  it  as  my  firm  conviction 
that  it  is  to  her  devout  and  holy  life,  and  her  meek 
and  firm  and  consistent  conduct  that  we  are,  in 
some  measure,  enabled  to  dwell  with  so  much  plea- 
sure upon  the  memory  of  her  husband.  To  such 
an  influence  it  must  be  ascribed  that  he  was  kept  so 
free  from  the  taint  of  human  passions  and  imperfec- 
tions when  they  were  most  likely  to  be  excited  ;  that 
he  shewed  so  much  genuine  modesty,  so  cordial  a 

282  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

desire  to  do  good  to  his  enemies,  and  all  those  other 
qualities  that  grow  not  from  an  earthly  root. 

I  remember,  when  discussing  with  him  certain 
questions  touching  the  condition  of  man  in  this  life, 
and  dwelling  upon  his  hopes,  his  fears,  his  pains,  and 
his  joys,  and  coming  to  the  conclusions  which  merely 
human  reason  discloses  to  us ;  and  when  dwelling  on 
the  deformity  of  the  heart,  our  blindness,  our  igno- 
rance, the  evils  connected  with  our  physical  struc- 
ture, our  crimes,  our  calamities,  and  our  unfathom- 
able capacity  both  for  suffering  and  for  enjoyment ; 
he  observed,  Mrs.  Jenner  can  explain  all  these 
things  :  they  cause  no  difficulties  to  her. 

The  observations  which  this  remark  suggested 
were  not  pursued  at  the  time,  but  were  often  re- 
curred to  on  subsequent  occasions.  As  he  ap- 
proached nearer  to  his  own  end,  his  conversations 
with  myself  were  generally  more  or  less  tinged  with 
such  views  as  occur  to  a  serious  mind  when  con- 
templating the  handiwork  of  the  Creator.  In  all 
the  confusion  and  disorder  which  appears  in  the 
physical  world,  and  in  all  the  anomalies  and  errors 
which  deface  the  moral,  he  saw  convincing  demon- 
stration that  He  who  formed  all  things  out  of  no- 
thing still  wields  and  guides  the  machinery  of  his 
mighty  creation. 

In  his  early  days  he  certainly,  I  fear,  had  fallen 
into  that  error  too  common  among  men  who  have 
been  much  occupied  in  the  pursuit  of  mere  human 
knowledge — he  did  not  clearly  discern  the  differ- 
ence between  the  things  which  are  made  known  to 
us  through  the  medium  of  our  senses  and  our  rea- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  283 

soiling  faculties,  and  those  which  come  to  us  with 
higher  claims,  both  upon  our  affections  and  our 
understanding.  Manifold  evils  have  arisen  from 
this  cause.  Great  and  rapid  as  has  been  the  ad- 
vancement of  every  science,  it  is  to  be  feared  that 
the  state  of  mind  of  the  enquirers  has  not  always 
accorded  with  true  wisdom ;  that  they  have  some- 
times mistaken  the  farthest  end  and  aim  of  all  know- 
ledge, as  well  as  the  best  means  of  attaining  it. 

One  of  the  most  remarkable  features  in  Jenner's 
character,  when  treating  of  questions  of  a  moral  or 
scientific  nature,  was  a  devout  expression  of  his  con- 
sciousness of  the  omnipresence  of  the  Deity.  He 
believed  that  this  great  truth  was  too  much  over- 
looked in  our  systems  of  education  ;  that  it  ought  to 
be  constantly  impressed  upon  the  youthful  heart, 
and  that  the  obligations  which  it  implied,  as 
well  as  the  inward  truth  and  purity  which  it  re- 
quired, should  be  rendered  more  familiar  to  all. 
Mrs.  Jenner  was  constantly  occupied  in  teaching 
these  lessons  to  the  poor  around  her  in  schools, 
which  she  established  for  the  purpose  of  affording 
a  scriptural  education.  He,  building  upon  this 
foundation,  wished  to  add  instruction  of  a  more 
practical  description,  deduced  from  their  daily  ex- 
perience, and  illustrated  by  a  reference  to  those 
works  of  wisdom  and  beauty  which  the  universe 
supplies.  He  always  contended  that  -some  aid  of 
this  kind  was  necessary  to  impress  completely  upon 
the  character  of  the  lower  ranks  those  maxims  which 
they  derived  from  their  teachers.  He  had  other 
views,  too,  in  recommending  such  a  plan  ;  he  thought 

284  LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER. 

that  the  lot  of  the  poor  might  be  ameliorated,  and 
many  sources  of  amusement  and  information  laid 
open  to  them  which  they  are  at  present  deprived  of ; 
that  the  flowers  of  the  field  and  the  wonders  of  the 
animal  creation  might  supply  them  with  subjects  of 
useful  knowledge  and  pious  meditation. 

The  state  of  Mrs.  Jenner  s  health  often  required 
the  unremitting  and  anxious  care  of  her  husband. 
She  had  been  long  threatened  with  a  pulmonary  com- 
plaint of  a  serious  character,  and  was  besides  aifected 
with  another  disorder  of  a  painful  and  distressing 
nature.  For  years  before  her  death  she  was  chiefly 
confined  to  her  own  apartments.  The  tenderness 
and  delicacy  with  which  Jenner  superintended  the 
arrangement  of  every  thing  that  could  be  thought 
of  for  her  comfort,  the  administration  of  her  medi- 
cine and  the  preparation  of  her  food,  (which  a  difli- 
culty  of  deglutition  rendered  necessary,)  all  indicated 
the  warmest  attachment  and  the  kindest  feelings. 
The  unaffected  cheerfulness  and  thankfulness  with 
which,  amid  her  pains,  she  received  such  offices,  was 
truly  instructive.  This  temper  was  conspicuous  at 
all  times — in  the  days  of  comparative  health  as  well 
as  at  the  hour  of  death. 

Dr.  Jenner's  personal  appearance  to  a  stranger  at 
first  sight  was  not  very  striking  ;  but  it  was  impossi- 
ble to  observe  him,  even  for  a  few  moments,  without 
discovering  those  peculiarities  which  distinguished 
him  from  all  others.  This  individuaUty  became 
more  remarkable  the  more  he  was  known ;  and  all 
the  friends  who  watched  him  longest,  and  have  seen 
most  of  his  mind  and  of  his  conduct,  with  one  voice 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  285 

declare,  that  there  was  a  something  about  him  which 
they  never  witnessed  in  any  other  man.  The  first 
things  that  a  stranger  would  remark  were  the  gen- 
tleness, the  simplicity,  the  artlessness  of  his  manner. 
There  was  a  total  absence  of  all  ostentation  or  dis- 
play ;  so  much  so,  that  in  the  ordinary  intercourse 
of  society  he  appeared  as  a  person  who  had  no  claims 
to  notice.  He  was  perfectly  unreserved,  and  free 
from  all  guile.  He  carried  his  heart  and  his  mind 
so  openly,  so  undisguisedly,  that  all  might  read  them. 
You  could  not  converse  with  him,  you  could  not 
enter  his  house  nor  his  study,  without  seeing  what 
sort  of  man  dwelt  there. 

His  professional  avocations  and  the  nature  of  hi^ 
pursuits  obliged  him  to  conduct  his  inquiries  in  a 
desultory  way.  At  no  period  of  his  life  could  he  give 
himself  up  to  continued  or  protracted  attention  to 
one  object :  there  was,  nevertheless,  a  steadiness  in 
working  out  his  researches,  amid  all  the  breaks  and 
interruptions  which  he  met  with,  that  can  only  be- 
long to  minds  constituted  as  his  was. 

The  objects  of  his  studies  generally  lay  scattered 
around  him  ;  and,  as  he  used  often  to  say  himself, 
seemingly  in  chaotic  confusion.  Fossils,  and  other 
specimens  of  natural  history,  anatomical  preparations, 
books,  papers,  letters — all  presented  themselves  in 
strange  disorder  ;  but  every  article  bore  the  impress 
of  the  genius  that  presided  there.  The  fossils  were 
marked  by  small  pieces  of  paper  pasted  on  them, 
having  their  names  and  the  places  where  they  were 
found  inscribed  in  his  own  plain  and  distinct  hand- 
writing.    His  materials  for  thought  and  conversation 

286  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

were  thus  constantly  before  him ;  and  a  visitor,  on 
entering  his  apartment,  would  find  in  abundance 
traces  of  all  his  private  occupations.  He  seemed  to 
have  no  secrets  of  any  kind  ;  and,  notwithstanding  a 
long  experience  with  the  world,  he  acted  to  the  last 
as  if  all  mankind  were  trustworthy,  and  free  from  sel- 
fishness as  himself.  He  had  a  working  head,  being 
never  idle,  and  accumulated  a  great  store  of  original 
observations.  These  treasures  he  imparted  most 
generously  and  liberally.  Indeed  his  chief  pleasure 
seemed  to  be  in  pouring  out  the  ample  riches  of  his 
mind  to  every  one  who  enjoyed  his  acquaintance. 
He  had  often  reason  to  lament  this  unbounded  con- 
fidence ;  but  such  ungrateful  returns  neither  chilled 
his  ardour  nor  ruffled  his  temper. 

In  the  success  of  his  researches  he  was  a  proof  of 
the  felicity  with  which  an  humble  spirit  is  rewarded 
w^ho  proceeds  to  investigate  that  great  field  of  know- 
ledge, "  which  has  been  passed  to  man  by  so  large  a 
charter  from  God."  He  was  not  arrogant  nor  con- 
fident, but  was  contented  to  learn  with  all  the  do- 
cility of  a  child. 

In  prosecuting  his  investigations  into  unexplored 
regions,  analogy  was  his  favourite  guide.  This 
method  is  characteristic  of  all  original  minds ;  and 
although  it  is  often  carried  too  far,  it  has  been,  when 
duly' and  cautiously  followed,  the  parent  of  some  of 
the  greatest  inventions.  To  it  we  are,  in  great  de- 
gree, indebted  for  the  discovery  of  the  properties  of 
the  Variolse  Vaccinae.  In  comparing  that  affection 
with  the  disease  it  was  intended  to   counteract,  he 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  287 

gained   his    chief  knowledge,    and   was    ultimately- 
enabled  so  to  establish  their  points  of  difference,  as 
to  render  the  information  he  had  acquired  of  the 
highest  practical  utility.     For  this  sound  and  saga- 
cious mode  of  reasoning  he  w^as  principally  indebted 
to  his  own  vigorous    understanding.     He  had  not 
derived  much  aid  from  those  helps  which  wise  men 
have  devised  for  keeping  the  intellect  in  its  proper 
course  while  searching  for  truth  ;  and  to  this  cause 
we  may  probably  ascribe  some   of  the  errors  into 
which,  it  must   be  confessed,    he   occasionally  fell. 
His  analogies  were  sometimes  hurried  forw  ard  on  the 
wings  of  imagination  ;  and,  of  course,  were  not  al- 
ways accurate  or  conclusive.     His  language,  too,  on 
scientific  subjects,  though  for  the  most  part  remark- 
ably simple  and  precise,  was,  on  some   occasions,  of 
too  figurative  a  cast.     This  rich  and  flowery  garb 
often  seemed  to  overlay  sterling  treasure,  and  by 
those  who  could  not  penetrate  below  the  surface  he 
has  been  deemed  rather  visionary.*     But,  truly,  it 

*  I  am  glad  to  liave  a  confirmation  of  the  above  remarks  from 
the  pen  of  his  illustrious  friend  the  late  Sir  Humphrey  Davy. 

"  I  remember,"  says  Sir  Humphrey,  "  in  1809,  having  had  a 
long  conversation  with  the  late  Dr.  Jenner  on  the  habits  of  ani- 
mals. He  was  original  and  ingenious,  but  I  think  was  sometimes 
carried  too  far  by  the  remoteness  of  his  analogies.  We  were 
discussing  the  possibility  of  the  uses  of  earthworms  to  man.  I 
was  more  disposed  to  consider  the  dunghill  and  putrefaction  as 
useful  to  the  worm,  rather  than  the  worm  as  an  agent  important 
to  man  in  the  economy  of  nature ;  but  Dr.  Jenner  would  not 
allow  my  reason.  He  said  the  earthworms,  particularly  about 
the  time  of  the  vernal  equinox,  were  much  under  and  along  the 

288  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

was  a  misapprehension.  His  comparisons  were  often 
most  happy  and  appropriate ;  and  of  this  I  can 
scarcely  refer  to  a  better  example  than  a  reply  that 
he  made  to  Charles  Fox,  which  will  be  found  in  a 
subsequent  page. 

As  faithfulness  is  one  of  the  first  qualities  of  a 
biographer,  I  may  here  notice  what  I  take  to  be  a 
fair  instance  of  his  analogical  reasoning  pushed  to  an 
undue  extent.  In  his  work  on  artificial  eruptions, 
most  of  his  anticipations  of  the  benefits  to  be  obtained 
from  them  in  different  diseases  were  evidently  de- 
duced from  a  supposed  affinity  between  those  that 
are  artificial  and  those  that  are  natural.  Though 
the  analogy  is  correct  in  some  respects,  it  certainly 
does  not  hold  true  to  the  extent  which  he  imagined, 
nor  are  the  benefits,  great  as  they  have  been  proved 
to  be,  altogether  of  that  nature  which  he  had  con- 
jectured. * 

In  witnessing  the  variety  of  external  things,  and 
in  marking  their  properties,  he  seems  to  have  pos- 
sessed a  mind  much  allied  to  the  pure  and  unsophist- 
icated character  of  some  of  our  old  English  worthies  ; 
and  were  I  to  attempt  to  find  associates  with  whom 

surface  of  our  moist  meadow  lands  ;  and  wherever  they  move, 
they  leave  a  train  of  mucus  behind  them,  which  becomes  manure 
to  the  plant.  In  this  respect  they  act,  as  the  slug  does,  in 
furnishing  materials  for  food  to  the  vegetable  kingdom ;  and 
under  the  surface,  they  break  the  stiff  clods  in  pieces,  and 
finally  divide  the  soil. 

"  They  feed  likewise  entirely  on  inorganic  matter,  and  are 
rather  the  scavengers  than  the  tyrants  of  the  vegetable  system." 
(See  Davy's  Life  of  Davy,  vol.  ii.  p.  389). 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER.  289 

he  would  in  an  especial  manner  have  assimilated,  I 
think  I  should  seek  to  link  him  in  triple  union  with 
honest  Isaak  Walton  and  the  pious  and  engaging 
Evelyn.  When  I  read  some  of  the  descriptions  of 
the  former,  but  especially  that  lovely  and  heart- 
stirring  passage  where  the  mention  of  the  doubling 
and  redoubling  notes  of  the  nightingale  is  so  finely 
employed  to  arouse  men  to  the  beauties  of  this  crea- 
tion, and  to  point  their  hopes  to  another,  I  have  often 
been  reminded  of  delineations  of  a  similar  kind  in 
the  writings  of  Jenner.  That  passage  towards  the 
conclusion  of  his  paper  on  the  migration  of  birds, 
which  has  been  given  at  page  2/9,  will  serve  as  an 

His  latter  days  were  occasionally  gladdened  by 
the  studies  and  pursuits  of  his  youthful  years.  Geo- 
logy, which  had  made  such  rapid  strides  since  he 
commenced  his  enquiries,  continued  to  interest  him 
to  the  last.  He  had  several  visits  from  the  learned 
and  distinguished  Professor  Buckland,  with  whom, 
and  the  Rev.  R  Halifax  of  Standish,  he  examined 
the  trap  rocks  at  Micklewood,  and  the  corals  and 
agates  at  Woodford.  He  also,  with  the  assistance 
of  Mr  Henry  Shrapnell,  arranged  his  own  specimens 
of  natural  history. 

His  domestic  happiness  after  the  death  of  Mrs. 
Jenner  was  necessarily  much  impaired.  Another 
bereavement,  though  of  a  different  kind,  which  (Oc- 
curred not  long  before  his  death,  rendered  his  state 
still  more  desolate.  His  only  daughter  Catherine 
was    on  the  7th  of  August   1822,  married  to  John 

VOL,  II.  u 

290  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

Yeend  Bedford,  Esq.  of  Southbank,  Edgbaston,  near 
Birmingham.  The  day  that  this  event  took  place, 
he  sent  me  the  following  note.  "  Pray  don't  desert 
this  forlorn  cottage,  but  come  sometimes,  and  chase 
away  my  melancholy  hours. 

"  With  best  affections, 
''Edw.  Jenner. 

"  Chantry  Collage,  7lh  Avgust,  1822." 

The  union  had  taken  place  with  his  entire  appro- 
bation. This  amiable  lady  was  delivered  of  a  daugh- 
ter on  the  1st  of  August  1833,  and  expired  on  the  5th 
of  the  same  month.  This  only  offspring  of  the  mar- 
riage is  named  Catherine  Sarah  Jenner. 

His  habits  were  in  perfect  accordance  with  the  un- 
affected simplicity  of  his  mind ;  and  never,  probably, 
did  there  exist  an  individual  to  whom  the  pomp  and 
ceremony,  which  are  so  pleasing  to  many,  would  have 
been  more  burdensome.  Unrestrained  by  the  for- 
mality and  reserve  of  artificial  society,  he  loved  to 
enjoy  that  freedom,  in  his  intercourse  with  his  friends, 
which  v/as  always  gratifying  to  them,  and  congenial 
to  his  own  taste. 

In  his  latter  years  he  was  not  a  very  early  riser ; 
but  he  always  spent  some  part  of  his  time  in  his 
study  before  he  appeared  at  the  breakfast  table. 
When  in  London  and  at  Cheltenham,  he  generally 
assembled  his  scientific  and  literary  friends  around 
him  at  this  hour.  Some  came  for  the  pleasure  of 
his  conversation ;  some  to  receive  instruction  in  the 
history  and  practice  of  vaccination.  In  the  country, 
where  his  guests  were  generally  his  own  immediate 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  291 

connexions  or  his  intimate  friends,  the  originality  of 
his  character  came  out  in  the  most  engaging  man- 
ner. He  almost  always  brought  some  intellectual 
offering  to  the  morning  repast.  A  new  fact  in  na- 
tural history,  a  fossil,  or  some  of  the  results  of  his 
meditations,  supplied  materials  for  conversation  ;  but, 
in  default  of  these,  he  would  produce  an  epigram,  or 
a  fugitive  jeu  d'esprit ;  and  did  not  disdain  even  a 
pun  when  it  came  in  his  w^ay.  His  mirth  and  gaiety, 
except  when  under  the  pressure  of  domestic  calamity 
or  bodily  illness,  never  long  forsook  him  ;  and  even  in 
his  old  age,  the  facility  with  which  he  adapted  his 
conversation  and  his  manners  to  the  most  juvenile 
of  his  associates  was  truly  interesting.  To  have  seen 
and  heard  him  at  such  times,  one  could  hardly  be- 
lieve that  he  was  advanced  in  years,  or  that  these 
years  had  been  crowded  with  events  so  important. 

Though  thus  kind,  and  free,  and  familiar,  there 
was  nothing  of  levity  in  his  deportment ;  and,  when 
occasion  required,  he  could  well  sustain  the  dig- 
nity of  his  name  and  station.  In  the  drawing-room 
at  St.  James's  he  chanced  to  overhear  a  noble 
lord,  who  was  high  in  office,  mentioning  his 
name,  and  repeating  the  idle  calumny  which  had 
been  propagated  concerning  his  own  want  of  confi- 
dence in  vaccination,  in  consequence  of  his  acting  as 
has  been  already  stated  in  the  case  of  his  son  Robert. 
He,  with  the  greatest  promptitude  and  decision,  re- 
futed the  charge  and  abashed  the  reporter.  His 
person  was  not  known  to  the  noble  lord,  but  with 
entire  composure  he  advanced  to  his  lordship,  and 

u  2 

292  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

looking  fully  in  his  face,  calmly  observed,  "  I  am  Dr. 
Jenner."  The  effect  of  this  well-timed  rebuke  was 
instantaneous.  The  noble  lord,  though  "  made  of 
sterner  stuff"  than  most  men,  immediately  retreated, 
and  left  Jenner  in  possession  of  the  field. 

As  he  knew  how  to  comport  himself  with  men 
of  elevated  rank,  he  could  condescend  to  his  in- 
feriors in  the  most  benevolent  and  gracious  man- 
ner. He  loved  to  visit  and  to  converse  with  them  ; 
to  observe  their  domestic  habits,  and  the  little 
peculiarities  in  language  or  demeanour  which  dif- 
ferent districts  exhibit ;  but  he  especially  delighted 
in  discovering  any  traces  of  originality,  any  indi_ 
cations  of  that  vivida  vis  animi  which  might  with  a 
little  help  enable  the  possessor  to  emerge  from  his 
humble  station.  Young  Worgan,  who  became  tutor 
to  his  eldest  son,  was  fostered  by  him  in  this  way,  and 
there  are  many  others  still  li\ing  who  have  equally 
partaken  of  his  encouragement  and  of  his  bounty. 

He  was  particularly  fond  of  conversing  with  peo- 
ple in  the  lower  walks  of  life  who  w ere  of  a  religious 
character.  I  know  one  venerable  individual  of  this 
kind,  w^ho  has  likewise  given  proofs  of  very  consider- 
able musical  genius.  Though  compelled  to  labour 
at  an  humble  trade,  and  little  indebted  to  educa- 
tion, poor  Thomas  Cam  contrived,  while  living  in  a 
secluded  hamlet,  to  acquire  such  a  knowledge  of  the 
theory  of  music  as  to  be  able  to  compose  pieces  of 
considerable  length,  and  adapted  to  a  great  variety  of 
instruments,  some  of  which  he  had  never  seen  or 
heard.     Jenner  on  one  occasion  brought  him  to  the 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  293 

Music-meeting  at  Gloucester.  There  he  witnessed 
an  orchestra  more  varied  and  complete  than  any 
he  had  ever  before  contemplated.  He  listened 
with  extraordinary  satisfaction ;  and  when  Jenner 
asked  him  if  he  was  not  astonished  at  the  strange 
concord  of  sweet  sounds  issuing  from  a  number  of 
instruments  new  to  him,  "  Oh  !  "  said  he,  "  I  knowed 
how  it  would  all  be."  Several  of  this  poor  man's 
compositions  have  been  printed ;  and  I  am  told  by 
good  judges  that,  considering  his  opportunities,  they 
are  very  astonishing. 

Every  indication  of  talent  or  genius,  in  whatever 
situation  found,  was  sure  to  gain  his  notice  and  con- 
sideration. I  remember  to  have  seen  him,  a  short 
time  before  his  death,  listening  with  great  attention 
to  the  demonstrations  of  a  very  humble  lecturer  on 
astronomy.  The  Doctor  had  collected  all  his  young 
friends  in  Berkeley  about  him  in  his  own  house,  and 
the  lecturer,  though  very  insufficiently  provided  with 
instruments,  and  little  beholden  to  any  thing  but  his 
own  exertions  for  his  knowledge,  was,  nevertheless, 
animated  and  ardent.  His  apparatus  and  his  draw- 
ings were  all  constructed  by  himself;  and,  rude 
though  they  were,  they  fixed  the  attention  of  the 
younger  part  of  the  audience,  and  in  so  doing  amply 
gratified  Jenner.  It  ought  at  the  same  time  to  be 
mentioned,  that  neither  Dr.  Jenner's  previous  educa- 
tion nor  his  habits  gave  him  a  relish  for  any  of  the 
branches  of  pure  science.  He  seemed  to  have  a  pecu- 
liar horror  of  arithmetical  questions.  He  wasoften  jocu- 
lar on  this  defect  in  his  nature  ;  and  I  believe  he  fre- 
quently paid  severely  for  it ;  as  he  would  rather  attend 

294  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

to  any  thing  than  pounds,  shillings,  and  pence.  A 
neighbour  was  once  expending  a  great  many  words 
to  draw  his  attention  to  some  aifairs  of  this  kind.  He 
expressed  himself  perfectly  satisfied ;  but  not  so  his 
neighbour.  He  continued  to  dwell  upon  the  different 
items  till  Jenner's  patience  became  exhausted  ;  and 
he  exclaimed  that  he  w^ould  rather  look  for  an  hour 
at  a  mite  through  a  microscope  than  have  his  time 
taken  up  with  such  things. 

Whether  in  the  country  or  in  town,  his  eye  was 
constantly  in  search  of  subjects  for  observation. 
He  seldom  or  never  passed  a  butcher's  shop  with- 
out a  peep  at  its  contents ;  because  he  often  found 
something  to  illustrate  his  views  of  comparative  ana- 
tomy and  pathology.  He  generally  carried  a  large 
pocket-book  with  him ;  and  recorded  his  thoughts 
as  they  occurred.  He  very  often  also  adopted  an- 
other practice,  namely,  that  of  writing  his  reflections 
on  detached  scraps  and  fragments  of  paper;  and  many, 
consequently,  have  either  perished  or  been  rendered 
useless  for  want  of  connexion :  these  "  disjecta 
membra  "  being  not  very  susceptible  of  arrangement 
or  combination  by  any  other  than  the  mind  which 
produced  them. 

Though  the  general  cast  of  his  character  exhibited  a 
happy  union  of  great  solemnity  and  seriousness  with 
extraordinary  playfulness,  amounting  at  times  even  to 
the  height  of  mirth  and  jocularity ;  yet  no  one  ever 
found  these  latter  qualities  misplaced,  or  obtruding 
themselves  unseasonably.  Almost  all  the  great  inci- 
dents of  his  life  tended  rather  to  suppress  them,  and 
to  keep  them  in  the  shade.     In  the  early  part  of  this 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  295 

work  it  has  been  shewn,  Avhen  meditating  on  the 
grand  results  of  his  vaccine  experiments,  how  devout 
were  his  feeHngs.  Towards  the  close  of  his  life  many 
incidents  argue  the  increasing  power  of  that  prin- 
ciple. He  frequently  expressed  his  regret  that 
mankind  were  so  little  alive  to  the  value  of  vacci- 
nation. Among  the  last  words  that  he  addressed 
to  me,  not  many  days  before  his  fatal  seizure,  he 
used  this  remarkable  expression :  "  I  am  not  sur- 
prised that  men  are  not  thankful  to  me  ;  but  I  wonder 
that  they  are  not  grateful  to  God  for  the  good 
which  he  has  made  me  the  instrument  of  conveying 
to  my  fellow  creatures."  He  had  a  great  reverence 
for  the  Scriptures  ;  and  when  he  presented  copies  of 
them  to  his  god-children  or  others,  they  never  went 
from  his  hands  without  some  inscription,  declaratory 
of  his  veneration  ;  one  such,  I  subjoin. 

"  To  Augusta  Bertie  Parry,  with  the  best  wishes 
and  affections  of  her  god- father,  Edward  Jenner ;  who 
most  devoutty  hopes,  as  this  is  the  best  book  that 
ever  was  written,  she  will  give  it  not  only  the  first 
place  in  her  librar}^,  but  convince  those  who  love  her 
dearly,  that  it  occupies  the  first  place  in  her  heart." 

I  find  some  fragments  of  prayers  strongly  expres- 
sive of  deep  and  humble  submission  to  the  divine 
will.  One  of  them,  apparently  written  under  afflic- 
tion, concludes  in  this  strain  : — "  And  may  those 
sacred  truths,  revealed  by  him  who  did  condescend 
to  assume  a  human  form,  and  appear  among  men 
upon  the  earth,  be  so  engrafted  in  my  mind,  that  I 
may  never  lose  sight  of  these  thy  divine  mercies  ; 
and  thus,  by  my  faith   and  practice,  when  it  may 

296  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

please  thee  to  send  my  body  to  the  grave,  may  my 
imperishable  soul  be  received  into  thy  habitations  of 
eternal  glory." 

Dr.  Jenner  purchased  the  house  which  he  inhabit- 
ed at  Berkeley  from  a  family  of  the  name  of  Weston. 
It  was  called  "  the  Chantry,"  from  having,  in  former 
times,  been  in  the  possession  of  certain  monks.  It 
is  contiguous  to  the  churchyard  of  Berkeley  ;  and 
the  tower  of  the  church,  which,  as  is  sometimes  the 
case,  is  disjoined  from  the  rest  of  the  building,  over- 
hangs the  southern  boundary  of  the  shrubbery.  This 
tower  is  now  nearly  covered  with  a  vigorous  ivy 
plant,  which  on  two  sides  has  mantled  to  its  summit. 
Jenner  plucked  the  root  from  which  it  sprang  from 
the  tomb  of  Strongbow  '*  at  Tintern  Abbey.  He 
carried  it  with  him  to  Berkeley,  and  planted  it,  ob- 
serving, "  who  knows  but  this  little  scion  will  one 
day  encircle  our  goodly  tower  ? " 

The  tower,  in  its  green  and  rich  livery,  is  now  a 
beautiful  object,  and  harmonizes  with  the  shrubs 
and  trees  which  tastefully  adorn  his  little  domain. 
One  tree  (a  willow)  is  conspicuous,  as  well  for  its 
light  and  beautiful  foliage,  as  from  its  having  been 
a  great  favourite  with  him.  He  particularly  loved 
to  endear  to  himself  all  objects  with  which  he  was 
familiar,  by  associating  them  with  some  incident 
calculated  to  mark  past  events  in  his  personal  his- 
tory. This  very  tree  was  so  distinguished.  His 
eldest  son,  to  whom  he  was  devotedly  attached,  was, 
in  consequence  of  severe  illness,  obliged  to  lose  blood, 

*  Kichard  Earl  of  Clare,  who  died  in  U70. 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER.  297 

which  Jenner  deposited  with  his  own  hands  at  the 
root  of  this  tree. 

Towards  the  southern  extremity  of  the  lawn,  and 
shaded  by  the  thick  screen  of  evergreens,  is  a  small 
rustic  apartment.     Here  in   the  summer   mornings 
Jenner  used  to  receive  his  poor  neighbours  who  came 
for  the  purpose  of  vaccination.     In  this  humble  fane 
more  wonders  were  wrought  than  in  all  the  splendid 
temples  of  iEsculapius.  It  was  constructed  by  the  Rev. 
Mr.  Ferryman.     The  knotted  and  gnarled  oak,  with 
huge  fragments   of  the  roots  or  branches  of  other 
forest  trees,  arranged  with  much  taste,  enabled  him 
to  give  to  an  extremely  artificial  structure  the  style 
and  character  of  a  natural  production.     The  monarch 
of  the  woods,   shorn  of  his  glory,  and  dying  inter- 
nally, but  still  holding  his  attachments  to  his  parent 
earth,  sometimes  exhibits  an  arched  cavity,  furnish- 
ina:  hints  for  such  structures.     If  the  reader  has  ever 
examined  the  Greendale  oak,  as   described  by  the 
excellent  Evelyn,  he  will  easily  comprehend  the  idea 
I  wish  to  convey.     It  was  not  merely  in  copying  the 
vegetable  world,  either  in  its  soft  and  lovely  charac- 
ter, or  in  its  bold  and  picturesque  effects,  that  Mr. 
Ferrpnan  shewed  the  accuracy  of  his  eye  and  the 
correctness  of  his   taste.       He    could   imitate    with 
equal  fidelity  the  abrupt  and  varied  form  of  a  rocky 
surface,  and  could  so  dispose  of  the  massy  fragments 
riven  from  an  adjacent  quarry,  as  if  they  had  been 
fixed  by  some  great  convulsion  on  the  surface  of  the 
earth,  not  by  the  puny  efforts  of  human  hands ;  but 
Mr.  Ferryman  had  a  frame  that  well  seconded  the 
conceptions  of  his  mind.     There  was  nothing  little  in 

298  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

any  of  his  conceptions.  They  all  resembled  the  ope- 
rations of  nature  in  her  firmest  and  most  decided 
displays  ;  and  with  his  own  hands  he  would  labour  in 
executing  his  designs  with  irresistible  energy. 

In  the  style  of  ornamental  improvement,  which 
within  the  last  half  century  has  done  so  much  to 
augment  the  natural  beauties  of  England,  Mr.  Ferry- 
man was  quite  unrivalled.  He  followed  one  guide ; 
and  so  admirably  did  he  adapt  his  alterations  to  the 
situation  and  character  of  the  surrounding  objects, 
that  they  seemed  rather  like  parts  of  one  original 
design  than  artificial  adjuncts.  I  do  not  know  that 
he  ever  read  the  elegant  work  of  the  late  accom- 
plished Sir  Uvedale  Price,  Bart,  but  there  is  a  rela- 
tionship between  their  conceptions,  and  a  truth  in 
their  practical  elucidations,  which  stamps  them  as 
brothers  in  the  same  family  of  genius. 

I  would  hope  that  the  great  design  of  writings 
of  this  description  has  in  some  degree  been  at- 
tained ;  that  the  form  and  likeness  of  the  mind  has, 
to  a  certain  extent,  been  preserved.  The  incidents 
which  have  been  recorded,  will  afford  to  every  one 
the  means  of  tracing  the  features  of  the  character. 
I  am  fully  conscious,  nevertheless,  that  the  portrait 
but  feebly  delineates  the  merits  of  the  original.  It 
is  not  my  intention  to  attempt  to  increase  the  effect 
by  artificial  colouring,  or  exaggerated  representa- 
tions ;  but  there  are  some  characteristic  traits  that  I 
have  yet  to  mention. 

The  discovery  of  vaccination,  though  pregnant 
with  consequences,  calculated  from  their  magnitude 
to  dazzle  and  bewilder  the  strongest  intellect,  was 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  299 

ushered  into  the  world  with  singular  modesty  and 
humility.  It  soon,  however,  began  to  expand ;  and 
when  the  opposition  arose,  its  value  became  more 
apparent,  and  its  power  and  its  virtues  were  demon- 
strated by  the  very  objections  that  were  brought 
against  it.  In  these  respects  it  resembled  truth  of 
a  different  description,  which  becomes  more  resplend- 
ent and  glorious,  the  more  it  is  tried  by  controversy 
or  persecution. 

But  Dr.  Jenner  was  not  only  humble  in  all  that 
concerned  this,  the  greatest  incident  of  his  life ;  he 
continued  so  after  success  had  crowned  his  labours, 
and  after  applause  greater  than  most  men  can  bear 
had  been  bestowed  upon  him.  This  most  estimable 
quality  was  \dsible  at  all  times ;  but  it  was  particu- 
larly conspicuous  when  he  was  living  in  familiar  in- 
tercourse with  the  inhabitants  of  his  native  village. 
If  the  reader  could  in  imagination  accompany  me 
with  him  to  the  dweUings  of  the  poor,  and  see  him 
kindly  and  heartily  inquiring  into  their  wants,  and 
entering  into  all  the  little  details  of  their  domestic 
economy ;  or  if  he  could  have  witnessed  him  listen- 
ing with  perfect  patience  and  good  humour  to  the 
history  of  their  maladies,  he  would  have  seen  an 
engaging  instance  of  untiring  benevolence.  He 
never  was  unwilling  to  receive  any  one,  however 
unseasonable  the  time  may  have  been.  Such  were 
his  habits,  even  to  the  latest  period  of  his  life.  I 
scarcely  know  any  part  of  his  character  that  was  more 
worthy  of  imitation  and  unqualified  respect  than  that 
to  which  I  have  alluded.  I  have  never  seen  any 
person  in  any  station  of  life  in  whom  it  was  equally 

300  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

manifest ;  and  when  it  is  remembered  that  he  was 
well  "  stricken  in  years  ; "  that  he  had  been  a  most 
indefatigable  and  successful  labourer  in  the  cause 
of  humanity ;  and  that  he  might  have  sought  for 
a  season  of  repose,  and  the  uncontrolled  disposal 
of  his  own  time,  the  sacrifices  which  he  made  are 
the  more  to  be  valued.  In  the  active  and  unos- 
tentatious exercise  of  kindness  and  charity  he  spent 
his  days  ;  and  he  seemed  ever  to  feel  that  he  was 
one  of  those  "  qui  se  natos  ad  homines  juvandos, 
tutandos,  conservandos  arbitrantur." 

His  kindness  and  condescension  to  the  poor  was 
equalled  by  his  most  considerate  respect  and  regard 
to  the  feelings  and  character  of  the  humblest  of  his 
professional  brethren.  I  have  often  been  struck 
with  the  total  absence  of  every  thing  that  could  bear 
the  semblance  of  loftiness  of  demeanour.  Few  men 
were  more  entitled  to  deliver  their  sentiments  in  a 
confident  or  authoritative  tone  ;  but  his  whole  de- 
portment was  opposed  to  every  thing  of  that  descrip- 
tion, and  he  did  not  hesitate  to  seek  knowledge  from 
persons  in  all  respects  his  inferiors.  All  his  younger 
brethren  who  have  ever  had  the  happiness  to  meet 
him  in  practice,  must  have  been  deeply  impressed 
with  this  part  of  his  character. 

He  had  both  an  inquisitive  and  an  original  mind ; 
and  it  was  always  open  to  instruction,  from  whatever 
quarter  it  came.  He  seldom  failed,  either  when 
writing  to  his  professional  brethren,  or  when  con- 
versing with  them,  to  start  some  subject  for  their 
consideration.  I  have  known  him  often  dictate  to 
his  young  friends  problems  in  physiology,  pathology. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  301 

or  natural  history,  for  their  investigation ;  at  the 
same  time  giving  them  some  important  information 
which  he  had  previously  ascertained  by  his  own  in- 
quiries. Some  of  the  pathological  questions,  which 
it  has  been  my  lot  to  discuss,  originated  in  this  way, 
and  were  prosecuted  with  his  fostering  help. 

I  am  satisfied,  as  I  have  already  observed  *,  that 
the  overwhelming  duties  connected  with  vaccination 
have  in  some  measure  obstructed  and  obscured  the 
reputation  which  is  his  due  as  a  scientific  physician. 
Very  many  of  the  subjects  which  are  now  occupy- 
ing the  attention  of  the  profession,  and  which  have 
led  to  valuable  practical  results,  were  fully  developed 
in  his  mind ;  and  had  he  been  permitted  to  have 
brought  them  before  the  public,  he  would  have 
earned  a  well-deserved  accession  to  his  fame. 

He  had  a  strong  and  just  feeling  of  consideration 
for  the  many  hardships  endured  by  medical  men, 
particularly  in  country  districts.  A  dreary  ride  over 
a  bleak  and  wintry  road  in  the  middle  of  the  night, 
and  a  cold  and  comfortless  reception  in  the  abode  of 
sickness  and  poverty,  with  nothing  for  the  rider  or 
his  horse  ;  or,  what  is  worse,  an  urgent  and  impatient 
summons  to  a  more  wealthy  abode,  where  all  consi- 
deration is  centred  in  one  point,  and  where  no  pro- 
lusion is  made  for  the  unhappy  son  of  ^Esculapius  ; 
these  things  he  felt  so  strongly,  that  he  used  to  illus- 
trate his  sentiments  in  a  jocular  manner,  by  saying, 
that  medical  gentlemen  should  follow  the  example  of 
tradesmen,  and  endeavour  to  bring  their  employers 
to  a  sense  of  justice  by  "  a  general  strike.''' 

*  Vol.  i.  p.  120. 

302  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

The  infirmity  of  our  nature  leads  us  too  often  to 
draw  inferences  from  circumstances  that  are  very 
fallacious.  We  are  too  apt  to  attach  ideas  to  persons 
and  things  that  do  not  necessarily  belong  to  them, 
and  to  imagine  that  whatever  does  not  correspond 
with  our  preconceived  opinions  must  be  erroneous. 
Science  is  supposed  to  flourish  only  in  certain  re- 
gions ;  and  new  or  unexpected  information  is  sure 
to  meet  with  the  reception  which  is  due  only  to  un- 
founded pretension.  Perhaps  no  man  of  his  day 
had  more  cause  to  lament  this  bias  than  Jenner.  He 
used  often  to  say,  "  I  believe  there  are  many  indi- 
viduals in  our  profession  who  estimate  a  man's  in- 
tellect by  the  size  of  the  place  in  which  he  lives. 
Of  course,  I  must  be  a  very  small  person,  seeing  that 
our  good  town  of  Berkeley  cuts  such  a  sorry  figure. 
I,  to  be  sure,  have  been  in  authority ;  and  my  office 
of  mayor  may  have  given  me  some  consequence 
among  the  townsfolk  ;  but  I  have  often  found  my 
opinions  resisted  by  my  professional  brethren,  when 
my  influence,  perhaps,  ought  to  have  been  greater 
than  in  my  civic  capacity."  In  this  manner  he  used 
often  to  laugh  when  he  alluded  to  the  reception 
that  many  of  his  opinions  encountered.  At  other 
times  his  feelings  were  of  a  more  serious  character, 
especially  when  he  lamented  the  great  injury  that 
was  done  to  the  cause  of  vaccination  by  an  unwil- 
lingness on  the  part  of  many  influential  persons  to 
examine  what  he  had  said,  or  to  give  credit  to  his 
statements.  This  reluctance  may,  and  often  does, 
impede  the  cause  of  truth ;  and  deprive  deserving 
men  of  their  just  meed  of  credit  and  approbation. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  303 

During  his  residence  at  Berkeley  he  acted  fre- 
quently as  a  magistrate.  I  found  him  one  day  sitting 
with  a  brother  justice  in  a  narrow,  dark,  tobacco- 
flavoured  room,  listening  to  parish  business  of  various 
sorts.  The  door  was  surrounded  by  a  scolding, 
brawling  mob.  A  fat  overseer  of  the  poor  was  en- 
deavouring to  moderate  their  noise  ;  but  they  neither 
heeded  his  authority  nor  that  of  their  worships.  There 
were  women  swearing  illegitimate  children,  others 
swearing  the  peace  against  drunken  husbands,  and 
able-bodied  men  demanding  parish  relief  to  make  up 
the  deficiency  in  their  wages.  The  scene  altogether 
was  really  curious ;  and  when  I  considered  who  was 
one  of  the  chief  actors,  and  saw  the  effect  which  the 
mal-administration  of  a  well-intended  statute  pro- 
duced, I  experienced  sensations  which  would  have 
been  altogether  sorrowful  had  there  not  been  some- 
thing irresistibly  ludicrous  in  many  of  the  minor 
details  of  the  picture.  He  said  to  me,  "  is  not 
this  too  bad  ?  I  am  the  only  acting  magistrate  in 
this  place,  and  I  am  really  harassed  to  death.  I 
want  the  Lord  Lieutenant  to  give  me  an  assistant  ; 
and  I  have  applied  for  my  nephew,  but  without 

On  this  visit  he  shewed  me  the  hide  of  the  cow 
that  afforded  the  matter  which  infected  Sarah 
Nelmes :  and  from  which  source  he  derived  the 
virus  that  produced  the  disease  in  his  first  patient 
Phipps.  The  hide  hung  in  the  coach-house :  he 
said,  "  What  shall  I  do  with  it  ?"  I  replied,  "  send 
it   to   the  British    Museum."     The    cow  had   been 

304  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

turned  out  to  end  her  days  peaceably  at  Bradstone, 
a  farm  near  Berkeley. 

He  talked  of  the  first  effects  of  his  discovery  on  some 
of  his  sapient  townsfolk.  One  lady,  of  no  mean  in- 
fluence among  them,  met  him  soon  after  the  publica- 
tion of  his  Inquiry.  She  accosted  him  in  this  form, 
and  in  the  true  Gloucestershire  dialect.  "  So,  your 
book  is  out  at  last.  Well !  I  can  tell  you  that  there 
be'ant  a  copy  sold  in  our  town  ;  nor  sha'n't  neither, 
if  I  can  help  it."  On  another  occasion,  the  same 
notable  dame  having  heard  some  rumours  of  failures 
in  vaccination,  came  up  to  the  doctor  with  great 
eagerness,  and  said,  "  Shan't  us  have  a  general 
inoculation  now  ?  "  * 

Both  these  anecdotes  he  used  to  relate  in  perfect 
good  humour. 

On  another  occasion,  when  travelling  with  him 
towards  Rockhampton,  the  residence  of  his  nephew 
Dr.  Davies,  he  observed,  "  it  was  among  these  shady 
and  tangled  lanes  that  I  first  got  my  taste  for  na- 
tural history."  A  short  time  afterwards  we  passed 
Phipps,  his  first  vaccinated  patient.  "  Oh  !  there  is 
poor  Phipps,"  he  exclaimed,  "  I  wish  you  could  see 
him ;  he  has  been  very  unwell  lately,  and  I  am  afraid 
he  has  got  tubercles  in  the  lungs.  He  was  recently 
inoculated  for  small-pox,  I  believe  for  the  twentieth 
time,  and  all  without  effect." 

At  a  subsequent  visit,  (Oct.  1818,)  I  found  lying 
on  his  table  a  plan  of  a  cottage.  "  Oh,"  said  he, 
"  that  is  for  poor  Phipps ;  you  remember  him :  he 

*  i.  e.  small-pox  inoculation. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  305 

has  a  miserable  place  to  live  in  ;  I  am  about  to  give 
him  another.  He  has  been  very  ill,  but  is  now  ma- 
terially better."  This  cottage  was  built,  and  its  little 
garden  laid  out  and  stocked  with  roses  from  his  own 
shrubbery,  under  his  personal  superintendence. 

I  may  now  mention  some  incidents  of  a  different 
character.  The  celebrated  Charles  James  Fox,  during 
a  residence  at  Cheltenham,  had  frequent  intercourse 
with  Jenner.  His  mind  had  been  a  good  deal 
poisoned  as  to  the  character  of  cow-pox  by  his 
family  physician,  Mosele}'.  In  his  usual  playful  and 
engaging  manner,  he  said  one  day  to  Jenner,  '•  Pray, 
Dr.  Jenner,  tell  me  of  this  cow-pox  that  we  have 
heard  so  much  about : — What  is  it  like  ?"  "  Wliy, 
it  is  exactly  like  the  section  of  a  pearl  on  a  rose- 
leaf."  This  comparison,  which  is  not  less  remark- 
able for  its  accuracy  than  for  its  poetic  beauty, 
struck  Mr.  Fox  very  forcibly.  He  laughed  heartily, 
and  praised  the  simile. 

It  has  been  seen,  that  notwithstanding  the  per- 
sonal influence  that  Dr.  Jenner  had  with  foreign 
states,  he  had  next  to  none  at  home.  He  never 
succeeded  in  procuring  an  appointment  for  any  of 
his  relatives  or  friends.  He  mentioned  that  all  his 
attempts  to  get  a  living  for  his  nephew  George  had 
failed,  though  addressed  to  quarters  where  they 
might,  without  presumption,  have  been  expected  to 
have  met  with  attention  and  success.  This  neglect 
hurt  him  deeply.  He  once  said  to  me,  "  This  ought 
to  be  known.  You  must  give  them  a  hard  one  ;  and  I 
will  find  an  eagle's  quill  and  whet  the  nib  for  you."  * 

*   His  favourite  eagle  lia«l  just  died. 
VOL.    II.  X 

306  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

-  I  never  saw  him  more  happy  than  in  spending 
some  days  with  Dr.  BaiUie  at  Duntisbourne,  near 
Cirencester,  in  the  summer  of  1820.  He  had  much 
recovered  from  the  impression  left  by  the  death  of 
Mrs.  Jenner ;  and  all  the  recollections  of  his  youth, 
his  intercourse  with  Mr.  Hunter,  together  with 
many  of  the  remarkable  incidents  which  were  con- 
nected with  his  own  life,  formed  animating  themes 
for  conversation.  The  scenes  around  them,  also,  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  place  (Cirencester)  where  he  had 
first  gone  to  school,  and  where  he  used  to  grope  for 
fossils  in  the  oolitic  formation,  supplied  him  with 
many  associations  of  long-past  years.  I  spent  one 
of  the  days  with  them  on  this  occasion.  They  passed 
their  time  in  the  free  and  unreserved  interchange 
of  their  thoughts  and  their  experience. 

It  was  cheering  to  see  the  great  London  physician 
mounted  on  his  little  white  horse,  riding  up  and 
down  the  precipitous  banks  in  the  vicinity  of  his 
house,  or   trotting  through   the   green    lanes,   and 
opening  the   gates,  just  after   the   manner  of  any 
Cotswold  squire.     Nothing  could  exceed  the  relish 
of  Baillie  for  the  ease  and  liberty  and   leisure  of  a 
country  life,  when  he  first  escaped  from  the  toil  and 
effort  and  excitement  of  his  professional  duties  in 
London.      Duntisbourne    stands    in    rather    a    pic- 
turesque situation  ;  the  house  overhangs  a  deep  wood- 
ed dell,  and  is  fronted  on  the  opposite  bank  by  the 
church  and  hamlet  of  Edgworth.     The  ramifications 
of  this  dell  are  intricate  and  beautiful;  but  there 
was  little  else  in  the  doctor's  vicinity  to  gratify  the 
eye.     Every  thing  wore  an  aspect  of  cheerfulness  to 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  307 

him ;  and  whether  he  was  traversing  the  bleak 
summit  of  the  Cotswolds  or  taking  his  pastime 
in  the  more  cultivated  domains  of  Pimbery  or 
Oakeley,*  he  was  equally  happy  and  equally 

Jenner's  intimacy  with  his  uncle,  John  Hunter, 
had  estabhshed  a  sort  of  family  connexion,  which 
the  subsequent  events  in  the  life  of  each  ripened 
into  the  most  cordial  regard  and  attachment.  Jen- 
ner,  in  the  meadows  of  Gloucestershire,  had  achieved 
a  discovery  which  at  once  raised  him  to  the  highest 
point  of  professional  reputation.  Baillie,  in  the  me- 
tropolis, was  running  a  career  of  honour  and  useful- 
ness derived  from  the  soundest  knowledge,  and 
adorned  with  all  the  virtues  that  can  render  such 
knowledge  most  estimable.  He  was  among  the  first 
to  appreciate  correctly  the  value  of  vaccination,  and 
to  stand  forward  to  vindicate  its  character  when  it 
was  traduced  and  \dlified ;  and  as  long  as  he  lived, 
he  lent  all  the  influence  of  his  name  and  authority 
to  the  practice.  His  own  plain,  direct,  and  honest 
heart,  taught  him  promptly  to  discover  and  appre- 
ciate kindred  qualities  in  others. 

I  had  the  happiness  of  seeing  them  both  together 
again  in  my  own  house  on  the  30th  of  August,  1821, 
where  they  spent  the  night.f-    Jenner  in  the  interval 

*  Belonging  to  Earl  Batliurst. 

t  During  the  same  autumn  Jenner  also  visited  his  friend 
John  Philliniore  Hicks,  at  Eastington,  and  his  nephew,  Ed- 
ward Davies,  at  Ebley.  While  at  the  latter  place  he  sat  for 
his  picture  to  Mr.  Hobday.  An  engraving  has  been  made 
from  it,  of  the  same  size  as  that  of  the  celebrated  print  of  John 

X  2 

308  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

had  sustained  a  serious  illness.  He  was  in  pretty- 
good  spirits ;  and  his  ardour  for  knowledge  was  un- 
abated. I  remember  he  brought  in  his  pocket  some 
fossils,  and  one  of  the  vertebrae  of  the  back  of  a 
horse,  to  show  the  nature  of  the  change  which  takes 
place  in  that  disease  called  string  halt. 

I  fondly  hoped  from  the  vigour  which  they  both 
then  exhibited,  that  their  lives  might  have  been 
spared  for  many  years ;  but  before  two  were  over, 
it  was  my  misfortune  to  see  them  both  laid  in  their 

I  have  on  former  occasions  mentioned  slight  ill- 
nesses with  which  Jenner  had  been  affected  at  dif- 
ferent periods.  They  all  more  or  less  pointed  to 
that  sudden  and  fatal  seizure  which  ultimately  ex- 
tinguished life. 

One  attack  of  a  very  alarming  nature  oc- 
curred on  the  6th  of  August,  1820.  He  was 
walking  in  the  garden,  and  became  suddenly  faint 
and  giddy ;  he  sunk  to  the  ground,  and  his  hat 
dropped  off.  How  long  he  remained  in  this  state 
could  not  be  ascertained,  as  he  contrived  ultimately 
to  get  into  the  house,  where  he  was  found  in  a 
somewhat  confused  state ;  and  his  clothes  covered 
with  earth.  The  hat  was  picked  up  afterwards  near 
the  place  v\here  he  had  fallen.  He  was  put  to  bed, 
and  immediately  visited  by  his  nephew  and  Mr. 
Henry  Shr^^pnell.  They  promptly  administered  suit- 
Hunter.  Sliarpe  commenced  the  work,  and  was  anxious  to 
make  it  a  worthy  companion  to  his  master-piece,  which  I  have 
just  named ;  but  he  died  before  it  was  finished,  and  it  was  com- 
pleted by  Skelton. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  309 

able  remedies,  and  the  alarming  s}Tnptoms  were 
removed.  An  express  had  been  sent  to  me,  but  I 
could  not  reach  Berkeley  till  two  a.  m.  He  was  then 
asleep,  and  I  did  not,  of  course,  disturb  him.  Next 
morning  I  had  the  satisfaction  of  finding,  that, 
though  the  attack  had  been  threatening,  it  had  not 
left  any  permanent  traces  of  its  nature.  There  was 
no  paralysis,  no  confusion,  no  indication  of  serious 
mischief  having  been  done  to  the  brain.  He  was, 
however,  depressed  and  thoughtful,  as  became  one 
who  had  been  saved  from  great  peril.  Death 
and  its  consequences  formed  an  interesting  part  of 
our  conversation,  and  his  mind  on  that  subject  was 
tranquil  and  firm.  He  recurred  to  the  loss  of  his 
dear  wife ;  remembered  her  patience  and  resigna- 
tion; and  though  disquieted  a  little  about  some 
matters  of  a  temporal  nature,  I  could  not  help  re- 
joicing to  find  him  in  a  frame  of  mind  so  placid  and 

I  saw  him  again  on  the  8th,  when  I  found  with 
him  his  old  and  valued  friend  Dr.  Worthington.  He 
was  still  in  bed.  He  received  me  with  great  emo- 
tion ;  and  shewed  that  he  felt  deeply  the  effects  of 
his  illness.  I  have  seldom  seen  him  more  moved 
than  he  was  on  this  occasion ;  and  I  observed 
plainly,  that  though  the  golden  bowl  was  not 
broken,  there  was  a  slight  loosening  of  the  silver 

He  gradually  recovered ;  but  the  disorder  left 
some  distressing  results.  He  became  remarkably 
sensitive  to  external  impressions  ;  but  most  of  all  to 
sounds  of  a  certain  description.     Those  that  were 

310  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

dull  and  obtuse  he  little  regarded ;  but  the  shai-p, 
harsh  click,  for  instance^  of  a  knife  upon  a  plate,  pro- 
duced an  effect  as  if  he  had  had  an  electric  shock 
sent  through  his  frame. 

Of  course,  this  painful  state  of  being  much  marred 
his  happiness.  He  could  scarcely  encounter  any  of 
the  most  common  occurrences  of  life  without  being 
exposed  to  great  suifering ;  and  the  consequence 
was,  that  he  could  not  at  times  refrain  from  express- 
ing a  slight  degree  of  impatience  or  irritability  under 
such  inflictions. 

His  mental  efforts  were  necessarily  checked  for  a 
season  by  the  illness  above  noticed.  His  brain  had 
certainly  been  over-worked  ;  and  repose  and  absence 
from  exciting  objects  was  indispensably  necessary 
for  him.  This  state  never  suited  him  well,  and  he 
could  not  long  be  made  to  submit  to  it. 

In  a  few  months  he  was  deeply  engaged  in  all  his 
former  occupations ;  and  by  the  publications  men- 
tioned in  the  preceding  chapter,  proved  that  the 
energy  and  activity  of  his  intellect  had  suffered 
no  diminution.  His  attention  to  the  great  cause 
of  vaccination  was  unremitting;  and  the  letters 
and  documents  which  are  elsewhere  printed  will 
shew  that  his  sentiments  were  judiciously  and  con- 
sistently maintained. 

His  parting  statement  on  this  subject  must  have  been 
written  a  very  few  days  before  he  expired.  I  found  it 
on  tne  back  of  a  letter,  the  post  mark  on  which  gives  the 
date  January  14th,  1823.  He  was  taken  ill  on  the  25th, 
and  died  on  the  2(5 tli  of  that  month.  It  is  not  known 
that  he  wrote  again  on  this  subject ;  but  be  this  as 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  311 

it  may,  nothing  could  be  more  solemn,  whether  we 
consider  the  time  or  the  expression  of  this  his  final 
judgment.     "  My    opinion    of    vaccination    is 


It  will  aiford  an  instructive  lesson  to  the  younger 
members  of  his  own  profession,  to  witness  the  undi- 
minished energy  with  which  this  venerable  man  cul- 
tivated scientific  and  professional  studies  almost  to 
the  last  hour  of  his  existence.  In  his  comparative 
retirement  at  Berkeley,  his  engagements  were  of 
a  different  nature  from  what  they  were  at  Chelten- 
ham. On  looking  over  his  note  books,  which  he 
kept  with  considerable  regularity,  I  am  astonished 
that  at  his  advanced  age,  and  with  so  many  momen- 
tous affairs  pressing  upon  his  mind,  he  should  have 
been  able  to  chronicle  with  such  perseverance  so 
many  observations.  One  of  them  carries  with  it  a 
peculiarly  impressive  character.  It  must  have  been 
written,  at  the  farthest,  on  the  night  immediately 
preceding  his  own  fatal  seizure ;  but  I  am  inclined 
to  think,  from  various  circumstances,  that  it  was  the 
last  conscious  effort  of  his  mind,  and  that  the  entry 
was  made,  perhaps,  not  many  minutes  before  he 
himself  was  afflicted  nearly  by  the  same  malady  that 

312  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

destroyed  his  patient.     I  give  it  exactly  as  it  appears 
in  his  diary. 

"  Mr.  Joyner  Ellis/'  (he  was  a  schoolfellow  and  an 
old  friend),  "  from  long  exposure  to  severe  cold,  the 
thermometer  being  many  degrees  below  the  freezing 
point,  was  so  benumbed,  that  he  was  brought  home, 
after  a  long  journey  chiefly  in  an  open  carriage,  in 
a  state  of  paralytic  debility  :  the  harmony  of  all  the 
vital  functions  seemed  disturbed ;  and  of  some  he 
seemed  to  be  quite  deprived.  Being  moved,  he  ap- 
peared to  feel  pain  about  the  chest ;  and  as  his 
breathing  was  short  and  laborious,  Mr.  H.  abstracted 
about  sixteen  ounces  of  blood  from  the  arm,  but  with- 
out relief.  There  was  that  pecuHar  effort  in  breathing 
that  is  not  really  stertorous,  but  approaching  to  it;  so 
that  my  prognostic  was  as  unfavourable  as  it  could  be." 

The  events  above  alluded  to,  occurred  in  the  even- 
ing of  Friday  the  24th  of  January  1823.  The  gen- 
tleman to  whom  they  refer  died  early  on  the  follow- 
ing morning  ;  and  Dr.  Jenner  was  made  acquainted 
with  that  fact  when  he  left  his  bed-room.  From  the 
tenor  of  the  concluding  sentence  of  the  preceding 
extract,  I  am  inclined  to  believe  that  it  was  written 
after  he  came  to  the  knowledge  of  the  fatal  event. 
If  so,  a  very  short  time  must  have  elapsed  before 
he  himself  was  nearly  in  the  same  condition  in  which 
he  had  described  his  patient. 

The  day  preceding  this  attack,  he  had  not 
only,  as  I  have  just  mentioned,  been  engaged  with 
his  usual  ardour  in  professional  avocations,  but  had 
likewise  attended  to  those  acts  of  mercy  and  benevo- 
lence that  the  wants  of  his  neighbours  and  the  seve- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  313 

rity  of  the  season  demanded.  He  had  walked  to 
the  ^dllage  of  Ham,  and  ordered  supplies  of  fuel  to 
some  of  the  poor  people  ;  and  in  all  respects  seemed 
as  well  as  he  had  been  for  a  long  time.  His  pre- 
vious illnesses  certainly  indicated  a  proneness  to 
that  disease  which  cut  him  off;  but  his  great  tem- 
perance and  regularity,  and  his  almost  complete  re- 
covery from  their  effects,  gave  reason  to  hope,  that 
the  disastrous  event  might  have  been  averted. 
He  had  regained  also  his  cheerfulness  and  his  ani- 
mation to  a  very  considerable  extent ;  and  scarcely 
at  any  period  of  his  existence  did  he  appear  to  be 
more  alive  to  every  moral  and  intellectual  enjoyment. 

After  his  walk  to  Ham,  he  visited  his  nephew  Ste- 
phen in  his  painting-room.  He  had  for  some  time 
taken  great  pleasure  in  attempting  to  cultivate  the 
talent  which  this  young  man  displayed  as  a  drafts- 
man. Jenner,  in  order  to  rouse  him  to  exertion  and 
study,  was  in  the  habit  of  employing  every  incite- 
ment that  could  be  devised.  Among  others,  he  used 
to  place  short  apophthegms  and  extracts  from  the 
writings  of  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  and  other  eminent 
artists,  on  the  easel  or  on  the  walls  of  the  apartment, 
so  that  they  might  meet  the  eye  of  his  nephew  when- 
ever he  began  to  study. 

On  the  morning  of  his  last  visit  to  him,  Stephen 
was  amusing  himself  while  at  his  work,  by  singing  a 
popular  Scotch  air.  Jenner  heard  the  notes  as  he 
entered  the  room,  and  detected  an  inaccuracy  in  the 
tune :  "  Oh!"  said  he,  "  you  are  singing ;  but  not  in  a 
right  way,  let  me  tell  you :  this  is  the  manner  in 
which  you  ought  to  do  it;"  and  he  then   sang  a 

314  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

stanza  or  two.  The  weather  was  remarkably  cold  at 
the  time,  and  he  went  down  stairs  and  brought  up 
some  coals  himself,  and  likewise  a  seat.  While  he 
was  thus  occupied,  a  gentleman  came  in ;  and  he 
observed,  in  his  jocular  and  kind  way,  "  You  see 
Stephen  has  got  a  servant ; "  and  then  carried  on 
the  conversation  on  ordinary  topics. 

In  the  evening  of  this  day  he  visited  the  gentle- 
man whose  case  I  have  recently  extracted  from  his 
note-book.  Next  morning  he  arose  as  usual,  and 
came  down  stairs  to  his  library.  As  he  did  not  ap- 
pear at  breakfast,  the  servant  was  sent  to  ascertain 
the  cause.  On  entering  the  room,  he  found  that  he 
had  sunk  from  the  couch  on  the  floor  ;  and  that  he 
was  lying  in  a  state  of  insensibility.  His  nephew, 
Mr.  Henry  Jenner,  and  Mr.  Henry  Shrapnell,  were 
with  him  in  a  few  minutes,  and  administered  the 
most  judicious  remedies.  A  messenger  was  sent  for 
me ;  and  I  reached  Berkeley  about  two  in  the  after- 
noon. I  found  him  in  bed,  lying  in  a  complete  state 
of  apoplexy.  The  right  side  was  paralysed ;  the 
pupils  of  the  eyes  contracted  to  a  point,  and  unaf- 
fected by  strong  light ;  the  breathing  stertorous,  with 
a  general  insensibility  to  almost  every  external  im- 
pression. Every  effort  was  employed  to  arouse  him 
from  this  condition ;  but  the  fatal  character  of  the 
malady  became  more  and  more  apparent,  and  he  ex- 
pired about  three  o'clock  in  the  morning. 

And  now,  having  brought  this  narrative  to  a  con- 
clusion, I  would  for  a  moment  meditate  on  the  cha- 
racter  which,    with    affectionate   regard,   but   most 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER.  315 

heartfelt  distrust  of  my  own  ability,  I  have  endea- 
voured to  dehneate.  Jenner  stood  in  a  position  never 
before  occupied  by  mortal  man ;  having  been  the  in- 
strument in  the  hands  of  a  gracious  Providence,  of  in- 
fluencing, in  a  most  remarkable  degree,  the  destinies 
of  his  species.  He  lived  at  a  time  when  the  whole 
of  the  civilised  world  was  ravaged  by  a  war  of  almost 
unequalled  ferocity.  Before  he  left  the  stage  he  had 
the  supreme  gratification  of  knowing,  that  his  dis- 
covery had  been  the  means  of  saving  more  millions 
of  lives  than  had  been  sacrificed  during  the  murder- 
ous conflict. 

If  we  look  at  the  origin  of  this  discovery  from  its  first 
dawning  in  his  youthful  mind  at  Sodbury,  and  trace  it 
through  its  subsequent  stages — his  meditations  at 
Berkeley — his  suggestions  to  his  great  master,  John 
Hunter — his  conferences  with  his  professional  bre- 
thren in  the  country — his  hopes  and  fears,  as  his  inqui- 
ries and  experiments  encouraged  or  depressed  his  anti- 
cipations— and,  at  length,  the  triumphant  conclusion 
of  more  than  thirty  years'  reflection  and  study,  by  the 
successful  vaccination  of  his  first  patient,  Phipps  ;  we 
shall  find  a  train  of  preparation  never  exceeded  in 
any  scientific  enterprise ;  and  in  some  degree  com- 
mensurate with  the  great  results  by  which  it  has 
been  followed. 

In  the  space  of  a  very  few  years,  the  fruit  of  this 
patient  and  persevering  investigation  was  enjoyed 
in  every  quarter  of  the  globe  ;  and  the  rapidity  of  its 
dissemination  attests  alike  the  universaUty  of  the 
pestilence,  and  the  virtue  of  the  agent  by  which  it 
was  in  many  places  subdued,  mitigated,  extirpated. 

316  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

On  the  other  side,  let  us  remember  his  trials,  his 
mortifications,  the  attempts  to  depreciate  his  dis- 
covery and  to  check  its  progress,  together  with  the 
personal  injuries  which  he  endured  from  those  who 
affected  to  do  him  honour,  and  we  shall  find  many- 
things  to  counterbalance  the  homage  and  grati- 
tude which  he  derived  from  other  sources.  Under 
all  these  changes,  he  sustained  the  equanimity  and 
consistency  of  his  character ;  humble  when  lauded 
and  eulogised,  patient  and  forbearing  when  suffering 
wrong;  and,  if  it  be  an  assured  sign  of  a  worthy 
and  generous  spirit  to  be  amended  by  distinction  and 
renown,  no  man  ever  gave  stronger  proofs  of  possess- 
ing such  a  spirit. 

Again,  we  have  to  view  him  in  the  character  of  a 
physician,  exercising  all  the  resources  of  a  painful 
and  anxious  profession  with  extraordinary  humanity, 
ability,  and  perseverance ;  cultivating  his  beautiful 
taste  for  natural  history  and  all  the  poetry  of  life,  in 
connexion  with  labours  so  arduous  and  important. 
Wiiile  interpreting  nature,  he  enjoyed  a  pleasure 
surpassed  by  none  of  his  predecessors ;  but  he  did 
not  rest  there,  and  might  have  exclaimed  with  the 
great  Linnseus,  O  quam  contemta  res  est  homo 


As  a  husband,  a  father,  a  friend,  a  master,  he  may 
challenge  comparison  with  any  of  his  fellow-mortals. 
His  domestic  duties,  as  many  traits  in  these  vo- 
lumes show,  were  invariably  exercised  with  a  de- 
gree of  kindness,  consideration,  and  delicacy,  never 
exceeded.  His  attachment  to  his  friends  knew  no 
variation  or  interruption,  and  even  when  his  mind 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  317 

was  almost  overpowered  by  the  pressure  of  his  pubhc 
engagements,  he  always  found  leisure  to  maintain  and 
cherish  his  relations  with  them.  He  was  not  less 
mindful  of  his  dependents  and  his  neighbours  in  the 
humble  walks  of  life  :  they  were,  indeed,  his  friends, 
and  he  treated  them  as  such ;  and  it  is  a  graceful 
illustration  of  this  principle,  to  see  him  building  a 
cottage  as  a  place  of  refuge  for  his  first  vaccinated 
patient,  a  few  years  before  he  died. 

He  was  invariably  courteous  and  generous  to  the 
stranger ;  "  compassionate  to  the  afflictions  of  all, 
shewing  that  his  heart  was  like  the  noble  tree,  which 
is  wounded  itself  when  it  gives  the  balm."  He 
readily  pardoned  and  remitted  offences,  proving  that 
his  mind  was  raised  above  injury,  and  could  not  be 
reached  by  the  shafts  of  malignity.  Finally,  he  laid 
down  his  life  while  continuing  his  efforts  to  do 
good  to  his  fellow-creatures ;  grateful  to  God  for  the 
signal  mercies  which  He  had  vouchsafed  to  man 
through  him. 

As  soon  as  the  melancholy  event  of  his  death  be- 
came known  in  London,  some  of  his  friends  were 
particularly  anxious  that  he  should  have  a  public 
funeral.  Sir  Gilbert  Blane  felt  that  Westminster  Abbey 
was  the  only  fit  place  to  receive  his  remains  ;  and 
moved  by  the  impulse  of  his  own  just  and  generous 
mind,  he  instantly  wrote  to  the  relatives  of  Dr. 
Jenner,  to  propose  that  they  should  concur  in  such 
an  arrangement.  Had  those  in  power  and  authority 
viewed  things  in  the  same  light,  and  ordered  a 
pubUc  funeral  at  the  pubhc  cost.  Dr.  Jenner's 
friends  could  not  but  have  assented  to  the  proposal. 

318  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

As,  however,  no  such  authority  was  given  by 
government,  and  considerable  expense  must  have 
been  incurred,  it  was  deemed  inconsistent  with  the 
humility  and  modesty  of  Dr.  Jenner's  character  to 
seek  for  an  ostentatious  display  of  the  pomp  of  woe, 
however  much  he  merited  the  sincere  lamentations 
of  every  w^ell-constituted  mind.  It  was  therefore  re- 
solved that  the  arrangements  which  had  been  com- 
menced before  the  proposal  was  received,  should  be 
completed ;  and  that  his  own  Berkeley  should  hold 
his  remains ;  they  were  accordingly  deposited  in 
a  vault  in  the  chancel,  by  the  side  of  his  beloved 
partner,  on  Monday  the  3rd  of  February,  1823.  It 
was  intended  that  the  funeral  should  be  strictly 
private  ;  but  all  his  personal  friends  who  were  within 
a  reasonable  distance  felt  themselves  constrained 
to  attend.  The  following  list,  I  believe,  compre- 
hends a  few  of  those  who  were  present  on  that  me- 
lancholy occasion.  The  Right  Honourable  Lord 
Segrave,  Colonel  Kingscote,  Colonel  N.  Kingscote, 
T.  Kingscote,  esq.  Dr.  C.  Parry,  T.  Creaser,  esq. 
Rev.  Dr.  Worthington,  Rev.  Dr.  Davies,  Rev.  Mr. 
Halifax,  Rev.  Mr.  Ferryman,  Rev.  T.  Pruen,  Rev.  G. 
Jenner,  T.  Hicks,  esq.  H.  Hicks,  esq.  R.  Davies,  esq. 
John  Hands,  esq.  H.  Shrapnell,  esq,  Henry  Jenner, 
esq.  John  Fosbroke,  esq.  his  only  surviving  son, 
R.  F.  Jenner,  esq.  John  Yeend  Bedford,  esq.  and  the 
author  of  this  work,  &c.  &c. 

As  death  is  supposed  to  shut  the  door  of  envy  and 
to  open  that  of  fame,  it  was  hoped  that  the  de- 
parture of  so  eminent  a  person  would  have  been 
commemorated  by  corresponding  tokens  of  respect. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  319 

It  was  especially  thought  that  all  the  leading  mem- 
bers of  his  own  profession  would  have  eagerly  seized 
such  an  opportunity   of  burying  in  oblivion  every 
hostile  feeling,  and  that  they  would  have  cordially 
and  unanimously  co-operated  in  rendering  honour 
to  his  name,  who  had  conferred  such  unexampled 
honour  on  their  profession.     The  medical  men  in  his 
own  district  were  guided  by  this  laudable  and  be- 
coming spirit ;    but   before   they  moved  they  were 
desirous  of  seeing  some  steps  taken  by  the  leading 
physicians    and    surgeons    in    the    metropolis.     As 
I   had   a   considerable  share  in  these   transactions, 
it    is    due    to    myself    to   mention   what    actually 
occurred.     I   laid   the   matter   before  the   late  Dr. 
Baillie  and  other  gentlemen,  with  a  view  of  inducing 
them  to  attempt  to  call  forth  the  exertions  of  pro- 
fessional men  in  London,  in  order  that  a  conspicuous 
monument  might  be  erected  by  them  to  the  memory 
of  Jenner.     He  having  died  in  Gloucestershire,   it 
was  deemed  ad\isable  that  the  desigii  should  origi- 
nate in  that  county.     A  meeting  of  medical  men  was 
accordingly  held  at  Gloucester,  on  Saturday,  the  22d 
of  February,  for  the  purpose  of  entering  into  a  sub- 
scription, and  making  other  arrangements  for  the 
erection  of  a  Provincial  monument  in  honour  of  the 
Author  of  Vaccination.     The  design  was,  that  this 
object   should   be    altogether   accomplished  by  the 
contributions  of  professional  gentlemen  in  different 
parts  of  the  kingdom;  and,  under  the  expectation 
of  a   large    number    of  contributors,    a  small  sum 
was  fixed   upon   as   the  amount  to  be  subscribed. 
Our   calculations   proved   erroneous.     We   did   not 

320  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

find  that  extensive  co-operation  either  among  the 
learned  bodies  of  the  profession,  or  among  indivi- 
duals, which  we  anticipated.  The  only  two  public 
bodies  who  contributed  any  thing,  were  the  Colleges 
of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  of  Edinburgh  ;  the  former 
having  given  £50,  and  the  latter  £10.  After  con- 
siderable difficulty,  a  sum  of  money  was  raised  suf- 
ficient to  enable  us  to  give  orders  for  a  statue  by 
Sievier,  which  has  been  placed  at  the  west  end  of 
the  nave  of  the  cathedral  of  Gloucester. 

On  the  19th  of  March  (1823j,  when  the  House  of 
Commons  was  in  a  Committee  of  Supply,  and  the 
annual  grant  for  the  National  Vaccine  Estabhsh- 
ment  was  voted,  an  attempt  was  made  to  obtain  at 
the  same  time  a  sum  of  money  for  erecting  a  monu- 
ment to  the  memory  of  Dr.  Jenner.  Our  excellent 
county  member,  the  late  Sir  B.  William  Guise,  hart, 
brought  the  subject  forward,  and  it  was  met  with 
very  considerable  cordiality.  He  proposed  that  a 
specific  sum  should  be  granted  for  the  purpose. 
This  proposal  was  received  with  cries  of  "  Move ;" 
but  the  Chairman  of  the  Committee  seems  to  have 
quashed  the  business  by  stating,  that  a  vote  of 
money  could  not  be  increased  in  the  Committee. 
Mr.  Bright,  the  Member  for  Bristol,  was  anxious  to 
draw  the  attention  of  the  Chancellor  of  the  Exche- 
quer to  the  merits  of  Dr.  Jenner,  and  he  hoped  the 
Honourable  Baronet  (Sir  W.  Guise)  would  move  in 
a  more  formal  manner,  and  in  a  fuller  house,  for  the 
sum  which  he  had  mentioned. 

I  have  reason  to  know  that  this  design  would  have 

LIFE    OF    DK.    JENNER.  321 

been  supported  strenuously  by  many  Members  of 
Parliament :  but  it  was  never  brought  forward  again. 
It  ought,  however,  to  have  been  mentioned,  that  the 
subject  had  been  previously  laid  before  the  Govern- 
ment by  Sir  William  Guise,  on  the  1 7th  of  February. 
"  Seeing  the  Right  Honourable  the  Secretary  in  his 
place,  he  requested  to  know  whetlier  there  was  any 
intention  on  the  part  of  Administration  to  pro- 
pose that  a  monument  should  be  erected  to  the 
memory  of  the  late  Dr.  Jenner.  Sir  William  stated 
that  he  was  induced  to  put  this  question,  as  having 
the  honour  to  represent  the  county  of  which  that 
eminent  man  was  a  native ;  and  also  because  he 
thought  this  country  was  bound  to  shew  that  respect 
to  Dr.  Jenner's  memory,  which  his  valuable  ser- 
vices, not  only  to  this  country,  but  to  the  whole 
world,  by  the  discovery  of  vaccination,  had  so  amply 

"  The  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer  agreed  entirely 
with  the  Honourable  Baronet  as  to  the  merits  of 
that  eminent  character,  and  the  great  blessings 
which  he  had  conferred,  not  merely  on  his  country, 
but  on  mankind  ;  he  confessed,  however,  that  this 
subject  had  not  previously  occurred  to  him,  and  he 
was  not  prepared  to  say  how  far  it  might  be  expe- 
dient to  propose  such  a  vote  as  the  Honourable 
Baronet  had  suggested. 

"  Mr.  Secretary  Peel  said,  that  there  was  every 
disposition  on  the  part  of  the  Government  to  honour 
the  memory  of  the  distinguished  individual  in  ques- 
tion ;  and  it  was  only  out  of  respect  to  the  wishes 

VOL.    II.  Y 

322  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNEE. 

and  feelings  of  his  relatives^  that  he  had  not  been 
pubhcly  interred  in  Westminster  Abbey," 

The  conckiding  remarks  of  the  Right  Honourable 
Secretary  would  lead  one  to  infer  that  the  cost  of 
the  funeral  was  to  have  been  paid  by  the  public ; 
and  that  Government  had  assented  to  so  becoming 
an  appropriation  of  a  part  of  the  wealth  of  the  state. 
I  have,  however,  already  mentioned,  that  this  was 
not  the  understanding  of  Dr.  Jenner's  family ; 
and  mainly  on  that  account  they  declined  the  pro- 
posal. As,  therefore,  the  public  w^ere  not  put  to  any 
charges  on  account  of  his  funeral,  there  is  still  an 
additional  reason  for  voting  that  a  monument  should 
be  erected  to  his  memory. 



Such  is  the  detail  which  I  humbly  offer  respecting 
this  eminent  man.  But  I  feel  it  impossible  to  do 
justice  to  his  character,  without  permitting  him  to 
speak  for  himself,  through  the  medium  of  a  few  of 
his  letters  out  of  many  in  my  possession.  The  reader 
will  therefore  find  a  short  series,  bearing  out,  I  trust, 
the  accuracy  of  the  preceding  narrative.  The  first 
illustrate  some  important  points  in  the  early  history 
of  vaccination.  Others,  chiefly  apply  to  the  diffusion 
of  the  practice  over  the  globe,  and  the  management 
of  the  National  Vaccine  Establishment.  Lastly,  will 
be  found  several  of  his  familiar  epistles,  which  more 
peculiarly  throw  light  upon  his  domestic  habits  and 

I  intend  to  add  two  or  three  of  his  metrical 
compositions  which  have  fallen  into  my  hands 
since  the  publication  of  the  former  volume.     These, 

Y  2 

324  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

with  some  of  liis  speculations  on  miscellaneous  sub- 
jects, will  heighten  the  colouring  of  the  picture : 
more  might  have  been  added,  but  for  the  present,  I 
am  induced  to  withhold  them,  lest  this  work  should 
expand  to  an  inconvenient  extent.  As  it  is^  I  would 
hope,  that  "  actions,  both  great  and  small,  public 
and  private,  have  been  so  blended  together,  as  to 
secure  that  genuine,  native,  and  lively  representation 
which  forms  the  peculiar  excellence  and  use  of  Bio- 

To  THE  Rev.  John  Clinch,  Trinity  Harbour, 

Cheltenham,  July  15  th,  1800. 
My  dear  Friend, 

My  pursuit,  thank  God  !  is  constantly  making  those  ad- 
vances which  increase  my  fame,  and  will  certainly  add  to_ 
the  stock  of  human  happiness,  by  eradicating  one  of  the 
greatest  of  its  miseries.  Lest  the  threads  sent  you  by  George 
should  not  take  effect,  I  have  inclosed  a  bit  more,  newly  im- 
pregnated with  the  coAV-pock  virus  ;  use  it  like  a  small-pox 
thread ;  but  small  as  it  is,  divide  it  into  portions,  that  you 
may  multiply  your  chance  of  infecting.  Wet  it  before  in- 
sertion, or  rather  moisten  it. 

My  acquaintance  with  your  Governor  commenced  from 
my  having  inoculated  his  infant  daughter.  I  hope  you  have 
got  my  books  on  the  subject.  I  am  now  just  got  to  Chel- 
tenham, having  spent  near  six  months  in  London.  This 
business  occupies,  as  you  may  suppose,  much  of  my  time  and 
attention.  A  man  of  the  name  of  Brown,  a  surgeon  in  Lon- 
don, has  made  a  variety  of  efforts  to  write  it  down;  but  find- 
ing himself  deserted  by  every  medical  man  of  respecta1)ility, 
he  shot  himself  a  few  days  ago.  In  every  case  of  this  sort,  I 
have  charity  enough  to  suppose  it  is  the  maniac  and  not  the 
man  who  draws  the  fatal  trigger. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  325 

God  preserve  us,  my  dear  friend,  to  see  each  other  once 
more ! 

My  best  remembrances  to  Mrs.  CUnch. — Adieu, 

Yours  most  affectionately, 
E,  Jenner. 

To  H.  Hicks,  Esq.  Eastington. 

My  dear  Friend, 
I  think  you  are  perfectly  right  in  putting  a  stop  to  the 
further  insertion  of  the  advertisement.  I  know  not  what 
the  people  here  will  do,  as  they  are  quite  beyond  my  control ; 
but  most  likely  they  will  do  nothing.  However,  on  that 
score  make  yourself  easy,  for  so  many  awkward  accounts 
have  by  design  and  accident  crept  into  the  papers,  respect- 
ing the  intention  of  the  subscribers,  that  I  do  assure  you  it 
may  have  no  bad  effect  (if  well  managed)  should  something 
appear  from  some  of  the  London  people. 

One  thing   I  can  answer  for ;  the  public  speak  highly  of 

the  measure   Lord  B has  brought  forward,  and  it  will 

certainly  aid,  not  injure,  the  main  object.  I  am  now  fully 
prepared  to  meet  the  House  of  Commons,  and  defy  all  the 
scepticism  that  can  be  produced,  to  stand  a  moment  before 
my  mass  of  facts. 

A  famous  paper  has  been  transmitted  to  me  from  Amiens. 
The  medical  department  of  the  Somme  has  sent  a  long  let- 
ter to  Lord  Cornwallis,  the  purport  of  which  is  a  compliment 
to  the  British  Nation,  on  its  having  given  birth  to  the  happy 
discoverer  of  vaccine  inoculation.  This  letter  some  of  my 
friends  here  entreat  me  to  send  to  the  newspapers,  and  it  is 
probable  I  may  comply  ;  but  not  as  coming  from  me.  Tay- 
lor has  completely  stopped  Lord  Holland's  mouth  by  his 
last  despatch.  I  was  at  Holland  House  in  a  little  time  after 
it  was  received. 

A  change  in  administration  is  certainly  to  take  place,  but 

32G  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

I   don't  think  a  very  important  one.     All   I  Mow   is^  that 

H se  and  T y  are  certainly  to  join  the  ministerial 

jjhalanx  as  officers  in  some  shape  or  other.     Every  petition 
like  mine  goes,  or  seems  to  go,  to  the  King,  and  comes  from 
his  Majesty  to  the  House.     This,  I  believe,  gives  birth  to  the 
form  you  see  now  and  then  in  the  papers.     Darke,  when  at 
Cheltenham,  mentioned  some  strong  cases  to  me  of  the  pre- 
ventive power  of  cow-pox.     He  can  also  favour  me  with  cases 
of  those  who  have  resisted  variolous  inoculation,  because 
they  had  undergone  the  cow-pox  at  some  distant  period  of 
their  lives.     Evidence  of  this  kind  I  cannot  obtain  too  abun- 
dantly, as  it  is  at  this  point  the  public  mind  makes  a  pause, 
from  the  early  impression  that  was  made   of  its  proving  a 
temporary  preventive  only.     This  must  be  the  form  :    first 
State  the  evidence  of  the  preventive  powers  of  cow-pox,  and 
then  add  any  comment  you  please  upon  the  utility  of  the 
discovery.     You  may  compare  the  anxiety  you  felt  on  the 
variolous  inoculation  in  your  family,  with  your  feelings  re- 
specting the  vaccine.     Say    nothing  of  Paul.       It  is   time 
enough  to   determine  how  the  subscription  money  shall  be 
disposed  of.     A  gold  cup  I  should  make  choice  of,  in  prefer- 
ence to  any  thing  else,  if  I  may  be  allowed  to  name  what  it 
shall  be.     Have  you  thought  of  an  appropriate  device,  &c.  ? 
What  think  you  of  the  cow  jumping  over  the  moon  ?     Is  it 
not  enough  to  make  the  animal  jump  for  joy  ? 

My  best  regards.     Yours  truly, 

Edw.  Jenner. 

To  H.  Hicks,  Esq. 

Wednesday  nighty  April  IQth,  1802. 
My  dear  Friend, 
You  have  doubtless  seen   Gardner  before  this  time,  and 
heard  many  anecdotes  of  the  Committee  Room.     Notwith- 
standing it  is  frequently  dinned  in  my  ears  that  the  oppo- 
nents to  my  claims  will  be  strong,  and  that  an  adverse  party  is 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  327 

actually  mustering  to  take  the  field  against  me,  yet  I  am  not 
at  all  dismayed.  The  Admiral  tells  me  I  have  nothing  to 
fear.  The  Report  will  probably  be  made  this  week ;  after 
this,  the  evidence  will  be  printed  and  lie  on  the  table  a  day 
or  two  before  the  final  discussion.  I  sometimes  wish  this 
business  had  never  been  brought  forward.  It  makes  me  feel 
indignant  to^ reflect  that  one,  who  has  through  a  most  painfuL 
and  laborious  investiprationj  b^'^^sbt  to  light  a  subject  that 
will  add  to  the  happiness  of  every  hmnaii_being;_in Jthe 
world,  should  appear  among  his  a  supplicant 
for  the  means  of  obtaining  a  few  comforts  for  himself  and  fa- 
mily. Upon  my  word  I  can  hardly  stand  it,  nor  should  I  have 
stood  it  so  long  had  it  not  been  for  Hobhouse.  I  told  him 
one  day  in  the  Committee  Room,  (feeling  chagrined  at  the 
treatment  I  there  experienced)  that  I  should  be  glad  to  put 
an  end  to  the  matter,  and  withdraw  my  Petition.  His  reply 
was,  that  such  a  proceeding  was  impracticable ;  it  must  go 
on.  There  is  a  fundamental  error,  in  my  opinion,  in  the 
conduct  of  the  Committee.  Having  been  put  in  possession  of 
the  laws  of  vaccination  by  so  great  a  number  of  the  first  me- 
dical men  in  the  world,  namely,  that  when  properly  conducted 
it  never  fails,  and  when  improperly,  that  it  will  fail ;  they 
should  not  have  listened  to  every  blockhead  who  chose 
to  send  up  a  supposed  case  of  its  imperfection  :  but  this  is 
the  plan  pursued,  and  if  they  do  not  give  it  up,  they  may  sit 
till  the  end  of  their  lives  ;  for  the  inoculator  of  the  cow-pox, 
like  the  small-pox  inoculator,  will  go  on  for  ever  commit- 
ting blunders.  Within  this  fortnight  an  apothecary  here, 
who  attended  a  family  where  I  was  inoculating,  attempted  to 
take  virus  after  the  pustule  was  nearly  converted  into  a 
scab.  How  unjust  it  is  to  make  me  answerable  for  all  the 
ignorance  and  carelessness  of  others.  You  may  depend  upon 
my  vigilance  and  activity.  To-day  I  inoculated  a  son  of 
Lord  Holland :  this  Avill  give  me  frequent  opportunities,  I 
hope,  of  seeing  some  of  those  great  characters  who  will  do 
more  than  support  my  cause  in  the  House  of  Commons  with 

328  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

a  simple  "Yes."  Mr.  Grey  has  promised  his  support,  and 
Mr.  Fox,  I  doubt  not,  will  be  amongst  my  special  pleaders. 
Do  you  never  intend  visiting  the  metropolis  ?  I  cannot 
blame  you  for  keeping  out  of  it.  Most  heartily  do  we  all 
pant  for  the  country  air.  We  are  all  looking  sadly.  I  have 
taken  a  box  for  Mrs.  J.  and  the  children  at  Bayswater.  My 
knocker  has  been  tied  up  for  several  days,  on  account  of  poor 
Catherine.  Thank  God,  to-morrow  it  will  be  unmuffled,  as  I 
think  her  out  of  danger.  She  has  had  a  most  violent  fever, 
but  not  typhus.  She  had  symptoms  that  seemed  to  indicate 
water  in  the  head.  Luckily  this  was  not  the  case,  i  was_ 
thrown  into  extreme  alarm,  from  which  I  thankfully  acknow- 
ledge myself  completely  liberated.  To-morrow  night  we  are 
to  be  all  in  a  blaze  here.  The  preparations  going  forward  in 
every  street  are  unexampled.  I  have  just  seen  one  in  which 
Billy  P.  cuts  a  conspicuous  figure,  with  a  few  lines  descriptive 
of  the  scene  from  the  pen  of  P.  P,  The  papers  will  no  doubt 
give  it  to  you.  My  kindest  respects  and  Mrs.  Jenner's  to 
Mrs.  Hicks. 

Yours  most  truly, 

E.  Jennek. 

To  Henry  Hicks,  Esq.  Eastington. 

10th  Mcaj,  1802. 
Dear  Harry, 
I    have  spoken    to  Dr.  Heberden,  and   was    much    sur- 
prised to    hear  him  say  the    Gloucestershire  estates  were 
not  his  but    his   brother^s.      This  brother  I  will  find  out 
without  delay,  and  sound  him  relative  to  the  business. 

You  will  forthwith  receive  a  drawing  of  the  emblematics 
for  the  cup  :  I  have  not  seen  them  myself.  The  idea  of  the 
cow  trampling,  as  if  by  accident,  and  then  crushing  to  death 
the  monster  small-pox,  I  don't  much  like.  This,  I  know,  was 
the  first  design ;  perhaps  you  will  find  it  altered,  and  the  cow 
made  to  assume  less  of  a  pacific  character.  Your  inscription 
is,  I  think,  extremely  appropriate,  and  strikes  me  as  finishing 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  329 

well  without  the  optional  sentence ;  and  yet  if  something 
to  this  effect  could  be  well  brought  in,  it  might  render 
the  history  more  complete :  however,  after  all,  it  may  be 
best  for  the  reader  to  have  a  trifle  left  on  which  to  exercise 
his  own  imagination,  and  the  word  "  small-pox  "  won't  asso- 
ciate well  with  good  drink. 

With  what  sort  of  stuff  Parliament  will  allow  me  to  fill 
it,  is  not  yet  determined.  It  ought  to  overflow  with 
nectar  when  presented  to  your  lip.  The  Report  was  made 
to  the  House  on  Friday,  and  will  be  presented  in  two  or 
three  days  for  the  inspection  of  the  Members.  Admiral 
Berkeley  has  quitted  the  chair  for  this  fortnight  through  a 
gout-fit.     It  has  been  filled  by  Mr,  Bankes. 

I  understand  an  opposition  is  to  be  made  in  the  House 
on  this  ground — that  it  has  been  stated  to  the  Committee^L 
that    I    might   have    filled  my  pockets  by  the  practice    q£ 
vaccine  inoculation,  had  I  not  made  every  body  acquainted, 
with  it.     How  absurd!    While  I  thus  had  been  employed  in^ 
filling  my  own  purse,  should    I    not  have  indirectly   been 
filling    the  churchyard  with  those  slain  by  the  small-pox? 
This  is  really  to  be  the  plea  for  non-remuneration,  as  shewing 
there    existed  no  necessity  for  my  petition  to   Parliament. 
We  want  not  the  strength  of  a  Fox  or  a  Grey  to  combat 
this  argument. 

As  usual  I  must  apologise  for  omissions. 

Yours  truly, 

E. Jenner. 

Pray  see  the  European  Magazine  for  the  present  montli, 
where  you  will  find  that  the  Indians  have  adopted  vaccine 
inoculation :  this  should  be  conveyed  to  the  Glo'ster  paper. 

The  drawing  of  the  cup  is  just  sent  by  the  Stroud  coach 
by  Lady  B.     You  will  hear  from  her  by  to-morrow's  post. 

330  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

To  Richard  Dunning,  Esq.  Plymouth  Dock. 
London,  Monday  Evening,  May  17,  1802. 
I  must  confess,  my  dear  friend,  that  you  have  too  often 
liad  occasion  to  rebuke  me ;  but  to  have  answered  the  letter 
you  allude  to  fully  and  completely  was  a  task  so  arduous, 
that  truly  (although  often  in  contemplation)  I  put  it  off  with 
the  hope  of  finding  that  leisure  for  its  accomplishment  which 
has  never  yet  arrived. 

"  Ye  gentlemen  of  Plymouth," 

I  was  going  to  parody  a  popular  song,  but  the  attempt 

is  too  daring — verbum  sat.  I  once  thought  myself  the  most 
perfect  animal  mimosa  existing ;  but  you  seem  to  possess  a 
superior  claim.  You  will  believe  me  sincere  in  my  assertion ; 
but  don't  be  affronted  wdien  I  tell  you  that  Trotter  (whom 
I  had  frequently  the  pleasure  of  seeing  during  his  residence 
in  town)  and  myself  even  laughed  at  your  timidity. 

If  1  have  excited  a  fi'own,  let  me  smooth  your  countenance 
by  saying,  that  while  I  indulged  this  passion,  I  admired 
your  sensibility.  Your  excellent  letters  deserve  a  better 
answer  than  this ;  but  the  worries  of  the  House  of  Com- 
mons, and  the  labours  I  have  to  go  through  out  of  the 
House,  put  it  out  of  my  power  to  shew  my  friends  even 
common  civility. 

I  shall  not  conclude  without  telling  you  how  affairs  stand. 
The  Committee  have  made  their  Rej)ort  to  the  House,  which 
is  ordered  to  be  printed.  After  it  has  lain  upon  the  table  a 
few  days,  it  will  then  be  taken  into  consideration,  and  I  shall 
receive  reimbursement,  remuneration,  or  nothing  at  all;  just 
as  the  honourable  gentlemen  may  determine. 

If  the  latter,  I  have  to  thank  my  stars  that  I  have  a  little 
farm  or  two  in  Gloucestershire,  where  I  shall  at  once  repair, 
quit  doctoring^  and  turn  ploughman. 

How  happy  shall  I  always  be  to  give  you  a  rasher  of 
bacon  from  ix  flitch  of  my  own  fatting,  and  a  potatoe  that  has 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER.  331 

vegetated  under  my  own   eye.     I  sing  a  little  sometimes, 
and  am  practising  Shakspeare^s  old  song  in  readiness. 

"  Blow,  blow,  thou  winter's  wind." 

I  shall,  if  possible,  send  you  one  of  the  jorinted  Reports. 
A  line  from  you  to  Sir  W.  Elford  would  procure  it  at  once. 
You  will  be  amused  with  the  intelligence  from  the  West — 

the  Drews,  the  Bragges,  &c.  &c.     The  conduct  of  P 

was  bad  beyond  all  description. 

The  evidence  in  the  Report  is  so  compressed,  you  will  not 
be  able  to  form  by  any  means  an  idea  of  it.  The  letters 
from  the  West  are  printed  at  large. 

I  am  much  gratified  at  the  good  sense  manifested  by  the 
Cherokee  Indians.  Who  would  have  thought  that  vaccination 
would  already  have  found  its  way  into  the  wilds  of  America  ? 
Pray  look  at  the  European  Magazine  for  the  present  month. 
Be  assured  that  I  am  yours  most  sincerely, 

E.  Jenner. 

P.  S.  I  shall  expect  the  gratification  of  a  letter  from  you  very 
soon,  especially  as  in  your  last  you  explained  nothing  rela- 
tive to  the  cases  which  weakened  your  confidence  in  vaccine 

I  laid  before  the  Committee  a  large  bundle  of  letters  on 
the  subject  of  cow-pox,  corroborating  the  fact  I  have 
alleged,  and  expressed  a  wish  that  some  of  them  might  be 
printed  in  the  Rej)ort. 

I  even  limited  my  number  (finding  them  shy  of  printing) 
to  three,  and  among  these  named  yours ;  but,  alas  !  they  in- 
dulge me  with  one  only,  and  that  comes  from  a  Mr.  Kelson. 

By  the  evidence  of  a  Gloucestershire  gentleman,  Mr. 
Gardner,  you  will  see  that  I  spoke  freely  of  my  scheme  for 
eradicating  the  small-pox  previously  even  to  the  capricious 
inoculations  made  by  the  gentlemen  in  the  West. 

332  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

To  R.  Dunning,  Esq. 

My  dear  Sir,  1802. 

Our  last  letters  crossed  each  other  on  the  road,  according 
to  custom.     Your  letter  of  April  the  22d  reached  me  at  a 
time  when  my  head  was  brimful  of  the  bvistles  of  the  Com- 
mittee, and  was  not,  I  think,  sufficiently,  at  least  properly, 
noticed  in  any  subsequent  letter  of  mine.     What  I  allude  to 
is  your  account  of  the  inoculation  of  Mr.   Courtney,  Mr. 
Yonge,  and  the  staggering  cases  of  yourself  and  Mr.  Lisle. 
Add  to  this,  the  case  of  the  marine  at  Portsmouth.     Now, 
my  good  friend,  my  mind  having  long  since  obtained  what 
security  it  is  capable   of  possessing,  I  request  of  you  to  tell 
me  what  time  and  enquiry  have  developed  respecting  these 
Plymouth  cases.     That    of  the  marine  at  Portsmouth  was 
clearly  made  out  to  have  been  imperfect.     The  people   at 
this  sea-port  set  up  a  kind  of  malignant  shout  (see  the  Let- 
ters of  Hope  in  the  Report  of  the  Committee)  at  finding  this 
case   of   supposed  failure.     They   disliked  vaccination,  be- 
cause Plymouth  adopted  it ;  '^  tanta  est  discordia  fratrum." 
You  mention  the  name  of  my  valued  old  friend  Col.  Tench ; 
pray  can  you  find  out  where  a  letter  would  reach  that  gen- 
tleman ?     Now  to   present  occurrences.     Imprimis,   accept 
my  thanks  for  your_beneyolejit  jntentions  in  seconding  the 
views  of  the  society  established,  or  rather  about  to  be,  for_ 
forming  a  something  (I  scarcely  yet  know  what)  to  perpcj^ 
tuate   my  name,  and  to   attach  to  it  that,  without  which 
scarcely  any  existing  name  has  weight  or  respectability.     I 
immediately  despatched  your  note  to  Dr.  Lettsom,  who  is 
one  of  the  great  promoters  of  the  design.     I  need  not,  I 
presume,  telljyou  that  nojdeajofjhis  sort^ever  came  into  my 
own  head.     Let  me  entreat  you  not  to  suff'er  that  warmth  of 
heart   which   you  possess,    and    that  affection   (your  deeds 
allow  me  to  use  the  expression)  which  you  shew  for  me,  lead 
you  too  far  on   this  occasion.     The  portrait  by  Northcote, 
I  conceive  to  be  finished  by  this  time ;  but  as  it  is  deemed 

LIFE    OF    DU.    JENNER.  333 

not  only  one  of  his  best  paintings,  but  what  on  the  present 
occasion  is  more  to  the  purpose,  a  good  Hkeness,  a  print  will 
be  required  before  it  reaches  its  destined  home.     Pearson, 
you  say,  has  exhibited  himself  with  sufficient  correctness. 
Indeed,  I  think  so  too.     Had  he  not  given  the  picture  those 
brilliant  touches  which  you  have  dou1)tless  seen  since  the 
publication  of  the  Medical  Journal  for  the  month  of  July,  I 
trust  that  most  people  would  have  thought  his  pencil  had 
gone  far  enough  ;  but  what,  my  dear  sir,  will  they  say,  now 
they  have  seen  his  last  performance  ?     I  long  to  hear  your 
sentiments  upon  it,  and   to  know  what  sensation  it  creates 
among  my  friends  in  your  part   of  Devon.     The  paper  by 
Dr.  Crawford  of  Bath  was,   I   think,  pretty  much   ad  rem, 
and  will  serve  as    a    groundwork    for  any    one    who   may 
choose  to  reply  to  the  pamphlet.     As  for  myself,  I   do  not 
intend  to  notice  it.     To  what  purpose  is  it  to  contend  with  a 
man  whose  arrogance  and  impudence  will  ever  keep  at  an 
immeasurable  distance  plain  truth,  and  who  will  not  listen 
even  to  the  dictates  of  reason?    There  is  among  the  mass  of 
misrepresentations  one  which  is  capable  of  doing  vast  mis- 
chief, and  that  is,  allowing  the  vaccine  virus  to  be  used  in 
the  far  advanced  stage  of  the  pustule.     Woodville's  backing 
this  opinion  is  quite  astonishing.     If  I  should  be  induced  to 
reply  to  anythhig,  it  would  be  this  point  only.     To  what  reve- 
rend gentleman  I  am  indebted  for  congratulations,  and  who 
speaks  so  highly  of  Dr.  Booker's   excellent  sermon,  I  know 
not ;  this  you  keep  a  secret.     The  fact  is,  neither  myself  nor 
any  one  about  me  can   decypher  the  characters  you  have 
employed  to  point  out  his  name.     However,  present,  I  pray 
you,  my  thanks  to  my  unknown    friend  for  his  kindness,  and 
I  hope  ere  now  he  has  well  vaccinated  the  ears  of  his  con- 
gregation.    The  example  of  Dr.  Booker  has  been  followed 
by  many  respectable  clergymen,  both  in  town  and  country, 
and  with  good  effect.     Be  assured  I  wish  much  to  print  the 
evidence  you  allude  to.     It  certainly  ought  to  come  forth, 
and  for  the  reason  you  assign. 

334  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

Mr.  Bankes,  who  drew  up  the  Report,  was  no  friend  either 
to  me  or  ray  cause,  or  he  would  have  Ustened  to  my  sohci- 
tations,  and  inserted  not  only  the  certificates  you  mention,, 
but  your  letter  also.  Let  any  one  read  the  Report  of  Dr. 
Smith,  and  compare  it  with  mine ;  then  let  them  judge  who 
had  indulgences  and  who  had  none.  The  indisposition  of 
my  chairman.  Admiral  Berkeley,  was  a  most  unfortunate 
event.  The  whole  merit  Mr.  Bankes  allowed  me  on  the  score 
of  discovery  in  vaccination  (considering  it  abstractedly)  was 
that  of  inoculating  from  one  human  being  to  another.  On 
this  subject  I  remonstrated,  but  it  was  all  in  vain.  Cannot 
you  contrive  to  get  your  papers  into  the  Journal  ?  Surely 
you  might  command  my  assistance  whenever  you  please ; 
they  would  gain  admittance  with  the  most  perfect  propriety 
in  reply  to  Pearson's  audacious  assertion,  and  produce  good 
effects  in  a  variety  of  ways. 

My  health  and  prosperity  are  not  more  frequently  drank 
under  your  roof  than  that  of  you  and  yours  is  wished  for 
under  mine. 

Adieu,  my  dear  Sir, 

Yours  ever  very  faithfully, 
Cheltenham,  Sept.  24,  1802.  Edward  Jenneb. 

I  shall  remain  here  about  six  weeks  longer,  then  go  to 
Berkeley,  and  stay  about  two  months  before  I  return  to  my 
drudgery  in  town.  Do  come  and  see  me  at  Berkeley,  if 
you  can,  at  Vaccina  Cottage. 

To  R.  Dunning,  Esq. 

My  dear  Sir,  Berkeley,  April  2,  1804. 

The  sight  of  your  folio  sheet  was  extremely  agreeable  to 
me.  I  really  began  to  be  seriously  alarmed  about  you ;  but 
all  is  well  now.  You  have  passed  upon  yourself  too  heavy 
a  censure.  It  is  my  misfortune  to  be  a  great  procrastinator 
as  well  as  yours;  and  surely  it  would  be  uncharitable  in 
me  not  to  pardon  that  in  another  with  which  unfortunately 
I  find  myself  so   heavily  laden.      Your   letter   throughout 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  335 

glows  with  that  ardent  philanthropic  flame  which  has  ever 
shone  so  conspicuously  in  all  your  conduct  towards  me  from 
the  commencement  of  our  acquaintance. 

I  believe  we  have  had  no  correspondence  since  your  Spa- 
nish paper  appeared  in  the  Medical  and  Philosophical  Jour- 
nal. To  be  plain  with  you,  and  use  the  familiarity  of  a 
friend,  I  did  not  like  it.  The  paper  is  not  now  before  me ; 
but  if  I  recollect  right,  it  M'ent  only  to  prove  that  goats  are 
subject  to  spontaneous  pustules  upon  their  nipples ;  that 
the  matter  of  these  pustules  was  inserted  into  the  arms  of 
human  subjects ;  and  that  it  produced  local  effects.  Is 
there  any  quadruped  that  is  not  subject  to  diseased  nipples  ? 
Even  the  human  animal,  we  know  from  sad  experience,  is 
not  exempted.  The  cow,  like  other  animals,  is  subject  to  a 
spontaneous  pock  upon  its  teats,  the  fluid  of  which,  when 
brought  in  contact  with  the  denuded  living  fibre,  is  capable 
of  exciting  disease ;  but  I  positively  assert,  this  is  not  one 
grand  preventive.  When  you  hear  again  from  Madrid,  do 
not  fail  to  teU  me  what  the  Spaniards  say  about  it.  I  have 
already  anticipated.  I  am  happy  to  find  that  Mr.  Williams 
has  pleased  you  so  much  in  copying  Northcote's  portrait  of 
me.  Some  of  my  partial  friends  say,  that  the  painter  gave 
the  countenance  a  dash  of  acid  which  does  not  belong  to  it, 
but  really  the  print  by  Saye  appears  to  be  a  good  likeness. 

Dr.  Hope,  with  all  his  prettiness  about  him,  will  continue 
with  me  an  object  of  distrust  until  he  studies  vaccination,  and 
having  seen  the  light,  tells  the  world  he  was  in  darkness 
when  he  sent  that  horrid  murderous  letter  to  the  Committee 
of  the  House  of  Commons,  first,  indeed,  to  the  Board  of 
Admiralty.  I  call  it  murderous,  because  by  retarding  the 
progress  of  vaccination,  it  has  sent  many  poor  victims  to 
the  grave  who  now  might  have  been  actively  employed  in 
the  defence  of  their  country  ;  and  more  will  certainly  follow 
unless  he  publicly  makes  known  his  errors.  Surely  the  fin- 
ger of  Providence  has  pointed  out  to  him  the  spot  he  now 

336  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENxVER. 

resides  in,  a  spot  which  the  votaries  of  Vaccina  must  ever 
contemplate  with  dehght.  He  certainly  made  a  most  vio- 
lent effort  to  ruin  me  and  the  cause  in  which  I  was  engaged ; 
but  weak  and  pernicious  as  his  conduct  has  been,  I  will  for- 
give the  whole  transaction  if  he  will  behave  like  a  man,  and 
act  as  he  ought  to  do.  A  man,  in  my  judgment,  never  ap- 
pears more  wise  or  more  amiable  than  when  renouncing 
false  opinions.  I  think  you  had  better  once  more  write  to 
my  Lord  King,  as  it  is  probable  his  work  will  go  through  an- 
other edition,  when  he  may  have  an  opportunity  of  correct- 
ing his  errors.  I  should  be  sorry  if  any  bookseller  had 
advertised  any  thing  new  from  me,  or  any  new  edition  of  my 
work,  though  I  long  to  republish  it.  In  a  former  letter  I  be- 
lieve I  mentioned  to  you  the  effect  that  herpes  often  produces 
ujjon  the  arm  ;  it  is  of  so  much  moment  that  I  have  thoughts 
of  giving  a  short  paper  on  the  subject  in  the  Medical  Jour- 
nal. The  useful  terms  "  vaccination  and  to  vaccinate  "  are 
undoubtedly  yours,  and  as  such  I  pronounced  them  at  a 
meeting  of  the  Royal  Jennerian  Society,  when  an  M.  D.  pre- 
sent mentioned  them  as  imported  from  the  Continent. 

In  arranging  a  bundle  of  papers  which  had  been  huddled 
up  together  a  long  time  ago  in  London,  I  met  with  my  an- 
swer to  a  letter  from  the  Medical  Society  of  Plymouth. 
Whether  it  is  a  copy  of  a  note  already  sent,  or  whether 
through  hurry  I  might  never  have  sent  it  at  all,  I  cannot 
now  recollect. 

I  must  therefore  beg  your  assistance.  The  idea  of  slighting, 
in  the  smallest  degree,  a  body  of  gentlemen,  who,  on  all 
occasions,  have  stood  forth  so  strenuously  in  my  support, 
would  vex  me  very  much.  Will  you  then  have  the  kind- 
ness to  make  inquiry  of  your  secretary,  Mr.  Woolcombe,  and 
to  present  the  inclosed  note  (if  it  appears  that  I  had  not 
written  upon  the  same  subject  before)  with  an  explanation 
and  many  apologies. 

I  will  not  suppose  my  friend  Little  can  have  any  other 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  33/ 

impression  made  upon  his  mind  by  the  occurrence  of  such 
events  as  you  mention,  than  such  as  an  enlightened  physio- 
logist would  receive. 

Pray  thank  Mrs.  Dunning  and  your  family  for  the  kind 
compliment  they  daily  pay  me,  and  be  assured  of  the  friend- 
ship and  esteem  of 

Edward  Jenner. 

Do  not  forget  to  tell  your  brother  vaccinists  to  look  sharp 
to  tinea  capitis,  sore  eye-lids,  ears,  &c.  I  have  commonly 
remarked,  that  the  impediment  to  the  correct  progress  of 
vaccination  arises  more  frequently  when  the  disease  is  recent 
than  when  it  has  continued  long. 

If  any  of  the  birth-dmj  odes  and  verses  were  committed 
to  the  press,  you  would  indulge  me  in  sending  copies. 

Do  not  fail  to  write  soon.  1  want  to  know  your  further 
sentiments  of  the  goat-pox. 

April  5. 

Finding  my  letters  over  weight  for  a  frank,  I  make  a  pac- 
ket, and  send  it  by  tlie  coach.  The  little  pamphlet  of  War- 
ren has  scarcely  ever  failed  to  make  converts  whenever  I 
have  sent  it  into  a  poor  prejudiced  family. 

I  have  just  received  the  Portsmouth  paper  of  the  2nd 
of  April,  sent  to  me,  I  suppose,  by  the  printer.  It  contains, 
in  large  letters,  the  following  sensible  paragraph  :  "  Reports 
of  some  cases  of  small-pox  after  vaccine  inoculation  were 
read  at  a  very  full  meeting  of  the  Medical  Society  of  Ports- 
mouth on  Thursday  last  the  29th  instant,  which  w^e  are  in- 
formed will  be  sent  to  the  press,  and  published  in  a  few 
days.^'  Is  Dr.  Hope  returned  to  his  old  post  ?  What  a  set 
of  blockheads  !  How  will  our  continental  neighbours  laugh 
at  us ! 

A  letter  from  Milan  lately  informed  me,  that  Dr.  Sacco 
has,  with  his  own  hands,  vaccinated  upw'ards  of  40,000  with- 
out a  single  instance  of  the  small-pox  occurring  afterwards  3 
and  why  ?     He  understood  Avhat  he  was  about, 

VOL.  II.  z 

338  LIFE    OP    DR.  JENNER. 

R.  Dunning,  Esq. 

Berkeleij,July  22,  1804. 
My  dear  Sir, 

Your  letter  found  me  in  the  midst  of  the  worries  attend- 
ant on  packing  up.  You  are  a  stranger,  I  presunle,  to  the 
removal  of  a  large  family  from  place  to  place ;  if  you  are  not, 
you  must  know  how  to  commiserate  those  who  are.  Ac- 
cept this  as  an  apology  for  delay  in  writing.  Even  gentle 
hints  of  mine,  I  perceive,  act  as  mandates  upon  you.  It 
affords  me  pleasure  to  see  with  what  alacrity  my  troops  fly 
to  arms,  and  rally  around  me  at  the  approach  of  an  enemy. 

"  Horse  and  foot 

All  fly  to  it:'— Old  Ballad. 

Seamen  and  landmen  are  all  ready.     The  Portsea  corsair, 
already  pretty  well  peppered  by  the  Kinff,  the  Edinburgh, 
and  the  rest  of  the  squadron,  must  strike   at  the  first  broad- 
side   of  the  Dunning  man-of-war.     But    to    quit   figurative 
language  and  descend  to  humbler  tones,  allow  me  to  say, 
I  look  forward  with  great  satisfaction  to   the  result  of  your 
present  undertaking.     Plymouth   must  be   able  to   furnish 
volumes  of  evidence,  were  they  wanted,  to  refute  the  absurd 
arguments  of  Mr.  Goldson.     All  his  reasoning  is  erroneous. 
It  must  be   so  ;  for  how  could  he  reason  upon  a  subject  of 
which  it  is  plain,  from  his  own  words,  he  has  scarcely  any 
knowledge  ?     A  man  who  takes  up  the  pen  in  such  a  cause, 
should  be  intimately  acquainted  with  the  laws  and  agencies, 
not  only  of  the  vaccine  virus  in  the  constitution,  but  with 
those  of  variolous  also.     Now  'tis  clear  he  knows  neither. 
What  a  book  is  his  !     What  an  advertisement  did  he  send  to 
the  public  papers  !     An  advertisement  that  will  outstrip  its 
keenest   pursuers,   and    strike    terror   as   it   goes   into    the 
bosoms  of  thousands.     Our  newspapers  are  spread  over  thre 
face  of  the  whole  earth.  The  trials  I  have  lately  instituted  here, 
assisted  by  my  nephews,  I  can  assure  you,  have  been  severe 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER.  339 

ones ;  but,  thank  heaven  !  they  have  been  decisive,  and  with- 
out any  other  aid  must  completely  overthrow  the  arguments 
of  Mr.  Goldson.  All  the  subjects  that  I  could  collect,  who 
were  vaccinated  at  the  commencement  of  my  practice  here, 
men,  women,  and  children,  have  been  lately  exjiosed  to  the 
small-pox,  in  a  state  as  highly  contagious  as  possible ;  they 
were  taken  into  a  room,  and  went  to  the  bedside  of  a  woman, 
covered  from  head  to  foot  with  pustules.  AH  have  escaped 
unhurt  except  at  the  sight  of  the  ghastly  object.  A  great 
number  of  these  had  been  inoculated  six  years  ago.  Phipps, 
too,  the  boy  on  whom  I  made  my  first  trial  more  than  eight 
years  ago,  has  again  been  put  to  the  trial  with  impunity. 
Had  Mr.  Goldson  sought  an  interview  with  me,  or  even 
written  to  me  on  the  subject,  I  am  confident  his  book  would 
never  have  seen  the  light.  Perhaps  it  may  be  all  for  the 
best.  Had  vaccination  wanted  firmer  support  than  it  has 
already,  it  would  have  obtained  it  from  the  very  efforts 
made  use  of  for  its  destruction.  I  will  just  remark  that  the 
fairest  of  all  tests  is  exposure  to  variolous  contagion;  this  is 
the  natural  test,  inoculation  is  not.  Who  does  not  know 
(all  medical  men  ought  to  know)  that  the  insertion  of  the 
variolous  poison  into  the  skin  of  an  irritable  person  will 
sometimes  produce  great  inflammation^  disturbance  of  the 
system,  and  even  eruptions  ? 

Adieu,  my  dear  Sir.  I  write,  as  you  must  observe,  in 

Yours  truly, 

E.  Jenner. 

Just  setting  off  with  my  family  to  Cheltenham. 

P.  S.  I  am  sorry  to  say  I  cannot  send  you  advertisements 
to  the  cover  of  the  Medical  Journal.  The  review  of  G.'s 
book  will  tell  you  I  have  no  interest  there. 

z  2 

340  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

R.  Dunning,  Esq.  Plymouth. 

Cheltenham,  Juhj  25,  1804. 
My  dear  Sir, 
About  the  middle  of  the  last  year,  Dr.  Yeates,  a  physician 
of  eminence  at  Bedford,  published  a  pamphlet  explaining 
the  cause  of  some  vaccine  blunders  that  had  been  committed 
in  his  neighbourhood.  It  concludes  with  a  few  observations 
of  mine  ujion  the  subject.  Conceiving  you  may  never  have 
seen  this  little  tract,  I  have  sent  it  to  you ;  for,  like  the  tracts 
of  some  folks  in  days  that  are  past,  it  was  never  well  adver- 
tised, and  consequently  but  little  knoAvn. 

I  am  quite  angry  with  myself  for  not  noticing  in  my  last 
the  Plymouth  Bard.  You  call  him  a  Printer's  Devil.  If 
spirits  of  this  description  can  send  forth  such  things,  what 
am  I  not  to  expect  from  Plymouth  Gods. 

Yours  truly, 

E.  Jenner. 

Richard  Dunning,  Esq.  Dock,  Plymouth. 

Cheltenham,  October  25,  1804. 
My  dear  Sir, 
Before  I  say  anything  of  your  second  letter,  allow  me  to 
notice  your  first.  When  I  tell  you  that  I  am  at  this  time 
at  least  tAvo  hundred  letters  in  arrears  to  my  correspondents, 
which,  as  you  may  suppose,  multiply  in  e\ery  part  of  the 
earth  to  a  great  extent,  you  will  at  once  forgive  my  not 
writing  sooner  to  a  friend  with  whom  I  could  take  a  liberty. 
There  is  not  a  country  in  the  globe  where  I  do  not  owe  a 
letter,  and  yet  all  my  leisure  time  is  occupied  with  pen,  ink, 
and  paper.  But  you  must  be  informed  that  my  leisure 
hours  are  very  few ;  for  the  company  resorting  to  this 
fashionable  watering  place  increase  every  year  in  a  most 
rapid  manner,  and,  consequent]  j^,  my  medical  engagements ; 
insomuch,  that  I  have  it  in  contemplation  to  quit  it.  Should 
I  be  compelled  to  do  this,  what  a  hardship  must  I  endure  ! 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  341 

Shall  I  not  be  the  first  man  in  our  profession  who  quitted 
his  post  through  excess  of  business  ?     Vaccination  calls  im- 
periously for  my  attention,  and  to  that   I  am  determined  all 
my  other  worldly  concerns    shall  yield.     But  while  I   am 
fighting  the  enemy  of  mankind,  it  will  be  vexatious  to  see 
my  aides-de-camp  turn  shy.     Among  the  foremost  in   the 
field,  I  have  always  ranked  Richard  Dunning.     No  one  has 
been  more  obedient  to  the  commands   of  his  general,   or 
wielded  the  sword   against  the  foe  with  greater  force  and 
dexterity.     But  shall  I  live  to  see  my  friend  dismayed  at  the 
mere  shadow  of  fortune  on  the  side  of  the  enemy ; — will  he 
who  has  led  such  hosts  into  the  field  and  found  them  invul- 
nerable, start  if,  in  the  continuation  of  the  combat,  he  shoidd 
see  a  man  fall  ?     Enough   of  metaphor.     The  moral  of  all 
this  is,  that  I  see  you  are  growing  timid ;  the  timidity  so 
conspicuous  towards  the  close   of  your  pamphlet,  and  that 
which  is  so  manifest  in  your  letter  of  this  evening,  it  would 
be  wrong  in  me  not  to   say  I  was   sorry  to   observe.     More 
convincing    or    stronger  facts  the  public  could  never  wish 
for  than  your  pamphlet  exhibits.  Had  I  been  at  your  elbow, 
I   should  have  certainly  pulled  back  your   pen  when  you 
began  reasoning  upon  them.    The  result  of  your  experiments 
authorised  you  to  speak   in  tones  the  most   exulting  and 
triumphant ;  but  most  unfortunately,  you  almost  give  up  the 
field  to  the  anti-vaccinists  by  speaking  of  new  and  better 
arrangements,  if  variolous  inoculation  should  supersede  the 
vaccine !     Now,  my  good   and  valued   friend,    don't   for    a 
moment  think  that  I  am  out  of  temper  with  you,  or  mean  to 
speak  harshly.     On  the  contrary,  I  attributed  this  oversight 
(such  I  must  call  it)  to  the  dreadful  calamity  that  befel  your 
family.     Your  mind,  I  know,  must  have  been  oppressed,  and 
you  were  bringing  your  work  to  a  conclusion  under  pres- 
sures scarcely  bearable.     To  those  who  made  remarks  upon 
what  appeared  so  extraordinary,   I  communicated   the  cir- 
cumstance which  seemed  to  me  to  account  for  it.    The  1 15th 

342  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

page  of  your  work,  is  that  which  has  occasioned  the  general 
surprise.  The  further  I  go  on  with  vaccination,  the  more  I  am 
con^anced  that  the  great  and  grand  impediment  to  the  correct 
action  of  the  virus  on  the  constitution,  is  the  co-existence 
of  herpes.  I  expected  that  my  paper  on  this  subject  in  the 
Medical  Journal  for  Au2;ust  would  have  attracted  more  • 
attention.  Since  my  writing  it,  I  have  detected  a  case  of 
small-pox  after  small-pox  inoculation,  where  the  cause  of 
failure  was  evidently  an  herpetic  affection  of  the  scalp.  Are 
such  cases  as  these — are  such  as  Mr.  Embling,  so  circum- 
stantially described  in  your  pamphlet— are  Mr.  Trye's,  lately 
communicated  in  the  Star — are  Mr.  Kite's  of  Gravesend, 
and  a  thousand  others,  to  go  unnoticed  by  the  public,  while 
failures  in  vaccination  (a  science  far  more  difficult  to  under- 
stand than  variolation)  are  to  make  impressions  so  deep  as 
even  to  stagger  the  faith  of  those  who  are  well  informed 
upon  the  subject  ?  Is  common  sense  to  be  attached  to  one 
side  of  the  question  only,  and  to  have  nothing  to  do  with 
the  other?  "  This  case,  connected  with  those  in  London  at 
Fullwoods  Rents,  I  grieve  to  say,  appear  extremely  ugly." — 

Is  it  possible  their  ugliness  can  affright  you?  What 
phantoms  must  they  appear^  if  you  will  but  look  back  and 
consider  the  period  when  those  children  were  inoculated. 
Woodville  at  that  time,  and  his  coadjutor  Waschell,  knew 
nothing  of  the  cow-pox ;  this  is  clearly  evinced  by  Wood- 
ville's  first  pamphlet,  where  he  gives  three  hundred  cases  of 
small-pox,  and  calls  them  cow-pox.  Surely  his  early  inocu- 
lations are  not  to  be  regarded ;  and  does  he  not  at  this  hour, 
in  conjunction  with  a  person  whose  dirty  name  shall  not 
daub  my  paper,  sanction  the  taking  of  virus  from  the  pustule 
at  any  of  its  stages  ?  What  are  we  to  expect  while  such 
things  as  these  are  going  forward?  Inclosed  is  the  letter 
you  requested  me  to  return ;  it  is  impossible  for  me  to  go 
into   particulars  on  such  cases.      I  can  onlv  go  into  general 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  343 

reasoning.     My  experience  justifies  me  in  saying  that  which 
I  have  said  fifty  times  before,  "  If  the  vaccine  pustule  goes 
through  its   stages  correctly,  the  patient  is  secure  from  the 
small-pox ;  if  not,  security  cannot  be  answered  for."     There 
certainly  is  sometimes  a  nicety  in  discrimination,  and  it  was 
this    which    in    my  early  instructions    occasioned    me    to 
say,  "  When  a  deviation   arises  in  the  character  of  the  vac- 
cine pustule,  of  whatever  kind  it  may  be,  common  prudence 
points    out  the    necessity    of   re-inoculation."     Cases   may 
possibly  occur,  "svhere  even  you  or  I  may  (from  the  inter- 
position  of  those    events  which    medical   men   are  always 
subject  to)  not  have  it  in  our  power  to  cal^h  opportunities  of 
passing  our  judgment  upon  a  pustule  during  those  stages, 
whether  it  is  or  is  not  correctly  defined.     With  respect  to 
the  doctrine  of  Mr.  Moyle,  I  must  candidly  say,  my  experi- 
ments do  not  justify  me  in  subscribing   to  them.     Be   of 
good  cheer,  my  friend.     Those  who  are  so  presumptuous  as 
to  expect  perfection  in  man  will  be  grievously  disappointed. 
His  works  are  and  ever  will  be  defective.     Let   people,  if 
they  choose  it,  spurn  the  great  gift  that  heaven  has  bestowed, 
and  turn  again  to  variolation.     What  will  they  get  by  it? 
Let  them  consult  pages  67  and  68   of  your  decisive  work 
on    this    subject,  and  they  will  know.     Let   them    peruse 
the  following  extract  from    a   letter  which   I    have  within 
these  few  days  received  from  a  medical  gentleman  of  great 
respectability  in  this  county.     "  A  poor  family  belonging  to 
Sudeley  parish,  consisting  of  a  man,  his  wife,  and  five  chil- 
dren, were  vaccinated  four  or  five  years  ago,  except  the  eldest 
daughter,  who  had  been  before  inoculated  for  the  small-pox 
by  an  eminent  practitioner,  and  pronounced  secure.   This  sum- 
mer she  caught  the  small-pox  when  working  among  the  rags 
at  the  paper  mills,  and  had  a  very  numerous  and  confluent 
eruption.     The  rest  of  the  family  had  no  fears,  and  have 
all  escaped,  though  fully  exposed  to  the  infection.''     Now 
had  this  case  been  reversed,  what  a  precious  morsel  it  would 

344  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

have  been  for  an  anti-vaccinist.     Adieu,  my  dear  friend,  and 
be  assured  of  the  unalterable  regard  of 


Edw.  Jenner, 

P.  S.  I  must  not  forget  to  tell  you  that  I  have  sent  your 
pamphlet  to  the  National  Institute  of  France.  They  had 
received  Goldson's  book,  which  I  perceive  was  disseminated 
with  uncommon  industry.  I  was  not  a  little  hurt  at  Mr. 
Embling^s  taking  no  notice  of  a  letter  I  deemed  of  some 
importance,  and  which  I  wrote  to  him  immediately  on  seeing 
his  observations.  One  word  more  on  herpes.  Seeing  how 
frequently  the  vaocine  disease  becomes  entangled  with  it, 
my  thoughts  have  latelv  been  pretty  much  bent  upon  it,  and 
I  now  see  that  the  herpetic  fluid  is  one  of  those  morbid 
poisons,  wdiich  the  human  body  is  capable  of  generating,  and 
when  generated,  that  it  may  be  perpetuated  by  contact. 
Children  who  feed  on  trash  at  this  season  of  the  year  are  apt 
to  get  distended  bellies,  and  on  them  it  often  appears  about 
the  lips.  This  is  the  most  familiar  example  I  know.  A 
single  vesicle  is  capable  of  deranging  the  action  of  the  vac- 
cine pustule.     Subdue  it,  and  all  goes  on  correctly. 

To  R.  Dunning,  Esq. 

Cheltenham,  Nov.  2nd,  1804. 
My  dear  Sir, 
Inclosed  is  Mr.  Moyle's  letter.  Conceiving  it  might  be  a 
gratification  to  you  to  see  how  systematically  they  manage 
vaccine  affairs  in  India,  I  have  sent  you  a  copy  of  a  paper 
just  transmitted  to  me  from  the  India  House.  Would  to 
Heaven  we  could  boast  of  such  arrangements  here  ! 

Yours  truly. 

Don't  forget  Mr.  Embling. 
With  a  view  of  extending  the  practice  of  vaccine  inocula- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  345 

tion  throughout  the  East  India  Company's  territories  in 
India,  the  Governor  General  in  Council  of  Bengal  has  ap- 
pointed a  superintendant  general  of  vaccine  inoculation  at 
the  presidency,  and  established  subordinate  superintendents 
at  several  of  the  interior  stations  of  the  country ;  viz.  at 
Dacca,  Moorshedabad,  Patna,  Benares,  Allahal)ad,  Cawn- 
pore,  and  Farruckabad.  These  superintendents  are  the 
surgeons  of  the  stations,  and  are  to  act  under  the  orders 
of  the  superintendent  general  at  the  presidency  in  what- 
ever regards  vaccine  inoculation.  The  civil  surgeons  also 
at  the  several  judicial  and  revenue  stations  are  to  co-ope- 
rate with  these  superintendents  for  the  purpose  of  forwarding 
the  general  object.  Vaccine  inoculation  has  also  been  intro- 
duced with  success  into  Prince  of  Wales  Island,  and  it  is 
intended  to  extend  the  practice  to  Malacca,  and  other  places 
to  the  eastward,  and  a  confident  expectation  is  entertained 
that  the  benefits  of  this  valuable  discovery  will  be  diffused 
throughout  Asia.  It  is  even  in  contemplation  to  extend  it 
to  China ;  but  as  the  suspicious  disposition  of  the  Chinese 
might  possibly  ascribe  any  attempt  to  introduce  this  novel 
practice  to  sinister  motives,  it  has  been  postponed  until  the 
opinion  of  the  Company's  servants  there  can  be  obtained. 

Fort  William,  ISth  Jan.  1804. 

Nov.  12  th. 

I  shall  expect  very  soon  to  hear  from  you.  Pray  give  me 
your  sentiments  Avith  as  much  freedom  as  I  gave  you  mine 
in  my  last  letter  respecting  vaccination,  &c.  &c. 

No  frank  to  be  had  to-day;  but  I  do  not  think  you  will 
regard  the  tax  it  imposes  on  you  for  the  inclosed  extracts 
from  our  provincial  newspaper.  They  would  not  cut  bad 
figures  in  that  of  Devon.  The  letter  in  the  Times,  in  reply 
to  Moseley,  (copied  into  the  Medical  Journal  under  the  sig- 
nature of  a  Looker-on)  should  be  generally  read,  as  it  pre- 
pares the  mind  for  the  consequences  of  incorrect  vaccination. 
Addington's  letter  in  the  Morning  Chronicle  of  the  5th  of 

34G  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

November  is  firm,  manly,  and  decisive.  Did  it  catch  your 
eye  ?  From  the  partial  evil  of  now  and  then  an  imperfect 
case,  what  an  immense  mass  of  good  springs  up. 

To  Richard  Dunning,  Esq.  Plymouth. 

Cheltenham,  \5th  Nov.  1804. 
My  dear  Sir, 

The  old  occurrence  of  our  letters  crossing  on  the  road  has, 
I  see,  again  taken  place.  If  my  writing  frequently  to  you  will 
afford  you  the  least  gratification,  I  shall  not  be  slack  in  my 

There  is  no  one  more  entitled  to  my  attention,  and  among 
all  the  vaccinists  who  have  enlisted  under  my  banner,  there 
is  no  one  who  has  a  greater  claim  to  my  regard.  There  was 
no  expression  in  my  letter,  I  hope,  which  would  bear  the 
construction  you  seem  to  put  upon  it.  You  were  rallied  a 
little  on  your  timidity  respecting  the  uffbj  cases  in  town  and 
country — on  your  glancing  at  a  better  regulation  for  the 
management  of  the  small-pox,  if  we  are  obliged  to  turn  to 
it  again — on  your  fear  of  reviews — and  of  a  little  shrinking, 
even,  from  the  man  whom  you  are  opposing;  but  all  was  done 
in  perfectly  good  humour,  and  now  you  will  allow  me  tri- 
umphantly to  exclaim,  "  Richard 's  himself  again  ?' 

Dr.  Borlase  is  an  old  acquaintance  of  mine.  I  have  too 
good  an  opinion  of  him  to  suppose  for  a  moment  he  could 
invent  such  an  idle  tale  as  that  which  has  been  told  you  by 
Mr.  Moyle.  The  whole  is  an  abominable  fabrication.  In- 
deed such  an  assertion  from  me  would  have  flown  in  the  face 
of  those  facts  which  my  experience  on  this  subject  has  ren- 
dered decisive. 

Is  it  possible  Goldson  can  appear  again  in  print  on  the 
vaccine  subject?  Your  communication  is  the  first  that  has 
been  made  to  me  respecting  it.  He  had  better  be  silent 
unless  he  addresses  the  public  in  the  humble,  yet  honoura- 
ble,  strains  of  recantation  ;  for  with  all  the  supposed  im- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  34/ 

perfections  on  the  head  of  Vaccina,  there  are  ten  times  as 
many  on  Variola. 

Pray  indulge  me  with  a  line  or  two  very  speedily,  to  put 
an  end  to  a  little  perplexity.  You  tell  me  that  you  know 
small-pox  will  sometimes  follow  cow-pox,  and  nevertheless 
assert  that  a  case  of  this  sort,  which  has  happened  under  your 
immediate  observation,  places  vaccination  on  higher  ground 
than  it  has  yet  stood  on. 

Do  pray  explain,  as  soon  as  you  can,  your  meaning. 

Yours,  dear  Sir, 

very  truly, 

E.  Jenner. 

In  the  Morning  Chronicle  of  Monday,  the  12th  instant, 
is  another  letter  of  Addington's. 

I  am  pleased  at  seeing  the  friends  of  the  vaccine  cause 
shewing  themselves  in  the  newspapers.  These  meet  every 
eye,  while  the  Journal  meets  that  of  medical  men  only,  and 
has  proved  the  tomb  of  many  an  impressive  paper. 

To  R.  Dunning,  Esq. 

Berkeley,  Feb.  lOlh,  1805. 
My  dear  Friend, 
Your  little  pamphlet  contains  many  great  and  useful  ob- 
servations. 1  will  now  refer  you  to  a  few  notes  I  made  in 
perusing  it.  The  book  itself  should  have  been  printed  in 
the  more  general  shajDC  and  form  of  pamphlets.  Page  16^ 
concluding  sentence  of  the  first  paragraph,  pithy,  and  con- 
taining a  complete  reply  to  the  anti-vaccinists,  who  may  urge 
objections  from  a  few  solitary  cases  of  small-pox  after  cow- 
pox,  or  who  might  bring  them  forward  if  they  were  ten  times 
as  numerous.  100,000  cases  of  vaccination,  by  far  too 
few  to  calculate  upon.  Half  that  number  I  can  reckon  from 
extra  professional  inoculations,  20,000  of  which  are  from  my 
fair  disciples ;  and,  to  their  credit  be  it  spoken,  I  have  not 
heard  of  one  sinister  event  among  this  class  of  inoculations. 

348  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

And  why?  They  imphcitly  obey  vaccine  laws.  Page  12, 
good  reasomng  on  the  subject  of  population.  I  have  often 
urged  the  following  argument  when  too  numerous  a  popula- 
tion has  been  thrown  in  my  teeth,  as  one  of  the  ill  effects 
likely  to  attend  vaccination.  Who  M^ould  have  thought,  a 
century  ago,  that  Providence  had  in  store  for  us  that  nutri- 
tious and  excellent  vegetable  the  potatoe — that  ready- 
made  loaf,  as  it  were,  and  which  is  prepared  in  higher  per- 
fection in  the  garden  of  the  cottager  than  in  the  highly 
manured  soil  of  the  man  of  opulence  ?  It  is  but  reasonable 
to  suppose  that  the  same  Omniscient  Being  that  showered 
down  this  blessing  on  our  heads,  has  similar  stores  in 
reserve,  of  which  we  of  course  can  form  no  kind  of  conjec- 
ture. One  thing  we  do  know,  that  the  science  of  agriculture 
is  as  yet  only  in  its  bud. 

Your  manner  of  speaking  of  Goldson  increases  his  arro- 
gance. He  obstinately  holds  the  veil  before  his  eyes,  and 
will  not  behold  the  vaccine  light.  I  am  al^out  to  make  a 
stronger  pull  at  this  veil  than  has  been  done  yet.  I  have 
sent  him  an  invitation  to  visit  me  at  Berkeley,  or  to  appoint 
a  deputation  from  the  Medical  Society  at  Portsmouth ;  I 
have  gone  further  (perhaps  too  far),  I  have  almost  pledged 
my  word  that  his  conversion  will  be  the  consequence  of  the 
interviev/.  The  fact  is,  he  is  totally  ignorant  of  that  wise 
discriminating  power,  without  which  no  man  can  be  a  perfect 
vaccinist :  and  it  is  my  wish  to  impart  it  to  him.  One 
might  as  well  contend  with  a  blind  man  on  the  nature  of  the 
prism,  as  with  a  person  in  this  situation,  and  entertain  a 
hope  of  being  successful;  but  to  proceed. — In  another  edi- 
tion, pray  take  in  Kite's  cases  of  small-pox  after  small-pox 
inoculation.  They  are  the  more  forcible  as  they  were  published 
antecedent  to  the  vaccine  practice.  Page  38.  Are  you  sure 
the  pustule  was  variolated?  Page  41.  I  do  not  see  the  ne- 
cessity for  your  parenthesis.  Perhaps  my  feehngs  are  too 
acute,  but  I  do  not  like  to  see  my  darling  child  whipped  even 
with  a  feather.     In  your  postscript,  why  not  ask  for  cases  of 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  349 

small-pox  after  small-pox  inoculation,  as  well  as    cases    of 
small-pox  after  vaccination  ? 

Have  you  seen  Moseley's  infamous  pamphlet  ?     You  ask 
for  fatal  cases  of  the  vaccine.    This  gentleman,  in  one  single 
paragraph,  furnishes   you  with    some   of   the    most   terrible 
deaths  that  ever  were  heard  of  from  this  cause.     One  would 
suppose  he  was  speaking  of  the  small-pox,  as  he  tells  us  the 
children  did  not  lose  their  torments  even  in  the  article  of 
death  !     Luckily,  he  takes  aAvay  every  thing  like  truth  that 
can  attach  to  this  history  by  omitting  every  kind  of  reference. 
What    punishment  does  a  man   of  this  description  merit  ? 
Accept  my  best  thanks  for  your  letters.     I  am  happy  in  seeing 
the  unanimity  that  prevailed  at  the  festive  board.     I  have 
read  King's  observations  in   the  Journal,  but  in  the  most 
cursory  way  only :  the  book  was  then  taken  away  from  me, 
and   I   cannot  now  refer  to  it, — are  you  certain  you  clearly 
understand  him  ?     In  the  cicatrix  of  those  children  on  whose 
arms,  through   the  intervention  of  herpes,  the  pustule  has 
proceeded  irregularly,  I  find  in  general  a  singular  deviation, 
which  it  will  be  difficult  to  describe  by  words,  and  I  draw 
most  wretchedly.     Instead  of  the  flat,  correct    indentation, 
the    cicatrix  exhibits   a   perceptible  elevation  of    a    conical 
shape,  though  very  slightly  so.     I  have  a  fine  specimen,  in  a 
child  lately  inoculated,  with  recent  tinea   capitis,  and  shall 
endeavour  to  take  a  cast  in  wax  or  Paris  plaster.     Indeed  a 
series  of  pustules  might  be  done  in  this  way,  and  afterwards 
coloured.     Is   it  possible  any  one  can  be  so  absurd  as  to 
argue  on  the  impossibility  of  small-pox  after  the  vaccine  ?     I 
trust  my  friend  King  is  not  one  of  them.     I  hope  to  spend 
a  month  in  town  this  spring,  which  time  I  shall  devote  en- 
tirely to  the  service  of  Vaccina.     May,  I  believe,  will  be  my 
month.     I  shall  order  a  score  of  your  pamphlets  from  Mur- 
ray's.— You  make  me  smile  at  the  mention  of  "  Berkeley 
booksellers."     I  hope  one  day  or  another,  you  will  come  and 
see  our  village.     It  has  the  name  of  a  town,  but  in  size  it  is 
a  mere  village.     I  shall  send  your  duodecimo  to  my  friend 

350  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

Trye,  who,  I  am  sure,  will  peruse  it  with  pleasure.     Trye 
is  not  only  an  eminent  surgeon,  but  a  very  excellent  man. 
,  Yours,  dear  Sir, 

With  great  regard, 
Edw.  Jenxer. 

P.  S.  I  hope  you  will  soon  get  a  pamphlet  sent  from 
Bengal,  and  republished  here — *'  Report  on  the  progress  of 
Vaccine  Inoculation  in  Bengal,  by  John  Shoolbred."  Have 
you  seen  by  the  papers  what  an  ally  the  anti-vaccinists  have 
won  over  to  their  interest?  Dr.  Brodum  has  at  length 
joined  the  forces  of  the  enemy. 

To  THE  Rev.  John  Clinch,  Trinity,  Newfoundland. 

Berkeley,  August  IGth,  1S05. 
My  dear  Friend, 

G.  T.  has  just  informed  me  that  he  has  lately  received  a 
letter  from  you,  and  that  had  it  not  been  for  a  "fierce  ca- 
tarrh" that  harassed  you  for  two  months  in  spring,  every 
thing  would  have  gone  on  well  with  you.  If  this  malady 
should  dare  to  molest  you  next  year,  retreat,  seek  the  milder 
shores  of  Old  England,  and  leave  the  land  of  snows  and  ice 
to  the  bears,  for  whom  nature  made  it.  Full  four  months 
ago,  I  began  a  letter  to  you ;  but  intending  to  make  it  a  long 
one,  after  writing  two  pages  I  mislaid  it,  and  never  have  been 
again  able  to  recover  it. 

I  went  to  London  in  May,  and  stayed  till  August  the  3rd. 
I  am  now  packing  up,  (oh !  how  I  wish  I  had  you  at  my  elbow, 
you  are  such  an  excellent  hand  at  the  arrangement  of  a  box,) 
and  setting  off  with  my  family  tomorrow  for  Cheltenham,  to 
stay  three  or  four  months,  then  again  to  London.  Never 
aim,  my  friend,  at  being  a  pu1)lic  character,  if  you  love 
domestic  peace.  But  I  will  not  repine. — Nay  I  do  not  re- 
pine, but  cheerfully  submit,  as  I  look  upon  myself  as  the  in- 
strument in  the  hands  of  that  power  which  never  errs,  of 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  351 

doing  incalculable  good  to  my  fellow  creatures.  You  would 
do  me  an  essential  kindness  in  acquainting  me  with  the  state 
of  vaccination  in  your  island,  as  I  shall  appear  ^gain  before 
the  House  of  Commons  next  session,  and  I  am  collecting  all 
the  information  I  can  from  foreign  parts.  Write  to  me  not 
as  if  your  letter  was  to  be  shewn  to  the  House  of  Commons, 
and  detail  the  real  state  of  facts  relative  to  the  benefits 
derived  from  the  new  practice.  Remember  me  kindly  to 
Mrs.  Clinch,  and  my  old  friend  Edward,  who  I  ardently  hope 
is  becoming  useful  to  you ;  and  believe  me,  dear  Clinch,  ever 
truly,  and  sincerely  yours, 

Edw.  Jenner. 

P.  S.  George  will  write  to  you  more  fully. 

Many  thanks  for  your  kind  attention  in  sending  me  such 
beauteous  stores  of  fish  and  berries. 

Do  you  recollect  any  cases  of  persons  catching  the  small- 
pox after  the  small-pox,  either  after  casual  contagion,  or  in- 
oculation ?  I  have  collected  a  great  number  of  such  cases,  Imt 
want  more. 

R.  Dunning,  Esq. 

My  dear  Sir, 
It  is  a  long  time  since  you  have  written  to  me.  Why  did 
you  drop  your  correspondence  ?  You  positively  must  write, 
if  it  is  but  a  scrap  as  short  as  this,  just  to  answer  my  ques- 
tion ;  for  really  I  have  not  the  most  distant  guess  to  give  at 
your  long  silence.  If  I  calculate  right,  it  is  now  near  six 
months  since  I  received  a  letter  from  you. 

Believe  me,  yours  very  faithfully, 

E.  Jenner. 
Cheltenham,  February  21s/,  1806. 

P.  S.  I  hope  you  and  Mrs.  Dunning  and  your  family  have 
escaped  the  long  prevaiUng  epidemic.  It  has  fallen  heavily 
on  this  house,  and  particularly  on  myself.     Here  the  in- 

352  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

fluenza  assumes  a  character  that  I  may  call  typho-catarrhal. 
It  has  confined  me  for  near  three  weeks.  What  havoc  the 
anti-vaccinigts  have  made  in  town  by  the  re-introduction  of 
variolous  inoculation  !  It  is  computed  that,  since  April  last, 
not  less  than  6,000  persons  in  the  metropolis,  and  the  vil- 
lages immediately  in  contact,  have  fallen  victims  to  the  small- 
pox. One  would  scarcely  conceive  it  possible ;  but  these 
murders  are,  for  the  most  part,  to  be  attributed  to  the  ab- 
surd productions  of  Moseley,  Rowley,  and  that  pert  little 
Squirrel,  to  say  nothing  of  Goldson.  It  is  about  London 
that  the  venom  of  these  deadly  serpents  chiefly  flows.  So 
little  have  the  people  around  me  (though  only  100  miles 
from  it)  felt  it,  that,  since  August  last,  I  have  vaccinated 
within  a  few  of  1,500 ;  and  I  certainly  must  deem  it  a  piece 
of  extreme  good  fortune  that,  out  of  the  many  thousands  I 
have  vaccinated,  no  failure  or  accident  of  any  sort  has  arisen 
to  my  knowledge.  Did  you  see  a  paper  in  the  last  journal 
from  a  Dr.  Wood  ?  I  think  it  capable  of  doing  great  mischief, 
as  it  will  tend  to  make  practitioners  careless  about  a  point 
of  great  consequence,  namely,  an  herpetic  state  of  the  skin 
coincident  with  vaccination,  which  you,  as  well  as  myself, 
have  not  only  observed,  but  publicly  and  very  properly 
noticed.  My  communications  from  various  parts  of  the 
world  are  very  cheering — 800,000  cases  from  India.  Adieu  ! 
I  beg  to  present  my  best  regards  to  my  medical  friends  of 
the  Vaccine  Society,  among  whom  I  have  now  the  pleasure 
of  claiming  several  acquaintances. 

To  R.  Dunning,  Esq. 

My  dear  Sir, 
W^hat  a  j^ropensity  there  is  in  all  human  beings  to  follow 
examples.  You  now  behold  in  me  a  sad  illustration  of  the 
fact ;  for  I  feel  myself  possessed  of  the  same  spirit  of  procras- 
tination, with  respect  to  answering  letters,  which  has  lately 
seized  on  you. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JEN'NEU.  353 

But  I  am  tlie  more  reprehensible,  as  the  inclosed  paper 
ought  not  to  have  been  so  long  detained.  I  can  only  say, 
by  way  of  apology,  now,  that  I  meditated  some  other  mode 
of  conveyance,  and  that  it  goes  from  me  Avith  my  hearty 
good  wishes. 

The  above  was  written  befoi'e  your  letter  of  the  l/th  ar- 
rived,  which  has  at  length  found  me  at  my  cottage  at  old 

A  pretty  sharp  philippic,  my  good  friend  !  but  in  such 
veneration  do  I  hold  the  man  of  feeling,  that  if  it  had  been 
ten  times  as  sharp,  I  should  have  read  it ;  though  not  with- 
out emotion,  yet  certainly  without  a  murmur.  Allow  me 
just  to  make  one  observation.  Should  anything  like  the 
present  occurrence  ever  happen  again,  let  me  entreat  you 
not  to  indulge  for  a  moment  a  fanciful  speculation  against 
y  owe  friend.  As  such  I  hope  ever  to  be,  and  so  to  be  con- 
sidered by  you. 

I  was  happy  to  find  you  had  been  corresponding  with  Mr. 
J.  Moore.  He  is  an  excellent  man,  and  has  produced  an 
excellent  book.  I  presume  you  know  that  J.  Moore  is 
brother  to  the  general. 

The  impertinent  interference  of  herpes  with  our  vaccine 
pustule,  I  thought  of  so  much  consequence  to  be  generally 
known,  as  to  induce  me  to  reprint  my  paper  on  that  subject 
for  distribution.  With  this  you  will  receive  two  copies ; 
one  of  which,  I  must  beg  your  acceptance  of;  and  the  other 
you  will  have  the  kindness  to  present  to  the  Dock  Jennerian 
Society,  with  my  grateful  respects  to  the  members.  You 
will  do  much  public  good  by  enforcing  attention  to  the  pro- 
gress of  the  vaccine  pustule.  If  it  be  torn  to  pieces,  either 
by  the  nails  or  the  lancet,  before  the  business  for  which  it 
was  placed  upon  the  arm  be  accomplished,  it  is  unreasonable 
to  suppose  that  perfect  security  can  follow.  But  to  what 
purpose  shall  you  or  I  address  the  public  on  these  subjects, 
while  such  unprincipled  characters  as  Moseley,  and  those 
who  enlist  under  his  banner,  still  continue  to  instil,  or  rather 

VOL.  II.  2    A 

354  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

to  push  by  violence,  into  the  minds  of  the  British  nation 
their  horrid  doctrines  ?  Have  you  seen  Moseley's  last 
pamphlet,  the  one  just  published  ?  It  is  far  more  violent 
than  any  of  the  preceding.  In  this  he  has  brought  forward 
a  string  of  cases,  to  point  out  my  failures  in  vacci- 
nation— cases  of  small -pox  after  the  cow-pox.  But  mark 
his  audacity.  They  are  of  children  I  never  saw  in  my 
life,  and  whose  names  I  never  heard  of  till  they  were 
placed  before  me  in  this  murderous  publication.  Mr.  H. 
Jenner.  whose  name  he  brings  forward  with  a  list  of  failures 
annexed,  assures  me  that  the  whole  is  a  most  impudent 
forgery.  What  can  be  done  with  such  a  man  as  this  ?  A 
general  manifesto,  with  the  signatures  of  men  of  eminence 
in  the  profession  (and  I  really  think  we  should  now  embrace 
nearly,  if  not  quite,  the  whole),  in  favour  of  vaccination, 
would,  if  anything  could,  crush  the  hissing  heads  of  such 
serpents  at  once ;  and  I  fear  nothing  short  of  it,  unless  par- 
liament had  a  mind  again  to  take  the  matter  up. 

I  hope  to  be  in  London  the  first  week  in  May,  and  shall 
attempt  something ;  but,  in  the  mean  time,  pray  write  to 
me,  or  I  shall  suppose  my  little  packet  has  not  reached  you, 
or  that  your  tremulous  nerves  do  not  yet  vibrate  in  harmony 
with  mine. 

Long  may  you  live  to  enjoy  the  sight,  and  your  patients 
the  benefit  of  your  imperative  R  ! 

With  every  kind  wish  to  Mrs.  Duiming  and  your  family, 
I  remain,  yours  truly,  Edward  Jenner. 

Berkeley,  22nd  April,  1806. 

To  R.  Dunning,  Esq. 

My  dear  Friend, 
For  my  credit  sake,  I  hope  you  are  not  perfectly  accurate 
in  your  calculation  respecting  the  number  of  letters  you  have 
sent  me  without  receiving  answers.  Forgive  me  if  you  are 
right ;  but  really  I  believed  myself  sticking  at  the  old  num- 
ber— one. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  355 

Tlie  perplexities  I  had  to  encounter,  during  my  residence 
in  London,  last  spring  and  summer,  were  of  such  a  nature 
as  cannot  be  described  to  you.  My  chief  embarrassments 
arose  from  the  vile  machinations  of  that  fellow,  T.  W. 

Be  assured  I  feel  myself  honoured  by  the  request  you 
and  Mrs.  Dunning  make  to  me.  Were  I  at  joerfect  liberty,  I 
would  not  ask  for  a  proxy,  but  appear  myself  at  your  bap- 
tismal font,  to  take  on  myself  the  responsibility  for  young 
Edward's  becoming  a  good  Christian.  Give  him  a  kiss  for 
me ;  and,  at  the  same  time,  whisper  in  his  ear  that  he  has  his 
godfather's  best  wishes  for  a  prosperous  journey  through 

By  an  intimation  that  has  reached  me  from  town,  I  find  it 
is  the  wish  of  the  College  to  be  in  possession  of  the  reports 
of  the  faculty  on  the  subject  of  vaccination  as  soon  as  possi- 
ble. I  mention  this,  that  you  and  my  friends  about  you  may 
bestir  themselves.  I  anticipate  something  energetic.  Don't 
forget  to  attend  to  the  last  part  of  the  inquiry  of  the  College, 
namely,  the  cause  which  impedes  the  progress  of  vaccination 
in  these  realms. 

For  my  own  part,  I  do  not  scruple  to  attribute  it  chiefly 
to  the  industrious  dissemination  of  the  pamphlets  of  Moseley, 
Rowley,  and  the  rest  of  the  anti-vaccinists,  which  are  cal- 
culated to  excite  horror  and  disgust  at  the  very  name  of  our 
admirable  preservative. 

As  I  am  now  addressing  the  secretary  to  the  Dock 
Jennerian  Society,  perhaps  he  won't  be  offended  at  my 
asking  for  a  copy  of  the  Report  about  to  go  to  the  College. 
I  have  reason  to  suppose,  from  what  has  been  already  sent 
in,  there  is  but  one  opinion  there  ;  and  that  that  opinion  is 
exactly  what  I  could  wish.  I  am  sorry  to  put  you  to  the 
expense  of  double  postage,  by  sending  you  the  inclosed 
Gazette,  but  I  cannot  procure  a  frank  ;  and  to  withhold  it 
from  you  would  be  almost  criminal. 

What  a  delightful  narrative  is  here  !  what  lover  of  vacci- 
nation can  feel  himself   at  war  with  his  Catholic  Majesty 

2   A  2 

356  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

after  its  perusal !  I  must  tell  you  that,  from  several  coun- 
tries where  Balmis  and  his  philanthropic  companions  touched, 
I  have  had  most  satisfactory  accounts  of  the  result.  From 
Manilla  and  the  Philippine  Islands  they  send  me  an  account 
of  230,000  successful  cases.  From  Canton  I  have  a  most 
curious  production  ;  a  pamphlet  on  vaccination  in  the  Chinese 
language.  Little  did  I  think,  my  friend,  when  our  cor- 
respondence first  began,  that  Heaven  had  in  store  for  me 
such  abundant  happiness.     May  I  be  grateful ! 

Present  my  best  compliments  to  Mrs.  Dunning  and  the 
family,  and  believe  me,  with  best  wishes. 

Yours  truly, 

E.  Jenner. 

Cheltenham,  December  lOth,  1806. 

To  R.  Dunning,  Esq. 

15,  Bedford  Place,  Russell  Square, 

March  14,  1807. 
My  dear  Sir, 

I  have  not  yet  heard  whether  your  institution  at  Dock 
has  made  a  report  to  the  College  of  Physicians  ;  I  therefore 
begin  to  be  impatient  to  hear  from  you,  as  the  Committee 
will  sit  but  a  very  little  time  longer. 

Nothing  transpires  that  is  going  forward  within  the 
College;  however,  the  report  to  parliament  must  be  lumi- 
nous, and  give  fresh  triumphs  to  my  cause,  and  new  laurels 
to  those  who  like  you  have  so  ardently  and  so  successfully 
engaged  in  it.  I  shall  be  necessitated  to  stay  here  for 
several  months.  When  the  days  grow  longer,  and  travelling 
pleasanter,  perhaps  you  may  take  a  flight  to  town.  I  will 
not  despair  of  seeing  you.  You  will  be  pleased  to  hear  that 
the  dingy  Hindoo  ladies  are  convincing  me  of  their  grateful 
remembrance,  not  merely  by  words,  but  by  a  tangible  ofier- 
ing,  while  my  fair  Christian  countrywomen  pass  me  un- 
heeded by. 

If  you  should  hear  it  reported  that  Sir  George  Dallas's 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  357 

children,  who  were  years  ago  vaccinated,  have  had  the  small- 
pox after  variolation  by  Mr.  Goss,  put  no  faith  in  it.  I  have 
seen  Mr.  Goss's  letter  to  Sir  George,  which  sets  the  whole 
matter  at  rest.  It  has  made  no  small  buzz  here.  They  are 
cases  which  lead  to  corroborate  the  millions  that  precede 
them  of  the  efficacy  of  vaccination  in  securing  the  constitu- 
tion from  the  contagious  effluvia  of  small-pox.  But  no  pro- 
cess can  always  secure  it  from  the  effects  of  variolous  poison 
when  inserted  into  the  skin. 

Believe  me,  yours  truly, 

E.  Jenner. 

Richard  Dunning,  Esq. 

My  dear  Friend, 

I  have  a  thousand  things  to  say  to  you  on  the  vaccine 
subject,  and  all  very  pleasant  ;  but  if  I  stay  now  to  run  into 
detail,  the  post  will  set  off  without  my  letter.  However,  it 
shall  not  go  without  a  scrap  or  tM^o  respecting  the  Report  of 
the  College.  This,  I  have  every  reason  to  suppose,  contains 
everything  that  I  or  even  my  warm-hearted  friends  at  Ply- 
mouth could  wish  for.  Indeed,  from  what  I  have  collected 
from  some  of  my  learned  brethren,  it  far  exceeds  my  strong- 
est expectations  ;  for  who  could  have  conceived  that,  in  so 
large  a  body,  an  opinion  would  have  been  unanimously 
given  on  the  safety  and  efficacy  of  the  vaccine  practice  ? 
But  so  I  find  it  is.  Among  the  immense  mass  of  letters  re- 
ceived by  the  College,  several  cases  of  small-pox  after  cow- 
pox,  of  course,  were  given.  But,  on  casting  up  the  num- 
bers, lo  !  it  appears  that  the  cases  of  failure  were  not  so 
numerous  as  the  deaths  (according  to  computation)  would 
have  been,  had  the  patients  been  vaccinated  and  placed  in 
good  hands.  I  should  tell  you  that  several  of  the  Fellows 
began  the  investigation  with  no  favourable  impressions  on 
the  subject;  but,  as  I  have  before  mentioned,  unanimity 
prevailed  at  the  winding  up  of  the  business. 

I  have  just  received  a  note  from  the  president,  Sir  Lucas 

358  LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER. 

Pepys,  requesting  me  to  vaccinate  his  little  grandson.     Two 

years  ago  the  worthy  president  would  as  soon  have  had  the 

boy's  skin  touched  with  the  fang  of  a  viper  as  the  vaccine 

lancet.     But  this  inter  nos. 

I  have  some  charming  communications   to  make   to  you 

respecting  tangible  compliments  I  receive  from  Hindostan. 

This  must  be    reserved    until  my  next  letter.      Have  the 

goodness  kindly  to  remember  me  to  my  friends  at  Plymouth. 

They  certainly  honour  me  too  much,  but   I  shall  ever  hold 

them  in  grateful  remembrance,  and  no  man  on  earth  more 

than  yourself. 

Believe  me  ever  truly  and  sincerely  yours, 

E.  Jexner. 

London,  I6th  May,  1807,  Saturday  evening. 

R.  Dunning,  Esq. 

Berkeley,  May  7,  1808. 

There  is  not,  my  dear  friend,  within  the  circle  of  your 
acquaintance  an  individual  who  felt  more  poignantly  for  you 
and  Mrs.  Dunning,  on  account  of  your  domestic  affliction, 
than  he  whose  name  your  little  innocent  bore. 

Knowing  as  I  do  that  the  mind  suffering  under  that  kind 
of  distress  which  you  have  so  severely  experienced  can  derive 
no  comfort  from  condolence  offered  by  any  human  being  but 
by  meditation,  and  that  kind  of  intercourse  with  the  Almighty, 
which  is  granted  to  all  when  sorrows  overwhelm  us,  I  had 
not  the  power  to  write  to  you.  Do  not,  therefore,  I  pray 
you,  attribute  my  silence  to  a  want  of  feeling,  but  to  its 
true  cause,  an  excess  of  it.  You  had,  and  you  still  have,  my 
sincere  commiseration. 

I  was  in  town  some  few  weeks  ago,  and  had  a  conference 
with  one  of  the  ministers  on  the  subject  of  vaccination,  when 
I  was  assured  that  it  was  the  intention  of  government  to 
take  it  under  its  immediate  consideration  as  soon  as  the 
more  weighty  concerns  of  the  nation  had  gone  through  the 
House  of  Commons. 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER.  359 

On  this  account  I  shall  go  again  to  town  very  shortly  to 
assist  in  the  arrangements,  but  of  what  kind  they  will  be,  I 
cannot  at  present  inform  you,  but  trust  they  will  be  of  such 
a  nature  as  to  facilitate  the  progress  of  the  practice.  In  my 
opinion  a  proclamation  from  the  King,  founded  on  the  Report 
of  the  College  of  Physicians,  universally  dispensed,  and 
recommended  to  the  attention  of  the  magistrates,  the  clergy, 
&c.  would  produce  a  striking  effect.  This  would  be  greatly 
aided  by  allowing  some  pecuniary  acknowledgment  to  those 
who  vaccinated  the  poor.  I  have  just  received  the  annual 
report  from  Dr.  M<^Kenzie,  superintendent-general  of  vac- 
cination at  Madras.  Wonderful  to  relate,  the  numbers 
vaccinated  at  that  presidency  only  in  the  course  of  the  last 
year,  amount  to  243,175.  From  Bombay  I  learn  the  small- 
pox is  there  completely  subdued,  not  a  single  case  having 
occurred  for  the  last  two  years.  All  my  foreign  reports  cor- 
respond with  these ;  but  still  Moseley,  Birch,  Pearson,  and 
a  few  others,  are  using  every  mean  and  despicable  artifice  to 
keep  up  the  prejudices  of  the  people  at  home. 

With  every  good  wish,  beheve  me,  my  dear  friend,  most 
sincerely  yours, 

E.  Jenner. 

To  Thomas  Paythebus,  Esq. 

Berkeley,  May  12,  1808. 
Dear  Paytherus, 

I  hope  the  people  won't  grumble  at  my  conduct ;  but  if 
they  have  anything  to  say  against  it,  that  they  will  speak 
out,  then  I  shall  know  how  to  defend  myself.  I  was  called 
up  in  a  mighty  hurry  in  the  winter,  and  when  I  came,  no 
one  seemed  to  know  why  or  wherefore  they  had  put  me  to 
this  extreme  inconveniency. 

It  was  then  agreed  upon  that  there  should  be  as  full  an 
assembly  on  the  l7th  as  could  be  collected.  I  canvassed 
my  friends,  and  indeed  went  so  far  as  to  prevail  on  some  to 

3G0  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

accept  tlie  office  of  steward,  but,  lo  !  the  three  days  appointed 
after  my  departure  for  the  meeting  of  a  board,  when  this 
matter  was  to  be  adjusted,  were  attended  only  by  the  secre- 
tary and  his  inkstands.  Once  or  twice  I  believe  there  was 
the  solitary  exception  of  my  friend  John  Ring.  This  was  no 
wound  to  my  feelings,  considering  myself  abstractedly ;  but 
yet  I  think  the  measure  injudicious,  as  it  will  give  the  ene- 
mies of  vaccination  a  temporary  triumpli.  I  now  hold  my- 
self at  the  beck  of  Mr.  Rose.  This  he  knows,  by  a  letter  1 
have  lately  written  to  him.  From  the  business  which,  I 
perceive,  by  the  paper  of  this  evening,  parliament  have  imme- 
diately before  them,  I  don't  think  the  vaccine  business  can 
yet  be  brought  forward.  With  regard  to  my  agency  in  the 
matter,  I  don't  think  it  is  worth  a  rush.  Vaccination  will  go 
on  just  as  well  when  I  am  dead  as  it  does  during  my  exist- 
ence, probably  better,  for  one  obstacle  will  die  with  me —  Envy. 

You  tell  me  I  am  accused  of  inactivity  and  indiflerence  now, 
when  I  have  received  the  parliamentary  grant.  Such  lan- 
guage is  unwarrantable,  because  it  is  unjust.  I  despise  such 
scoffing ;  it  is  condemnation  without  a  trial,  and  I  shall  hold 
all  who  thus  reproach  me  in  the  most  perfect  contempt.  If 
I  could  o])tain  a  little  peace  and  quietness,  my  pockets  should 
readily  restore  every  shilling  they  have  gained  by  the  cow- 
pox  discovery.  That  such  a  thing  has  been  discovered,  I, 
in  common  with  the  rest  of  mankind,  have  reason  to  rejoice  ; 
but  this  I  also  declare,  that  I  wish  it  had  been  the  lot  of 
some  other  person  to  have  been  the  discoverer;  and  in  this 
wish  I  am  sure  my  family  have  reason  to  join  me  very 
heartily  ;  for  they,  as  well  as  myself,  are  strangers,  through  it, 
to  those  domestic  comforts  which  we  should  otherwise  enjoy. 
So  far  from  being  inactive  and  indifferent,  as  accusers  in- 
sinuate, that  portion  of  my  time  which  is  not  occupied  by 
my  ordinary  professional  pursuits,  is  entirely  devoted  to  it. 

To  say  nothing  of  other  matters  connected  Avith  vaccina- 
tion, think  for  a  moment  what  incessant  labours  my  corres- 
pondence imposes  upon  me,  labours  which  admit  of  no  alle- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  361 

viation,  as  it  must  be  done  by  my  own  hand  only.     Believe 
me,  yours  truly, 

E.  Jenner. 
P.  S.     During  my  last  visit  to  town,  I  called  twice  on  Dr. 
Saunders;  be  was  not  at  home ;  and  once   I  wrote  to  the 
doctor  on  an  interesting  subject,  but  received  not  a  line  in 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

My  dear  Friend, 

I  cannot  possibly  get  the  paper  ready  by  to-morrow's  post. 
Saturday  is  no  post-day  here ;  Sunday  it  shall  be  sent,  if 
circumstances  will  in  the  meanwhile  admit  of  my  bestowing 
that  time  upon  it  which  is  absolutely  necessary.  I  recom- 
mend extreme  deliberation  and  circumspection  in  complet- 
ing this  important  document.  As  for  yourself,  my  dear 
friend,  it  cannot  be  expected  that  you  can  at  present  coolly 
exercise  your  correct  judgment  on  any  thing  of  the  kind*. 

The  instructions  sent  out  by  the  Royal  Jennerian  Society 
were  framed  by  Addington,  Ring,  and  myself,  after  some 
weeks'  labour.  Their  basis  was  my  original  paper.  It  will 
be  no  disparagement  to  the  Government  Institution  to  avail 
itself  of  any  thing  useful  that  can  be  found  in  the  wreck  of 
the  Jennerian  Society ;  and  I  am  inclined  to  think  our  paper 
a  clearer  and  better  thing  than  the  manuscript  you  have  sent 
me.     I  shall  return  it,  with  some  alterations. 

Though  not  as  a  matter  of  duty  at  present,  yet  be  as- 
sured I  shall  be  always  ready,  as  an  act  of  courtesy,  to  do 
any  thing  in  my  power  to  promote  the  ends  for  which  the 
Government  Institution  was  established. 

Believe  me,  most  truly  yours, 

Edward  Jenner. 

Berkeley,  Feb.  9th,  1809. 

*  This  was  written  soon  after  the  fall  of  Mr.  Moore's  bro- 
ther, the  gallant  and  ever  to  be  lamented  general,  in  the  battle 
of  Corunna. 

362  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

Dear  Moore, 
Depend  upon  it  there  are  many  such  cases  as  those  which 
have  occurred  in  Mr.  Wingfield's  family  in  reserve  for  us. 
Vaccination  at  its  commencement  fell  into  the  hands  of  many 
who  knew  little  more  about  it  than  its  mere  outline.  One 
grand  error,  which  was  almost  universal  at  that  time,  was 
making  one  puncture  only,  and  consequently  one  vesicle ; 
and  from  this  (the  only  source  of  security  to  the  constitution) 
as  much  fluid  was  taken  day  after  day  as  it  would  aftbrd  : 
nevertheless,  it  was  unreasonably  expected  that  no  mischief 
could  ensue.  I  have  taken  a  world  of  pains  to  correct  this 
abuse ;  but  still,  to  my  knowledge,  it  is  going  on,  and  par- 
ticularly among  the  faculty  in  town.  Mr.  Knight's  cases 
were  first  made  known  to  me  by  Lady  Charlotte  Wrottesley. 
This  lady  was  one  of  my  early  pupils,  and  is  an  adept  at 
vaccination,  as  thousands  of  her  poor  neighbours  in  Staf- 
fordshire can  testify.  She  saw  at  once  the  true  state  of  the 
children  in  question.  I  do  not  presume  to  say,  that  these 
children  are  examples  of  any  improper  practice ;  they  might 
have  been  affected  with  herpetic  eruptions  at  the  time  of  vac- 
cination, which  are  so  apt,  without  due  attention,  to  occa- 
sion a  deviation  from  the  perfect  character  of  the  vaccine 
vesicle.  I  think  it  must  be  the  paper  on  this  subject  you 
allude  to  as  wishing  to  see.  I  have,  therefore,  sent  it  to  you; 
and  a  copy  of  that  paper  you  saw  in  manuscript,  on  secon- 
dary variolous  contagion.  If  you  should  want  any  more  of 
the  latter,  you  may  draw  upon  Gosnell  the  printer  for  them. 
By  the  way,  it  might  be  right  to  send  one  to  the  National 
Vaccine  Establishment ;  determine  this  point  yourself.  Wil- 
lan,  in  his  Treatise  on  Vaccination,  has  spoken  much  to  the 
purpose  respecting  small-pox  after  cox-pox;  you  cannot 
quote  a  better  author.  His  word  will  go  further  than 
mine,  as  he  must  be  supposed  to  be  less  interested.  I  do 
not  think  enough  has  yet  been  said  of  the  small-pox  after 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER  363 

supposed  security  from  small-pox  inoculation.  Blair  told 
me,  when  I  left  town,  he  was  collecting  these  cases  with  a 
view  to  publication.  Thousands  might  be  collected ;  for 
every  parish  in  the  kingdom  can  give  its  case.  I  fear  your 
materials  for  the  year  are  more  scanty  than  could  be  wished 
for  your  Report ;  but  they  are  in  good  hands  to  make  the 
most  of.  Addington  will  not  be  an  improper  addition  to 
your  establishment.  He  has  talents ;  and  will  be  always 
ready  to  assist  you  with  his  pen  and  ink  when  you  are 

I  am  sorry  to  tell  you  our  affliction  still  continues  here. 
Poor  dear  Edward  still  exists,  but  I  shall  soon  be  doomed 
to  hear  his  last  sad  adieu  ! 

Farewell,  my  dear  friend. 

Yours  most  faithfully, 
Edward  Jenner. 

In  Willan's  book  you  will  find  a  letter  of  mine,  part  of 
which  may  be  interesting. 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

Dear  Moore, 
You  are  a  good  hand  at  a  banter.  The  last  five  letters 
I  have  sent  you,  I  do  not  think  you  have  read ;  I  have  a 
right  to  suppose  so,  because  you  have  not  answered  one  of 
them.  Perhaps  I  may  have  received  an  equal  number  since, 
but  scarcely  any  thing  I  have  said  is  noticed.  All  my  great 
and  grand  arguments  are  thrown  away  upon  you ;  but  you 
tell  of  things  that  I  have  not  said,  "  come  to  town  if  you 
advise  it."  You  cannot  find  this  in  any  letter  I  have  writ- 
ten, since  necessity  compelled  me  to  put  oflf  my  autumnal 
journey.  Let  me  tell  you  this  said  coming  town  is  a  very 
serious  matter.  I  have  a  large  family  to  look  after ;  and  an 
invalid  wife,  that  is  not  a  moveable  commodity,  and  requires 
my  attention.  I  have  a  vast  variety  of  weighty  concerns  to 
look  to  at  home.  What  home  is,  and  what  those  concerns 
are,  you  can  have  no  conception  of.     You  consider  me  as  a 

364  LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER. 

poor  soldier  on  a  furlough,  and  who  must  join  his  regiment 
at  the  beck  of  his  officer.  What  does  vaccination  require  of 
me  now  ?  If  a  new  continent  was  vomited  up  in  the  midst 
of  the  great  Pacific,  and  if  it  were  peopled  but  with  mer- 
maids, I  would  then  lend  a  hand  for  an  arrangement  to  save 
them  from  the  small-pox.  If  I  am  wanted,  tell  me  what  I 
am  wanted  for,  and  when. 

I  explained  in  conversation,  as  I  said  before,  all  that 
passed  respecting  my  first  paper  on  the  cox-pox  intended  for 
the  Royal  Society.  It  was  not  with  Sir  Joseph,  but  with 
Home ;  he  took  the  paper.  It  was  shewn  to  the  Council, 
and  returned  to  me.  This,  I  think,  was  in  the  year  1797? 
after  the  vaccination  of  one  patient  only ;  but  even  this  was 
strong  evidence,  as  it  followed  that  of  the  numbers  I  had  put 
to  the  test  of  the  small-pox  after  casual  vaccination.  I 
should  have  sent  you  a  copy  of  the  petition  to  parliament 
before  now,  if  I  could  have  found  it.  If  it  was  ever  printed, 
it  has  escaped  my  recollection.  I  took  care  not  to  print  it 
myself,  as  I  was  ashamed  of  it. 

The  newspapers  announce  a  circular  address  on  vaccina- 
tion from  the  Secretary  of  State.  If  it  goes  to  the  magi- 
strates, I  shall  have  one  of  course ;  if  not,  pray  send  me  one. 
Another  is  also  spoken  of  as  coming  from  the  President. 
Did  you  see  what  the  French  minister  says  on  the  subject  in 
his  annual  expose  ? 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

My  dear  Friend,  Berkeley,  Feb.  26th,  1810. 

I  do  not  yet  feel  myself  in  that  state  of  composure  which 
will  allow  me  to  sit  down,  begin,  and  finish  a  letter  to  you  ; 
so  I  have  thought  it  best  to  take  a  long  sheet  of  paper,  and 
fill  it  by  little  and  little.  By  this  stratagem  you  will  hear 
from  me  in  a  reasonable  space  of  time,  and  I  shall  not  have 
to  reproach  myself  for  neglect. 

I  am  much  gratified  at  the  thought  of  your  having  had  an 
interview  with  my  friend  Hicks.  He  happened  to  be  with  me 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  365 

when  your  letter  arrived ;  and  I  can  assure  you,  that  you 
are  not  more  pleased  with  him  than  he  is  with  you.  Where 
there  is  a  congeniality,  there  is  often  a  friendship  formed  at 
first  sight ;  and  men  unhosom  themselves  as  freely  as  if 
their  intimacy  had  been  of  long  standing. 

I  have  made  a  great  blunder,  it  seems,  in  my  reply  to  your 
inquiry  respecting  my  opinion  of  what  you  call  papulary* 
eruptions  after  cow-pox.  I  really  thought  you  alluded  to 
that  appearance  which  I  mentioned  ;  but  finding  myself  set 
right,  I  have  no  hesitation  in  saying,  that  what  Willan  has 
said  on  this  subject  is  correctf.  My  friend  Dr.  Parry,  of 
Bath,  has  made  some  interesting  observations  on  these  mo- 
difications or  varieties  of  variola  ;  and  I  am  sure  he  would 
readily  furnish  you  with  them  on  an  application  for  that  pur- 
pose. Creaser,  of  Bath,  could  also  give  you  some  good  facts, 
with    observations    on    the    same    subject.       By    the    way, 

have  you  his  pamphlet  respecting  P 's  bad  conduct? 

You  should  have  it.  I  have  myself  seen  but  one  solitary 
case  of  this  secondary  small-pox,  and  that  was  in  a  child  of 
Mr.  Gosling's,  vaccinated  by  a  Mr.  Armstrong,  This  went 
through  its  course  in  the  usual  rapid  Way. 

You  spoke  of  a  print  for  your  intended  work.  There  are 
several  about  the  town.  The  best,  I  think,  is  from  a  paint- 
ing of  Northcote's,  done  some  years  since  for  the  Medical 
Society  at  Plymouth.  I  believe  this  is  rather  scarce;  but 
you  are  acquainted  with  Northcote,  and  I  dare  say  he  has 
one  in  his  possession.  When  I  was  last  in  town,  my  friends 
urged  me  to  sit  to  Lawrence  Xy  and  I  complied.  If  you 
approved  of  it,  and  he  had  no  objection,  that  might  suit  you. 

*  Or  was  it  secondary  that  you  called  them  ?  I  cannot  at 
this  moment  refer  to  your  letter. 

t  The  College,  in  their  Report,  have  expressed  themselves 
very  well  on  this  subject. 

t  From  this  portrait  the  print  which  adoros  this  work  has 
been  taken. 

366  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

He  talked  of  getting  a  print  from  the  painting  for  himself. 
It  will  never  do  for  me  to  go  to  the  pencil  now ;  for  if  my 
countenance  represents  my  mind,  it  must  be  beyond  any 
thing  dismal. 

I  cannot  refer  to  your  pamphlet,  as  it  is  among  my  books 
at  Cheltenham.  If  you  have  one  to  spare,  pray  send  it  to 
Harwood's,  the  bookseller,  in  Russel  Street,  who  will  soon 
send  me  some  books  from  town. 

Do  you  not  intend  mentioning  cases  of  small-pox  after 
supposed  security  from  small-pox  inoculation  ?      Such  cases 
are  innumerable.     I  think  there  are  thirteen  on  record  amonar 
the  families  of  the  nobility.     Blair,  I  believe,  has  collected 
the  greatest  number  of  them.     You  know  my  old  opinion 
on  the  matter ;  that  they  occur,  for  the  most  part,  through 
the  interference  of  herpetic  affections  at  the  time  of  inocula- 
tion.    One  decisive  proof  you  will  find  in  Willan's  vaccine 
book,  given  by  me.     From  facts  I  go   to  hypothesis ;  and 
conceive  that  the  appearance  of  the  small-pox  twice  on  the 
same  individual  arises  from  the  same  cause.     On  this  sub- 
ject I  could  write  a  long  chapter ;  but  as  it   would  necessa- 
rily be  theoretical,  you  would  not  thank  me  for  it.  I  must  just 
touch  upon  it.     We  see  that  variolous  matter  may  be  gene- 
rated by  inoculation  on  the  arms  of  one  person  in  that  degree 
of  perfection,  as  to  communicate  the  small-pox  by  transferring 
it  to  those  of  another ;  yet  the  person,  whose  constitution 
shall  in  the  first  instance  have  been  exposed  to  it,  shall  re- 
main unprotected  from  future  infection,  although  the  system 
has  been  deranged  during  its  presence  on  the  skin.     Where, 
then,  is  the  difference,  whether  the  morbid  poison  was  con- 
fined, or  limited  to   a  point  or  two,   or  spread  universally  in 
the  form  of  pustules  ?     If  the  change  required  to  give  secu- 
rity could  not  take  place  in  this  one  instance,  why  should  it 
in  another,  under  the    same  existing  circumstances  ?     The 
peculiarity  of  the  action  [I  do  not  like  to  call  it  morbid,  be- 
cause it  is  generally  salutary],  is  often  too  strong  to  be  over- 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER.  367 

come,  yet  I  am  ready  to  conclude  that  this  is  not  a  frequent 

The  more  I  reason  upon  it,  the  more  I  am  convinced  that 
the  idea  I  broached  in  my  first  pubHcation  on  the  cow-pox, 
namely,  that  poisonous  animal  fluids  are  not  absorbed  and 
carried  into  the  blood  vessels,  is  correct. 

I  shall  not  send  you  any  more  Reports,  till  you  tell  me 
whether  those  already  sent  are  of  any  use  to  you.  Have 
you  seen  that  lately  published  at  Nottingham  ?  It  is  the 
more  valuable,  because  the  Vaccine  Institution  there  ac- 
knowledged a  single  failure,  and  this  a  positive  one,  among 
their  vast  number  of  cases.  The  Report  from  Ceylon  I 
have  before  spoken  of,  but  do  not  know  whether  you  have 
seen  it.  You  may  get  a  copy  at  the  Transport  Office  *.  Per- 
haps, too,  of  your  neighbour,  Sir  Walter,  as  it  comes  from 
his  friend  Christie.  It  should  be  made  public.  Mons.  Cor- 
visart,  the  favourite  Physician  of  the  French  Emperor,  has 
been  good  enough  to  present  a  petition  from  me  in  favour 
of  two  British  captives,  to  which  the  monarch  lent  a  gra- 
cious ear.  In  return,  M.  Corvisart  requests  me  to  use  my 
endeavours  to  obtain  the  release  of  a  young  sea  officer  of  the 
name  of  Rigodit  (ensigne  de  vaisseau).  He  mentions  him 
as  residing  at  Wincanton  in  Somersetshire  ;  but  on  inquir- 
ing of  the  Commissary  there,  I  find  there  is  no  such  person 
among  the  French  prisoners  at  that  place.  Can  you  assist 
me  in  this  business  ?  It  would  be  in  vain  to  make  an  appli- 
cation to  government  without  first  finding  him  out;  and 
when  this  is  effected,  I  am  somewhat  at  a  loss  to  know 
where  to  make  my  application.  I  could  have  easy  access  to 
one  of  the  roval  dukes,  if  this  would  do. 

John  Gale  Jones,  I  see,  has  at  length  succeeded  in  obtain- 
ing the  situation  for  which  he  has  long  been  a  candidate. 
This  fellow  had  once  the  impudence  to  desire  a  man  to  call 

*  T  obtained  it  from  thence  under  a  promise  of  returning  it. 

368  LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER. 

on  me  in  Bedford  Place  to  say,  that  he,  Jones,  would  ad- 
vise me  immediately  to  quit  London,  for  there  was  no  know- 
ing what  an  enraged  populace  might  do.  He  was  the  writer 
of  Squirrel's  book,  the  long  anti-vaccine  columns  in  the  In- 
dependent Whig,  and  many  of  the  most  violent  papers  in 
the  Medical  Observer.  I  was  held  up  in  his  Forum  for  seve- 
ral nights  as  an  object  of  derision ;  but  I  silenced  him  by 
the  same  weapon  as  I  have  many  others — contempt. 

I  send  out  a  great  deal  of  vaccine  lymph  on  ivory  points  ; 
but  mv  stock  is  exhausted,  and  I  am  now  reduced  to  bits  of 
quills.  Can  you  procure  a  supp'y  for  me ;  and  a  few  papers 
of  your  instructions  ?  Remember  all  parcels  must  come  by 
the  Gloucester  mail  coach.  The  combmakers  who  pre- 
pare the  ivory  points  are  apt  to  make  them  too  small  and 
narrow  towards  the  extremities,  unless  instructed  otherwise. 

That  Proteus  Adams  seems  a2;ain  to  have  become  a  vac- 
cinist.  The  last  number  of  the  Medical  and  Physical  Jour- 
nal speaks  aloud  in  its  praises.  The  Report  from  Madeira 
is  excellent,  and  I  would  wish  you  to  refer  to  it. 

I  think  you  must  now  be  tired  of  my  long  dull  letter,  so 
God  bless  you  !  I  feel  as  if  I  never  should  be  in  spirits  again. 
I  cannot  help  but  look  back,  and  say  to  myself,  if  I  had 
done  so  and  so,  I  should  not  now  have  been  enveloped  in 
this  dismal  black  cloud ;  but  all  this  is  very  wrong ;  how- 
ever, it  is  right  that  you  should  know  every  thing  about  me. 
Know,  then,  that  I  have  been  through  life,  almost  from  the 
earliest  period  of  my  recollection,  haunted  by  melancholy ; 
but  yet,  at  times,  my  spirits  have  mounted  to  the  highest  pitch 
of  vivacity.  Whether  they  will  ever  rise  again  I  know  not. 
Adieu,  my  dear  friend. 

Our  best  wishes  attend  you  all, 

Berkeley,  Feb.  2Stk,  1810.  Edward  Jenner. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  369 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

Berkeley,  2\st  April,  1810. 
My  dear  Friend, 

I  must  get  to  my  old  plan  of  the  long  sheet  and  filling  it 
up  leisurely,  or  I  know  not  when  you  may  hear  from  me. 

I  must  now  thank  you  for  your  kindness  in  endeavouring 
to  search  out  Monsieur  Rigodit.  There  is  something  myste- 
rious in  this  affair,  as  his  friends  in  France  still  suppose  him 
to  be  in  England. 

You  must  not  rally  me  too  hard  about  my  theories  unless 
you  find  them  as  wild  and  absurd  as  those  of  the  persons 
you  name.  What  I  mentioned  to  you  surely  rested  on 
something.  They  did  not  stand  on  a  baseless  foundation,  but 
I  placed  them  on  analogy.  If  there  were  no  theorists  in  the 
world,  how  slow  would  be  the  advance  of  science.  Syden- 
ham and  Boerhaave  were  so  impressed  with  their  theories 
that  they  gave  them  to  the  world  as  facts.  Not  so  your 
friend  at  Berkeley.  I  don't  think  you  will  ever  catch  me 
promulgating  any  theoretic  notion  which  can  positively  be 
set  aside  by  a  fact.  Such  is  the  nature  of  the  animal 
economy,  that  there  are  a  thousand  processes  going  forward 
which  never  can  be  stared  full  in  the  face ;  but  there  is  no 
harm  in  a  plausible  guess. 

What  is  your  Establishment  about?  I  fear  little  or 
nothing ;  but  you  will  soon  hear  that  a  spirit  of  activity  has 
shown  itself  in  this  county,  which  will  do  more  to  serve  the 
cause  of  vaccination  than  any  thing  which  has  yet  started  up. 
Its  advantages  will  be  so  self-evident,  that  it  will  soon  run 
the  kingdom  over.  You  shall  know  the  full  particulars  as 
soon  as  they  come  out.  The  great  feature  of  the  scheme  is 
this,  to  place  every  man  in  a  questionable  point  of  view 
who  presumes  to  inoculate  for  the  small-pox,  with  such  a 
mass  of  evidence  as  wiU  be  held  up  to  him  in  favour  of 
vaccination.  A  general  association  will  be  formed  of  all  the 
medical  men  in  the  county  favourable  to  the  plan ;  and  I 
really  think,  to  avoid  the  ignominy  of  resistance,  nearly  the 

VOL.   II.  2  B 

370  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

whole  will  come  in.  Some  of  the  variolo-vacclnists  have 
already  abjured  their  old  bad  habits,  and  joined  the  standard 
before  it  was  half  hoisted. 

I  see  my  friend  Hicks  often ;  we  don't  forget  you  in  our 
conversation.  I  don't  wonder  at  your  coming  to  a  stand 
still  in  your  opus  magnum.*  I  hope  it  will  be  an  opus  honum  ; 
but  I  think  you  have  undertaken  a  tight  job.  The  world  is 
wide,  and  you  have  got  to  traverse  over  it.     Bon  voyage. 

You  don^t  like  my  style  when  I  write  for  the  public  eye, 
nor  do  I ;  but  I  cannot  mend  it,  for  I  write  then  under  the 
impression  of  fear ;  and  it  must  be  remembered,  that  when  I 
write  in  London  my  brain  seems  full  of  the  smoke.  My 
great  aim  is  to  be  perspicuous,  and  T  got  credit  for  succeed- 
ing in  the  papers  first  sent  out ;  but  some  of  the  others  might 
be  more  obscure  through  my  taking  greater  pains  with  them  : 
an  error  I  shall  be  happy  to  avoid  in  future ;  for  you  know  I 
am  not  fond  of  much  work. 

Truly  yours,  with  best  wishes  to  Mrs.  Moore,  and  your 

Edw^ard  Jenner. 

P.  S.  How  is  your  laughter-loving  girl ;  and  that  fine  boy 
with  the  philosophic  head  ? 
24th  April. 

I  can  bring  clouds  of  evidence  to  support  what  I  have 
advanced  respecting  the  effect  of  cuticular  diseases  on  the 
vaccine  vesicle.  This  is  certainly  a  subject  of  some  moment ; 
and  before  you  go  into  any  thing  decisive  upon  it,  I  M^ould 
have  you  enquire  largely  into  it.  There  is  a  letter  of  mine 
upon  it  in  Willan's  book,  written  subsequently  to  the  paper 
which  I  have  circulated.  Captain  Gooch,  in  Brunswick- 
square,  Foundling  Hospital,  bore  testimony  to  occurrences 
at  Cheltenham  on  a  very  large  scale. 

*  This,  and  some  of  the  following  letters,  allude  to  Mr. 
Moore's  histories  of  Small  Pox  and  of  Vaccination,  then  in 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  371 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

Berkeley,  20th  May,  1810. 
Dear  Moore, 
The  Persian  ambassador,  I  find,  is  about  to  take  his  depar- 
ture from  this  country.  It  has  often  struck  me,  though  I  forgot 
to  mention  it  in  any  of  my  former  letters  to  you,  that  he 
should  carry  home  with  him  some  kno\vledge  of  the  bene- 
ficial effects  of  vaccination,  especially  as  Persia  has  hitherto 
turned  its  back  upon  it.  So  it  appears  from  a  paper  pub- 
lished in  one  of  the  East  India  pamphlets.*  Your  seeing  Sir 
Gore  Ousley  would  settle  the  whole  business. 

I  write  to  you  on  the  back  of  our  resolutions,  that  you  may 
know  what  we  are  about  in  this  county ;  and  remember,  this 
makes  two  letters  for  one — rather  an  unusual  occurrence  with 

Yours  truly, 

E.  Jenner. 
I  hope  soon  to  muster  up  resolution,  and  go  to  town  for  a 
few  days.     What  have  you  done  with  Sir  L ? 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

Berkeley,  Nov.  23,  1810. 
Mv  dear  Friend, 
It  strikes  me  that  the  most  effectual  way  of  lessening,  if 
not  subduing,  the  opposition  to  vaccination,  would  be  to 
obtain  a  mass  of  evidence  on  the  subject  from  a  district  of 
some  extent  in  the  county  of  Gloucester.  Berkeley  might 
with  propriety  be  made  the  centre,  as  most  of  the  faculty  in 
the  surrounding  parishes  received  their  instructions  from 
me,  and  as  the  practice  is  of  longer  standing  in  these  districts 
than  in  most  parts  of  Britain. 

*  Communicated  in  a  letter  from  Dr.  Milne  to  Dr.  Ander- 
son at  Madras,  dated  Bushire,  March  13,  1805.  If  you  have 
a  friend  at  the  India  House,  you  may  get  the  vaccine  pamphlet 
there,  published  in  India. 

2  B  2 

372  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

The  result  of  such  an  inquiry  \vould  be  most  favourable. 
I  will  venture  to  say,  from  reports  already  made  to  me,  it 
would  appear  that  the  decrease  in  the  deaths  by  smaU-pox 
has  been  in  proportion  to  the  general  or  universal  adoption 
of  the  vaccine  practice.  But  how  shall  this  be  brought 
about?  I  could  certainly  accomplish  it  myself;  but  yet  I 
think  it  would  have  a  more  fair  and  candid  look,  and  form  a 
stronger  feature  in  the  next  Report  of  the  National  Vaccine 
Establishment,  if  it  were  done  by  the  Board.  Having  ob- 
tained a  list  of  the  medical  men,  such  questions  might  be 
addressed  to  them  as  would  bring  out  the  evidence  required ; 
such,  for  example,  as  the  following : — 

1st.  When  did  you  begin  to  practise  vaccine  inocula- 
tion ? 

2nd.  What  number  of  persons  have  you  vaccinated  ? 

3rd.  What  is  your  opinion,  from  the  result  of  your  own 
practice,  of  the  preservative  effects  of  vaccination  against  the 
infection  of  the  small-pox  ? 

4th.  Have  you  found  the  vaccine  disease  to  be  injurious 
to  the  constitution  ? 

.5th.  What  is  the  longest  interval  between  the  vaccination 
of  any  of  your  patients  and  their  exposure  to  the  contagion 
of  the  small-  pox  without  feeling  its  effect  ? 

6th.  Has  your  residence  been  long  enough  in 

to  enable  you  to  form  an  estimate  of  the  mortality  occasioned 
by  small-pox  before  you  began  to  vaccinate,  and  since  that 
period  commenced? 

In  addition  to  your  answers  to  these  questions,  the 
Board  of  the  National  Vaccine  Establishment  would  be 
happy  in  being  favoured  with  any  general  observations  you 
may  have  to  offer  on  this  subject. 

I  wish  you  would,  Math  my  best  compliments  and  wishes, 
lay  these  hints  before  the  Board ;  and  if  they  think  the  plan 
eligible,  I  should  be  happy  in  affording  them  every  assist- 
ance in  my  power  to  render  it  effective.  Here,  then,  is  the 
logic   of  the   thing : — If  vaccination    is   found  capable   of 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  3/3 

making  a  deep  impression  on  the  accustomed  ravages  of  the 
small-pox  in  one  widely  extended  district^  why  should  it  not 
equally  so  in  all? 

I  shall  return  again  to  Cheltenham  on  Tuesday  next,  where 
I  shall  be  happy  to  hear  from  you,  particularly  on  the  sub- 
ject of  my  former  letter. 

Believe  me, 

Yours  truly, 

Edw.  Jenner. 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

My  dear  Friend, 

Another  scrap. — The  postscript  of  your  last  letter,  wTitten 
on  the  cover,  escaped  my  notice  till  this  morning,  when  I 
happened  to  take  it  up.  The  complaint  against  your  points 
is  partly  just  and  partly  unjust.  Knowing  that  four  times 
out  of  five,  those  I  send  out  will  pass  into  the  hands  of  a 
bungler,  I  give  them  a  double  dipping ;  that  is,  when  one 
coating  is  dry  I  dip  again ;  and  when  they  are  to  go  beyond 
the  seas,  I  put  on  a  third  coating.  By  this  means  I  very 
seldom  hear  of  failure  from  the  points.  However,  I  am 
persuaded  this  would  rarely  happen  even  from  a  single  dip, 
if  the  operation  was  conducted  properly.  (You  should  open 
a  vaccine  school.)  1  once  had  some  vaccine  points  returned 
to  me  that  one  of  my  countrymen  had  been  poking  an  arm 
with,  and  found  inefficient.  After  all  this,  with  the  self-same 
tools  I  did  my  work  completely,  finer  vaccine  pustules  were 
never  fashioned.  I  wish  you  would  send  me  four  points 
prepared  in  the  usual  way.  I  will  use  them  and  tell  you  the 
result.  In  general,  the  doctors  don't  make  a  puncture  suffi- 
cient to  admit  a  due  length  of  the  point ;  they  bring  its  ex- 
tremity only  in  contact  with  the  wounded  cutis. 

Now  to  another  point.  I  wish  you  could  see  Paytherus, 
and  confer  with  him  about  Woodville.  He  will  recollect 
some  awkward  things,  for  which,  in  rougher  hands  than 
mine,  he  would  have  been  worried  a  little.     But  I  must  tell 

374  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

you  what  it  was  that  kept  my  resentment  in  check.  My 
first  acquaintance  with  Woodville  commenced  at  this  place 
about  twelve  years  ago.  It  happened  that  he  was  here 
during  an  excursion  I  made  from  hence  to  Berkeley,  and  in 
the  interval,  Woodville  attended  one  of  my  children  who 
had  been  seized  with  a  violent  fit  of  illness.  On  my  return 
I  found  the  child  recovering,  and  felt  so  pleased  with  the 
manner  in  which  Woodville  had  treated  him,  that  although 
his  conduct  towards  me  in  town  called  aloud  for  chastise- 
ment, yet  I  was  restrained  from  obeying  it,  through  the  re-- 
collection  of  this  event.  When  I  found  him  about  to  pub- 
lish his  pamphlet  relative  to  the  eruptive  cases  at  the  Small- 
pox Hospital,  I  intreated  him  in  the  strongest  terms,  both 
by  letter  and  in  conversation,  not  to  do  a  thing  that  would 
so  much  disturb  the  progress  of  vaccination,  and  finally 
prove  so  injurious  to  himself.  Cases  were  shewn  both  to 
myself  and  nephew,  the  Rev.  G.  Jenner,  (who  was  brought 
up  to  the  medical  profession)  at  the  Small-pox  Hospital,  of 
patients  covered  from  head  to  foot  with  pustules  as  correct 
as  if  they  had  actually  arisen  from  contagion,  or  been 
produced  by  inoculation.  Still  no  argument  would  bend 
him,  and  we  found  his  assistant,  Wachsell,  equally  inflexible. 
However,  not  many  months  after  his  book  appeared,  he 
came  to  me  in  Bond-street,  where  I  then  lived,  and  told  me 
he  had  seen  his  error,  and  should  publish  his  recantation, 
and  dedicate  his  pamphlet  to  me.  We  parted,  as  I  thought, 
friends ;  I  thanked  him  for  his  liberality  and  kindness,  in 
offering  me  the  dedication ;  but  how  greatly  was  I  disap- 
pointed when  he  sent  it.  Instead  of  finding  generous  and 
manly  sentiments,  it  was  in  reality  a  satire.  Do  pray  see 
Paytherus ;  he  will  give  you  a  thousand  odd  anecdotes,  and 
don't  forget  to  ask  him  for  his  book  on  vaccination.  He 
must  not  omit  telling  you  what  once  happened  at  a  dinner  at 

I    am   happy   at   hearing    your    letter   has    stirred    up    a 
proper  spirit  among  the  Fins.     The  bustle  there  must  be 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  375 

great.  What  you  allude  to  in  my  publication  respecting 
London  air,  was  an  observation  made  in  consequence  of  what 
Woodville  and  Pearson  had  represented  to  me  in  the  country, 
not  from  my  own  ocular  demonstration.  Hearing  them  de- 
scribe the  progress  of  the  vesicle  on  the  arm,  and  the  sub- 
sequent state  of  the  skin  as  being  so  very  different  from  my 
o^vn  vaccination  in  Gloucestershire,  and  knowing  from  actual 
experience,  that  erisypelatous  affections  in  town  assume  an 
aspect  very  different  from  that  they  put  on  in  the  country,  I 
thought  it  possible  this  might  account  for  it ;  not  dreaming 
of  the  blunder  that  haa  been  committed.  You  must  not 
forget  to  refer  to  a  paper  (I  think  in  the  Med.  and  Phys. 
Journal)  of  Pearson's,  in  which  he  sagaciously  accounts  for 
the  appearance  of  pustules  on  chemical  principles. 

The  inclosed  paper  you  will  find  of  no  small  value.  Pre- 
sent it,  if  you  please,  to  the  Board,  to  be  deposited  in 
their  vaccine  archives.  It  was  sent  to  me  long  since  from 

I  have  much  more  to  say  to  you ;  indeed,  your  first  letter 
I  do  not  consider  as  yet  answered ;  but  now  I  must  go  to 
bed,  or  drop  upon  my  paper.     Excuse  this  sleepy  letter. 

Truly  yours, 

Edw.  Jenner. 
Cheltenham,  twelve  o'clock, 
Wednesday  night,  I9th  December,  1810. 

I  shall  give  you  some  trouble  soon  in  assisting  me  to 
liberate  a  French  officer,  the  brother  of  Husson  (see  the  list 
of  names  in  the  inclosed  paper)  who  has  nearly  lost  the  use 
of  his  arm. 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

My  dear  Friend, 
I  send  this  scrap  by  a  person  going  to  town,  to  say  that  I 
will  write  to  yon  fully  in  a  few  days. 

As  accuracy  is  the  life  and  soul  of  history,  I  did  not  like 

3/0  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

to  answer  an  important  question  "in  your  last  letter  save  one, 
until  I  had  applied  to  my  nephew,  the  Rev.  G.  Jenner,  who 
edited  the  pamphlet  containing  "  the  evidence  at  large.^'  I 
am  expecting  to  hear  from  him  early  next  week,  and  his 
answer  shall  be  sent  to  you.  As  far  as  my  recollection  now 
serves  me,  this  evidence  was  obtained  from  one  of  the  Clerks 
of  the  House  of  Commons,  who  ahvays  sat  at  the  right  hand 
of  the  Chairman,  and  took  down  the  words  of  those  who 
were  called  in  by  the  Committee  for  examination.  Finally, 
a  fair  copy  was  presented  to  me,  and  I  certainly  did  not  have 
it  published  without  authority.  Your  queries  shall  all  be 
answered  in  due  order. 

You  must  be  tender  on  the  subject  of  the  R business. 

Truly  yours, 

Edw.  Jenner. 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

Berkeley,  February  1 5th,  1812. 
My  dear  Sir, 

You  have  received  Sacco's  book,  I  hope,  which  was  sent 
by  yesterday's  coach,  directed  for  you  at  the  National  Vac- 
cine Establishment,  Leicester  Square.  Pray  present  my 
respects  to  the  President  and  the  Board,  and  tell  them  that 
this  or  any  other  publication  in  my  possession  on  the  vaccine 
subject  is  much  at  their  service.  I  am  well  convinced  they 
are  alive  to  the  interests  of  the  important  cause  they  are 
engaged  in ;  and  it  should  not  be  forgotten  that  Mr.  G.  Rose 
assured  me,  (at  the  time,  by  the  way,  when  1  had  no  concep- 
tion of  not  being  a  Member  of  the  Institution,)  that  if  more 
money  was  necessary  for  the  completion  of  its  objects  it 
should  be  granted. 

I  rejoice  at  seeing  so  distinguished  a  person  as  Sir  Francis 
Millman  at  the  head  of  vaccine  affairs.  We  wanted  firmness 
and  decision,  and  I  now  see  that  we  shall  have  it.  I  l)eg 
you  to  present  my  best  compliments  to  him,  and  to  say,  that 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  377 

wlien  I  go  to  town  I  shall  have  the  honour  of  waiting  upon 
him,  and  hope  he  will  indulge  me  with  a  full  conversation  on 
the  subject,  particularly  that  part  of  it  which  relates  to  the 
conduct  of  the  first  Board,  the  cause  of  my  seceding,  &c.  &c. 

I  could  wish  Sir  Francis  to  see  the  manner  in  which  our 
clever  neighbours  the  French  have  organised  their  Vaccine 
Institutions.  You  will  find  it  inserted  in  one  of  Bradley's 
Medical  and  Physical  Journals. 

My  friend  Ring  would  furnish  you  with  it,  if  you  do  not 
know  where  to  put  your  hand  upon  it.  Ring  translated  the 
paper.  It  is  very  gratifying  to  me  to  see  so  great  a  decrease 
in  the  mortality  occasioned  by  small-pox.  But  why  should 
any  one  perish  by  this  disease  here,  when  there  are  so  many 
examples  before  us  of  its  being  rooted  out  in  every  town,  city, 
and  district  where  vaccination  is  practised  universally.  Even 
in  many  of  the  populous  districts  around  me,  where  large 
manufactories  are  carried  on,  and  where  the  people  with  one 
accord  have  taken  up  the  practice  for  the  last  ten  or  twelve 
years,  the  small-pox  has  been  scarcely  known  during  that 
period.  I  have  often  expressed  a  wish  to  the  medical  men 
of  this  country  to  report  these  facts  to  the  Board.  They  all 
promise,  but  I  believe  few,  if  any,  perform.  A  few  lines, 
addressed  by  the  Board,  would  have  a  strong  effect,  and  the 
intelligence  they  would  obtain  would  be  very  impressive  in  a 
future  annual  Report;  and  I  submit  it  to  their  consideration 
whether  it  would  not  be  more  so  than  coming  immediately 
from  me.  I  assure  you  it  was  with  some  reluctance  I  sent 
cojjies  of  the  Spanish  papers.  I  must  endeavour  to  do  away 
the  charge  of  egotism,  by  requesting  you  to  consider  that  it 
is  on  vaccination  they  so  lavishly  pour  forth  their  praises, 
and  not  on  me.  I  have  not  received  any  late  report,  either 
from  De  Carro,  or  Professor  Odier,  at  Geneva.  Dr.  Marcet, 
I  believe,  corresponds  with  the  latter ;  and  if  any  report  has 
been  inserted  lately  in  the  foreign  journals,  he  will  be  very 
likely  to  furnish  you  with  it.  Professor  Avelin,  of  Berlin, 
is,  I  believe,  a  character  well  known.     From  this  respectable 


LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

man  I  lately  saw  a  report  in  its  way  to  America.  I  shall 
subjoin  a  copy  of  its  leading  features.  It  was  addressed  to 
Dr.  Smith,  at  New  York. 

"  The  anniversary  of  the  invention  of  the  cow-pox  inocula- 
tion, or  the  Jennerian  Feast,  was  celebrated  very  solemnly 
at  Berlin,  on  the  14th  of  May  last.  By  pubhc  accounts  it 
appears,  that  there  were  inoculated  in  all  the  Prussian 

In  1801      ....       9,772 

1802  ....     17,052 

1803  .         .         .         .     50,054 

1804  .         .         .         .  102,350 

1805  .         .         .         .     43,585 

"  At  these  times  the  population  was  about  9,7^3,000. 
From  1806  to  1810  (since  the  horrible  war  and  the  diminution 
of  the  population  to  4,338,000),  the  inoculated  were  160,329. 
Dr.  Bremer  only,  at  Berlin,  in  the  Royal  Institution  for  cow- 
pox  inoculation,  had  inoculated  14,605.  The  total,  as  offi- 
cially and  voluntarily  sent  to  Government,  amounted  to 
402,720  vaccinated,  but  certainly  one-half  was  not  officially 
mentioned.  It  may  certainly  be  at  least  600,000,  or  even 

I  shall  have  much  to  say  to  you  in  my  next  letter  respect- 
ing my  present  state  of  retirement ;  in  the  meantime,  believe 
me,  with  best  compliments  to  Mrs.  Moore, 

Very  sincerely  yours, 

Edward  Jenner. 

P.S.  Should  not  John  Ring's  station,  which  is  so  popular, 
be  incorporated  with  those  of  the  establishment  ? 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

Berkeley,  June  '20th,  1812. 
My  dear  Moore, 
It  is  a  long  time  since  I  heard  from  you,  and  longer  still 
I  fear  since  you  heard  from  me.     What  is  become  of  the 

LPFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  3/9 

Annual  Vaccine  Report  ?  Have  the  hurley-burleys  of  the 
state  annihilated  it  ?  If  it  exists,  pray  let  me  see  it.  If  the 
South  American  and  the  Havannah  Reports,  with  which  I 
furnished  the  Board,  are  not  noticed,  those  who  sent  them 
to  me  would  think  themselves  not  attended  to  with  due  re- 
spect. Poor  Sacco  and  the  seeds  !  This  is  a  bad  story,  and 
I  am  in  a  scrape.  Sir  Francis,  perhaps,  did  not  apply  to 
Sir  Joseph ;  or,  if  he  did,  a  request  of  mine  was  thought  but 
little  of. 

I  am  still  leading  a  sort  of  pastoral  life  here,  and  time  flies 
on  without  lea\'ing  any  thing  behind  it  for  my  biographer. 
But  I  really  do  intend  going  to  town,  and  then  you  shall 
see  what  you  can  squeeze  out  of  me. 

I  have  always  thought  that  the  subject  of  vaccination 
should  be  kept  before  the  eyes  of  the  public  by  means  of  the 
newspapers.  This  was  never  well  done,  and  now  it  is 
scarcely  done  at  all.  Can  you  stimulate  the  Board  to  think 
of  this  ?  It  would  be  very  easy  to  give  extracts  from  re- 

I  have  very  lately  received  from  Italy  a  Poem,  *'  II  Trionfo 
della  Vaccinia,  by  Gioachino  Ponta,"  who,  I  hope,  is  a  bard 
of  celebrity,  for  he  has  spun  it  out  to  between  4000  and 
5000  lines.  It  is  beautifully  printed,  at  the  famous  press  of 
Bodoni  at  Parma. 

Knowing  nothing  of  the  language  in  which  it  is  written,  it 
lies  before  me  in  a  tantalising  shape.  I  shall  bring  it  to 
town.  If  it  is  a  good  thing,  cannot  we  transform  it  into 
English  ? 

Adieu,  my  dear  friend,  -vnth  best  compliments. 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

Berkeley,  August  9th,  1812. 

Dear  Moore, 
This  scrap,  I  fear,  will  be  dear  at  the  money  it  will  cost 
you,  though  the  sum  will  be  but  two-pence.     I  could  not  let 

380  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNEil. 

slip  the  opportunity  of  thanking  you  for  your  last  letter^  giving 
me  a  month's  respite  from  transportation  from  this  place  to 
town.  Certain  it  is,  I  have  no  society  here  but  clods  ;  but 
out  of  those  clods  I  contrive  to  make  something.  The  pro- 
duce of  their  fields  has  been  a  plentiful  source  of  enjoyment 
to  me.  This  year  there  has  been  more  of  liver  disease 
among  sheep,  cows,  oxen,  hogs,  and  some  other  animals, 
than  I  ever  remember.  I  long  since  discovered  that  the 
ordinary  source  of  scirrhus  is  the  hydatid,  when  passed  on 
to  its  secondary  stage  ;  but  there  was  another  sort  of  scirrhus 
which  puzzled  me  till  now,  and  I  make  this  out  to  originate 
in  diseased  bile-ducts.  Some  of  these  I  find  dilated  to  the 
size  of  a  child's  finger,  and  passing  in  this  state  almost  to 
the  extreme  edges  of  the  liver ;  their  internal  coats  highly 
inflamed,  like  a  croupy  trachea,  and  throwing  out  mucus  and 
coagulable  lymph.  Others,  which  have  weathered  the  in- 
flammatory stage,  thickly  incrusted  over  with  stony  matter.* 
Here,  then,  is  a  little  apology  for  seclusion  in  this  seques- 
tered corner  of  our  island.  It  is  a  singular  thing,  that  the 
liver  itself  (that  part  of  it  which  remains  unabsorbed), 
should  suffer  the  intrusion  of  any  of  these  foreign  bodies 
(I  may  call  the  scirrhus  hydatid  foreign),  and  not  be  in  the 
least  diseased,  even  the  parts  in  immediate  contact.  Por- 
tions of  the  organ  are  taken  away  merely  to  make  room  for 
these  odd  visitors.     Enough  of  this  for  the  present. 

I  shall  say  something  on  the  Report  in  my  next.  That 
part  of  it  which  points  out  the  happy  results  of  vaccination 
among  our  troops  must  make  the  country  feel,  if  they  have 
any  feeling  in  them.  I  am  hurt  to  think  the  small-pox  again 
rages.  That  must  be  the  case,  till  inoculation  is  conducted 
in  a  different  way,  if  conducted  at  all.  It  does  not  appear 
in  vaccinating  districts ;  for  example,  in  this.  As  no  particu- 
lar notice  has  been  taken  of  the  foreign  communications,  I 
am  thinking  of  sending  them  to  one  of  the  periodical  jour- 

*  I  do  not  call  this  scirrhosity,  but  it  produces  scirrhus. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  381 

nals.     The  Edinburgh  Quarterly  Journal    is    the  most  re- 

You  do  not  seem  to  have  understood  me  clearly  respecting 
tieivspapers.  It  would  certainly  be  infra  dig.  to  go  into  con- 
troversy ;  but  not  so  to  lay  cheering  and  persuasive  reports 
before  the  pubUc  through  this  widely  flowing  channel.  This 
is  what  I  meant,  and  I  hope  you  will  agree  with  me  in  the 
propriety  of  the  measure. 

Make  my  affectionate  regards  to  Mrs.  Moore,  and  be- 
lieve me, 

Truly  yours, 

Edward  Jenner. 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

Berkeley,  Octoberllj  1812, 

My  dear  Friend, 

When  you  wrote  last,  about  a  month  since,  your  accom- 
panying the  life  guards  to  Spain  was  a  point  not  abso- 
lutely fixed.  How  stands  the  matter  now,  my  friend  ?  I 
hope  they  will  not  be  so  cruel  as  to  send  you  there.  The 
event  I  have  long  been  expecting  has  at  length  taken  place. 
I  have  lost  my  only  sister,  and  the  last  of  my  family  of  that 
class  :  so  that  I  am  now  insulated  in  that  way — the  only  one 
left  of  ten.  I  could  not  come  to  town  while  she  lay  on  her 
death-bed  ;  but  now  I  shall  come,  and  try  to  cheer  myself,  by 
mixing  with  my  friends  for  a  week  or  two ;  that  is,  if  you 
think  it  would  be  a  good  time,  which  I  doubt,  for  some  tell 
me  the  town  has  no  company  in  it.  Write  soon,  and  your 
letter  shall  be  my  warrant. 

The  inclosed  I  received  a  short  time  since  from  Professor 
Waterhouse  at  Boston.  There  is  something  so  striking  in  it 
with  regard  to  the  politics  of  America,  and  so  unlike  what 
we  are  taught  to  believe  at  home,  that  I  have  inclosed  it  for 
you,  thinking  it  might  be  of  some  value  in  the  hands  of  some 
of  your  poUtical  friends.     I  know  you  are  well  acquainted 

382  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

with  my  Lord  Lauderdale,  and  many  others.  It  may  be 
sent  to  a  newspaper  if  you  think  it  may  be  useful ;  in  that 
case,  no  names  must  be  mentioned.  Dr.  Waterhouse  is  a 
man  of  correct  habits.  For  the  seven  first  years  of  vacci- 
nation I  corresponded  with  him  regularly.  He  upbraids  me 
justly  for  late  irregularities. 

I  have  not  heard  lately  whether  the  fury  of  the  small-pox 
is  abated  in  town.  I  trust  it  is.  Had  I  power  to  exercise 
vaccination  as  I  liked,  in  one  fortnight  this  dismal  work  of 
death  should  entirely  cease.  What  a  sad  wicked  fellow  is 
that  Birch.  Moseley  I  hear  nothing  of  now,  but  Birch  is 
still  employing  his  agents  to  spread  the  pestilence. 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

Chantry  Cottage,  Berkeley, 
November  18,  1812. 

My  dear  Friend, 

Yours  of  the  21st  of  October,  I  perceive  still  remains 
unanswered.  Tlie  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  of  the 
matter  is,  that  I  intended  to  have  been  in  town  before  this 
time ;  but,  as  in  former  days,  was  prevented.  It  is  of  no  use, 
I  know,  for  me  to  make  excuses  to  you,  for  you  will  unchari- 
tably think  me  a  wilful  procrastinator. 

There  is  a  vast  deal  of  wisdom  in  the  two  little  words 
selected  by  the  sages  of  antiquity  as  a  guide  to  medical  men 
and  others.  "  Festina  lente.'^  What  a  jewel  of  an  axiom  ! 
But  then,  my  friend,  observe,  I  make  no  encroachments 
upon  its  meaning  when  I  take  it  as  a  rule  of  practice. 

Since  I  wrote  last,  I  have  received  from  St.  Petersburgh  a 
report  of  the  progress  of  vaccination  throughout  the  whole 
Russian  empire.  It  is  very  copious,  and  very  interesting. 
Such  documents  should  go  before  the  public ;  therefore,  I 
do  not  see  the  propriety  of  sending  it  to  the  tomb  in  Leices- 
ter Square,  where  lie  interred,  without  a  record,  numerous 
branches  of  the  same  family,  most  of  whom  were  born  and 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  383 

bred  beyond  the  seas ;  some  in  South  America,  others  in  the 
West  India  Islands,  and  elsewhere. 

I  should  much  like  to  see  your  paper  containing  the  His- 
tory of  Vaccination,  and  the  exploits  of  the  man  who  brought 
it  up.  In  looking  over  my  papers,  I  have  found  a  great 
many  which  will  throw  a  strong  light  on  the  conduct  of  Dr. 
P.  Is  there  any  chasm  in  this  part  of  your  history?  It  is  a 
very  important  part,  and  justice  demands  the  exercise  of 
severity.  It  must  begin  with  the  Petworth  business.  This 
is  given  by  Lord  Egremont.  Next  his  uniting  with  Wood- 
ville,  and  forming  (without  mentioning  the  matter  to  me)  his 
institution.  His  cajoling  the  Duke  of  York  to  be  patron. 
The  Duke's  disgracing  him.  His  spreading  the  small-pox 
through  the  land  and  calling  it  the  cow-pox,  explaining  che- 
mically the  reason  why  it  had  changed  its  character.  His 
treatment  of  me  before  the  Committee  of  the  House  of  Com- 
mons, attempting  to  prove  that  there  were  papers  found  in  an 
old  chest  at  Windsor,  which  anticipated  my  discovery.  The 
portrait  of  the  farmer  from  the  Isle  of  Purbeck,  with  the 
farmer's  claim  to  reward,  as  the  discoverer  at  the  foot  of  it, 
wath  a  thousand  minor  tricks ;  and  finally,  finding  all  trick- 
ing useless,  his  insinuations  that  vaccination  is  good  for 
nothing.  The  Anti-Vacks  are  assailing  me,  I  see,  with  all  the 
force  they  can  muster  in  the  newspapers.  The  Morning 
Chronicle  now  admits  long  letters.  Birch  has  certainly 
much  the  worst  of  it  there.  Can  you  tell  me  who  my  friend 
and  defender  is  in  the  Sun,  who  signs  himself  Conscience  ? 

Do  you  ever  see  anything  of  your  neighbour  John  Ring  ? 
He  writes  but  seldom  to  me  now,  and  when  he  does  write,  it 
is  not  in  his  old  pleasant  strain.  Nothing  is  going  wrong  with 
him,  I  hope.  I  wish  you  would  find  out ;  for,  with  all  his 
pecuUarities,  he  is  an  honest  fellow,  and  I  have  a  great 
regard  for  him.  He  has  been  paying  money  for  me  to  some 
of  the  institutions,  and  the  inclosed  draught,  if  you  would 
have  the  goodness  to  take  it  to  him,  would  be  an  excuse  for 

384  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

your  calling  on  him.     I  have  made  it  payable  after  ten  days, 
as  this  will  approach  you  in  a  round  about  way. 

I  hope  you  will  tell  me  in  your  next  letter,  which  you  must 
write  soon,  that  the  bills  of  mortality  no  longer  hold  up  such 
a  long  list  of  slaughtered  victims  as  I  saw  some  time  ago. 

Rigby,  of  Norwich,  a  medical  man  well  known  in  the 
world,  contrived  to  stop  the  havoc  in  that  city  most  expe- 
ditiously by  an  ingenious  contrivance.  He  is  the  acquaint- 
ance of  Charles  Murray,  and  sends  him  his  papers.  The  one 
he  sent  to  me  on  the  subject  I  now  allude  to,  was  written  in 
the  early  part  of  the  present  month,  and  comes  out  as  an 
Appendix  to  his  other  papers  on  medical  police.  Sir  Fran- 
cis should  see  it.  My  letter  is  getting  too  long ;  I  must  stop, 
and  only  add  my  best  wishes  to  you  and  yours, 

Edward  Jenner. 

I  hope  Sir  H.  Davy  will  not  lose  his  eye  from  his  late 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

Chantry  Cottage,  December  17,  1812. 

My  dear  Friend, 

I  must  animadvert  presently  on  some  parts  of  your  last 
letter ;  but  first  let  me  thank  you  for  your  very  kind  atten- 
tion to  my  nephew  E.  Davies,  from  Avhom  I  have  heard  by 
this  evening's  post.  You  have  quite  fascinated  him.  He 
speaks  of  you  in  such  terms  that  I  must  not  repeat,  as  you 
are  so  given  to  blushing.     I  may  venture  on  one  extract. 

"  Mr.  Moore  read  to  me  a  very  considerable  part  of  his 
intended  publication.  The  style,  in  my  opinion,  is  admirable ; 
nervous,  concise,  gentlemanly,  and  severe  without  descending 
to  scurrility.  It  is  also  so  amusing  as  to  render  it  interesting 
to  every  class  of  readers." 

I  desired  him  to  tell  you  that  a  few  days  since  I  received 
a  Report  from  the  Deputy  Inspector  of  Hospitals  at  the  Cape 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER.  385 

of  Good  Hope,  Dr.  Hussey,  of  the  annihilation  of  tlie  small- 
pox, which  appeared  there  in  one  of  its  most  horrible  forms, 
by  means  of  vaccination.  There  may  be  no  necessity  for  my 
sending  it,  as  I  find  the  National  Vaccine  Establishment  is 
in  possession  of  a  similar  document,  or  at  least  the  purport 
of  the  communication  made  to  me.  However,  as  mine  may 
go  more  into  detail,  1  beg  you  will  present  it  to  the  Board, 
together  with  the  Russian  Report.  But  I  must  again  entreat 
you  to  request  Dr.  Hervey  to  see  that  they  may  be  restored 
to  me  on  demand,  for  I  hold  these  things  as  sacred  deposits, 
and  they  will  pass  from  me  as  heir-looms.  How  different 
are  these,  my  dear  friend,  from  those  trinkety  baubles  which 
mankind  in  general  are  so  proud  of  transmitting  to  posterity. 

Lest  the  Rev.  Mr.  Reed  should  not  have  laid  before  the 
Board  a  copy  of  his  last  edition  of  a  very  impressive  paper, 
I  shall  put  up  one.  1  wish  Sir  F.  Millman  would  recollect 
that  upwards  of  seven  hundred  reports  in  favour  of  vaccina- 
tion lie  buried  among  the  archives  of  the  College  of  Physi- 
cians. Have  you  the  Report  from  the  Mauritius  ?  I  hear 
it  is  of  the  same  nature  as  that  from  the  Cape.  It  has 
not  yet  reached  me. 

The  intended  proclamation  will  put  us  all  in  battle  array. 
We  shall  have  sharp  work  for  a  little  time,  and  we  must  be 
prepared  with  troops  in  the  House  of  Commons ;  but  our 
great  guns  will  make  such  reports,  that  our  enemies  there 
will  be  stunned  and  astounded ;  even  Sir  Francis  himself, 
who  has  been  heard  to  say,  that  "  cursed  was  the  day  on 
which  vaccination  was  discovered.'^ 

In  the  midst  of  these  reporting  times,  pray  do  not  let  Dr. 
Christie's  be  forgotten.  Among  all  the  good  ones,  there  is 
nothing  surpasses  this.  Lest  he  should  not  have  sent  it  to 
the  Board,  I  will  write  to  him  for  that  purpose.  If  you  want 
Home  Reports,  send  to  Manchester,  Birmingham,  Chester, 
and  other  populous  manufacturing  towns,  but  above  all  to 
Norwich,  from  whence  I  have  very  lately  received  one  ex- 
actly of  a  description  with  that  of  the  Cape.     It  is  printed, 

VOL.    II.  -    c 

386  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

and  was  drawn  up  by  Rigby  of  Norwich.     Charles  Murray 
could  easily  get  this,  and,  believe  me,  it  is  worth  your  having. 

Having  written  so  much,  I  must  defer  my  Philippics  for 
the  present. 

Let  me  hear  often  while  these  important  movements  of 
the  Board  are  going  forward. 

Adieu,  my  dear  friend,  very  truly  yours, 

E.  Jenner. 

One  line  I  must  beg  on  the  arrival  of  the  packet,  that  I 
may  know  of  its  safety. 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

Dear  Moore, 
After  so  long  a  pause  in  our  correspondence,  your  letter 
was  a  high  treat  to  me.  How  this  happened,  I  will  not  take 
upon  myself  to  determine.  Doubtless,  you  thought  me  in 
fault,  and  I  thought  you ;  but  perhaps  the  truth  is,  we  were 
both  so,  and  under  that  impression  I  quit  the  subject.  I 
was  ill  almost  the  whole  spring,  and  now,  though  better,  am 
far  from  well.  My  nerves  are  in  such  an  odd  state,  so  ex- 
quisitely tuned,  that  unless  they  are  touched  by  the  most 
delicate  finger,  one  who  knows  the  instrument  perfectly,  in 
an  instant  all  is  discord.  You  only  want  a  little  more  prac- 
tice, and  then  no  one  would  play  better  on  it  than  yourself. 
Did  you  see  my  letter  to  Charles  Murray  ?  I  hope  you  did, 
as  I  there  expressed  my  opinion  of  your  last  report  in  high 
terms  of  praise.  If  this  does  not  silence  the  malevolent 
tongue  of  opposition,  what  can  ?  Yet,  how  wonderful,  while 
this  convincing  document  was  lying  on  his  table,  that  a  great 
Law  Lord  should  have  so  exposed  himself  among  his  bre- 
thren. ''  Vaccination  did  not  merit  the  high  encomium 
passed  upon  it ;  it  was  very  well  for  those  who,  like  himself, 
brought  up  their  families  in  a  large  city,  and  was  a  security 
for  eight  or  nine  years."  This  language,  I  assure  you,  has 
made  a  serious  impression  in  many  parts  of  the  country ; 
for  the  people,  who  do  not  reason,  conceive  this  exalted 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  38/ 

character  knows  every  thing.  There  is  another  Bill,  I  see, 
brought  into  the  House  by  my  Lord  Boringdon.  Can  you 
contrive  to  send  me  a  copy  when  it  is  printed?  I  hope  it 
does  not  come  from  the  same  bad  source  as  the  former. 

Believe  me,  I  am  Milling,  and  shall  be  always  ready  when 
able,  to  assist  you  in  your  literary  toils.  It  Avould  be  very 
ungrateful  in  me  if  I  were  not,  as  you  may  say,  De  te  historia 
narratiir.  If  you  w'ill  once  more  place  before  my  eyes  any 
materials  you  stand  in  need  of,  they  shall  be  forthcoming 
should  it  be  in  my  poAver  to  produce  them.  An  old  asso- 
ciate of  mine  has  long  been  threatening  to  send  some  memoir 
into  the  world,  but  I  have  been  constantly  intreating  him  to 
desist,  conceiving,  that  independently  of  the  vaccine  dis- 
covery, there  was  nothing  of  sufficient  interest  to  engage  the 
attention  of  the  public.  Believing  that  I  have  succeeded, 
I  think  he  would  have  no  reluctance  in  furnishing  you  with 
his  scraps  if  you  thought  it  worth  while  to  apply  to  him. 
You  need  not  mention  this  intelligence  as  comino-  from  me. 
His  name  is  Edward  Gardner,  and  his  residence  is  Framp- 
ton,  near  Stroud,  Gloucestershire. 

You  speak  of  searching  the  British  Museum  for  facts  and 
opinions  about  the  small- pox.  Would  you  not  find  more  by 
searching  the  publications  of  Woodville  and  Haygarth  ?  I 
believe  they  have  both  given  its  life  and  adventures,  and  I 
trust  it  is  left  for  you  to  record  its  death. 

I  like  your  little  essay  on  poverty  and  riches.  Give  me 
(as  a  good  man  in  the  Scriptures  said)  neither  one  nor  the 
other,  but  wherewithal  to  bie  content.  I  know  you  fancy 
that  the  cow  has  fattened  me,  and  that  it  is  of  no  use  for  me 
to  attempt  altering  your  opinion.  My  state  of  domestica- 
tion is  the  same  now  as  it  was  before  I  cultivated  her 
acquaintance  so  closely,  except,  that  then  I  had  horses  to 
my  carriage,  and  that  now  I  have  none,  and  precisely  for  the 
same  reason  as  should  govern  the  conduct  of  all  prudent 
men.     To  know  any  thing  about  me  you  should  come  down 

2  c  2 

388  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

and  inquire  of  my  neighbours  what  I  am,  and  what  I  was. 
Then,  perhaps,  your  quotation  (quantum  mutatus  ab  illo, 
&c.)  may  still  well  apply,  but  not  exactly  in  the  way  you  in- 
tended it. 

In   one  of  your  letters  you  seemed  not  perfectly  satisfied 
that  the  fact  respecting  the  origin  of  the  vaccine  was  clearly 
made  out.     For  my  part,  I  should  think,  that  Loy's  experi- 
ments, independently  of  my  own  observations,  were  sufficient 
to  estabhsh  it,  to  say  nothing  of  Sacco's  and  others  on  the 
continent.     However,    I  have  now  fresh  evidence,    partly 
foreign  and  partly  domestic.     The  latter  comes  from  a  Mr. 
Melon,  a  surgeon  of  repute  at  Lichfield.     He  has  sent  me 
some  of  his  equine  virus,  which  I  have  been  using  from  arm 
to  arm  for  these  two  months  past,  without  observing  the 
smallest  deviation  in  the  progress    and  appearance  of  the 
pustules  from  those  produced  by  the  vaccine.     I  have  at 
length  found  the  French  document  I  formerly  alluded  to, 
which  with  Melon's,  shall  be  sent  to  you  in  the  course  of  the 
ensuing  week. 

Allow  me  to  congratulate  you  on  the  promotion  of  your 
meritorious  brother,  and  to  assure  you  that  I  take  an  interest 
in  every  thing  in  which  your  happiness  is  concerned ;  so  be 
assured  of  my  regard,  and  believe  me, 

Most  truly  yours, 

E.  Jenner. 
Chant nj  Cottage,  July  23, 1813. 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

Dear  Moore, 
My  friend  and  neighbour,  Mr.  Hicks,  will  deliver  to  you 
the  promised  papers  respecting  equine  virus.  I  have  been 
constantly  equinating  for  some  months,  and  perceive  not  the 
smallest  difference  between  the  pustules  thus  produced  and 
the  vaccine.  Both  are  alike,  because  they  come  from  the 
same  source.     If  he  does  not  give  you  a  good  scolding  for 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  389 

your  horrible  letter  in  the  spring,  he  will  not  be  faithful  to 
his  commission. 

I  hope  Murray  has  shown  you  my  letter  respecting  Dr. 
Baron's  intended  publication. 

Truly  yours, 

Edw.  Jenner. 
Berkeley,  \st  August ,  1813. 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

My  dear  Friend, 

I  have  had  so  much  intercourse  with  you  lately  by  means 
of  London  visitors,  that  my  being  a  letter  in  your  debt 
almost  escaped  my  recollection.  You  have  doubtless  seen 
Charles  Murray  since  his  return  from  Cheltenham.  I  had 
two  days  of  his  company,  and  we  pretty  well  talked  over 
London  matters.  It  was  not  then  known  that  your  late 
excellent  president  was  tottering  on  his  vaccine  throne,  from 
which  I  find  he  has  since  fallen.  This  is  very  tantalizing,  as 
he  was  in  possession  of  that  stock  of  knowledge  which  ren- 
dered him  fit  for  his  government.  I  am  a  little  acquainted 
with  your  new  chieftain,  but  want  to  know  your  sentiments 
of  him.  T  have  always  considered  him  as  a  very  worthy 
man,  of  manners  extremely  gentle.  In  the  hour  of  necessity, 
however,  I  hope  he  will  be  firm ;  and  if  the  first  Lord  in 
Parliament  should  offer  to  degrade  vaccination  by  uttering 
an  untruth,  {as  one  of  these  dignified  personages  lately  did,) 
I  trust  he  will  not  suffer  a  remonstrance  of  so  tame  and  in- 
sipid a  nature  to  come  forth  as  appeared  in  a  late  circular. 
This  is  the  only  flaw  observed  in  the  administration  of  Sir 
Francis.  You  must  approve  these  animadversions,  as  they 
come  from  an  "  ingenious  gentleman." 

I  have  heard  no  more  of  John  Walker  or  Joseph  Leaper, 
since  I  sent  my  positive  refusal  to  become  an  associate  in 
their  plans,  which,  from  such  men,  I  think  could  have  no 
good  in  them. 

You  made  me  happy  in   saying  you  had  seen  those  excel- 

390  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

lent  young  women,  the  Paytherus's,  and  learnt  from  tliem 
what  an  active  life  I  lead  when  at  Berkeley.  How  different 
and  wrongly  formed  were  your  conceptions  of  me.  I  do  not 
yet  despair  of  seeing  you  there  when  I  again  retire.  How 
you  would  enjoy  seeing  me  in  the  exercise  of  my  magisterial 
powers,  dealing  out  my  lessons  of  morality  to  the  poor  un- 
fortimate  daughters  of  vaccina,  when  exhibiting  their  un- 
timely prominences.  I  bring  them  all  to  the  altar  with  their 
swains  if  I  can  ;  but,  perhaps,  I  do  not  better  their  condition 
much  by  this ;  for  matrimony  among  the  poor  orders  of  the 
peasantry  is  in  general  a  wretched  state. 

I  long  to  see  the  progress  you  have  made  in  your  book. 
Is  it  impossible  to  bring  it  here  ?  You  may  be  in  Piccadilly 
at  seven  in  the  evening,  and  your  arrival  at  Cheltenham  be 
announced  by  the  horn  of  the  mail-coach  at  ten  the  next 
morning.  I  am  sorry  you  have  not  succeeded  in  infecting  a 
cow.  I  have  told  you  before  that  the  matter  which  flows 
from  the  fissures  in  the  heel  will  do  nothing.  It  is  contained 
in  vesicles  on  the  edges  and  the  surrounding  skin.  Did  I 
ever  inform  you  of  the  curious  result  of  vaccinating  carters  ? 
These  people  from  their  youth  up  have  the  care  of  the  horses 
used  for  ploughing  our  corn  lands.  Great  numbers  of 
them  in  the  course  of  my  practice  here  have  come  to  me 
from  the  hills  to  be  vaccinated ;  but  the  average  number 
which  resisted  has  been  one  half.  On  inquiry,  many  of 
them  have  recollected  having  sores  on  their  hands  and 
fingers  from  dressing  horses  affected  with  sore  heels,  and 
being  so  ill  as  to  be  disabled  from  following  their  work ; 
and  on  several  of  their  hands,  I  have  found  the  cicatrix  as 
perfect  and  as  characteristically  marked  as  if  it  had  arisen  from 
my  own  vaccination.  Birch  and  Brown,  of  Musselburgh,  1 
hear,  still  pursue  me  in  the  newspapers,  but  I  do  not  seek 
after  their  essays ;  for  really  I  think  them  now  greater  ob- 
jects of  commiseration  than  resentment.  Mosele)^,  I  be- 
lieve, is  silent.  Your  last  report  should  be  perpetually  going 
forth  from  Leicester-square.     It  will  never  be  old,  and  a 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER.  391 

few  spare  pounds  would  procure  a  reprint.  How  goes  on 
small-pox  among  you?  I  am  almost  afraid  to  ask;  and 
afraid,  too,  to  inquire  about  Lord  Boringdon's  intended  Bill. 
There  has  certainly  been  ample  time  for  its  preparation.  I 
think  it  a  little  strange  that  he  should  never  have  made  any 
communication  to  me  on  the  subject ;  the  more  so,  as  I  am 
acquainted  with  his  lordship,  having  vaccinated  his  eldest 

I  have  some  reason  to  think  that  all  etiquetical  impedi- 
ments to  my  becoming  a  member  of  your  Board  will  soon  be 
removed.  I  dare  not  say  more  on  this  point  now ;  but  the 
mystery  shall  be  unravelled  in  my  next  letter.  Sad  com- 
plaints about  your  ivory  points ;  and  so  there  must  be  till 
they  are  better  fashioned.  The  chance  of  infection  will  be 
in  proportion  to  the  coated  surface  introduced  into  the 
puncture.  Your  points  are  now  become  almost  as  fine  as 
needles.  This  is  downright  tailoring ;  and  I  hope  for  my 
own  sake,  who  am  so  pestered  with  letters,  that  some  re- 
formation will  take  place  in  this  department  of  the  esta- 

You  begin  to  yawn  over  my  long  letter,  and  so  do  I,  for 
it  is  almost  twelve  o'clock ;  so  adieu,  my  dear  friend,  and  be- 
lieve me  ever  truly  yours, 

Edward  Jenner. 

Cheltenham,  October  27,  1813. 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

My  dear  Friend, 
I  am  always  happy  to  hear  from  you.  You  paint  the 
passing  hours  in  glowing  tints,  and  I,  who  believe  in  pro- 
phecies, am  a  firm  believer  in  you  when  you  predict  that  the 
amelioration  of  the  world  is  at  hand.  Till  now,  our  views 
of  what  the  twenty  years'  commotion  in  Europe  was  to 
bring  forth,  were  dim  and  obscure ;  but  the  "  still  small 
voice"  has  ordered  the  mists  and  clouds  to  be  dispersed, 
and  through  a  clear  and  serene  atmosphere  we  see  a  beauti- 

392  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

ful  order  of  things  gradually  rising,  as  it  were,  out  of  chaos. 
Let  us  be  grateful. 

You  see  I  was  not  quite  in  so  great  a  hurry  as  my  friend 
Christie  to  shew  myself  at  Carlton  House.  I  shall  be  there 
in  good  time,  you  may  depend  upon  it,  and  then  hear  your 
history  of  the  rise,  progress,  and  downfal  of  a  monster  still 
more  horrible  than  Bonaparte.  You  delight  me  with  what 
you  say  of  the  new  Board ;  and  I  must  now  mention  a  cir- 
cumstance which  will  put  their  activity  and  zeal  a  little  to 
the  test.  You  probably  may  not  have  seen  a  pamphlet  lately 
published  by  Dr.  Watt  of  Glasgow,  as  there  is  nothing  in 
its  title  that  developes  its  purport  or  evil  tendency.  "An 
Inquiry  into  the  relative  Mortality  of  the  principal  Diseases 
of  Children,"  &c.  The  measles,  it  seems,  have  been  ex- 
tremely fatal  in  the  city  of  Glasgow  for  the  last  four  or  five 
years  among  children,  and  during  this  period  vaccination 
was  practised  almost  universally.  Previously  to  this,  the 
measles  was  considered  as  a  mild  disease.  Hence  Dr.  Watt 
infers  that  the  small-pox  is  a  kind  of  preparative  for  the 
measles,  rendering  the  disease  more  mild.  In  short,  he  says, 
or  seems  to  say,  that  we  have  gained  nothing  by  the  intro- 
duction of  the  cow-pox  ;  for  that  the  measles  and  small-pox 
have  now  changed  places  with  regard  to  their  fatal  tendency. 
Is  not  this  very  shocking  ?  Here  is  a  new  and  unexpected 
twig  shot  forth  for  the  sinking  anti-vaccinist  to  cling  to. 
But  mark  me — should  this  absurdity  of  Mr.  Watt  take  pos- 
session of  the  minds  of  the  people,  I  am  already  prepared 
with  the  means  of  destroying  its  effects,  having  instituted  an 
inquiry  through  this  populous  town  and  the  circumjacent 
villages,  where,  on  the  smallest  computation,  20,000  child- 
ren must  have  been  vaccinated  in  the  course  of  the  last 
twelve  years  by  myself  and  others.  Now  it  appears  that, 
during  this  period,  there  has  been  no  such  occurrence  as  a 
fatal  epidemic  measles.  You  woidd  oblige  me  in  making 
this  communication  to  the  Board,  with  my  respectful  com- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  393 

The  preceding  pages  were  written  some  days  ago.  I  have 
since  had  a  call  into  a  distant  part  of  the  country,  and 
nickily  into  the  land  of  vaccination.  The  medical  man  I 
met  has  been  near  five-and-twenty  years  a  practitioner  in 
one  of  the  clothing  districts,  consequently  a  part  of  the 
county  where  population  swarms.  He  is  ready  to  testify 
that  Mr.  Watt's  doctrine  will  not  find  the  least  support  in 
any  part  of  the  wide  range  he  takes,  and  where  vast  numbers 
of  children  have  gone  through  the  measles  just  in  the  same 
way  as  if  they  had  previously  had  the  small-pox.  I  shall 
balance  this  unpleasant  piece  of  information  with  something 
of  an  opposite  kind.  The  University  of  Oxford,  on  Friday 
last,  conferred  on  me  the  degree  of  Doctor  in  Medicine,  by 
diploma,  without  a  single  non  placet.  This  is  the  more  ho- 
norable, as  I  understand  they  consider  this  gift  so  precious 
that  it  is  not  bestowed  twice  in  a  century.  Some  early  day 
next  week  (Tuesday,  most  likely)  I  intend  going  to  Oxford 
to  accept  this  boon,  and  staying  one  clear  day. 

Now,  my  friend,  what  say  you  ?  Do  you  feel  bold  enough 
to  face  me  there  ?  It  would  be  a  high  gratification,  most 
certainly ;  and  I  would  envelope  you  in  a  frank,  for  you  have 
no  business  to  jaunt  about  and  spend  your  money. 

You  see  what  paternal  care  I  take  of  you.  By  the  way, 
would  not  some  of  the  sages  there  aid  your  research  in  con- 
ducting you  over  the  Bodleian  library  ?  There  are  several 
Oxford  coaches  go  from  town  every  morning.  I  have  a 
thousand  things  to  say  to  you.  Pray  inquire  of  Dr.  Hervey 
whether  I  may  not  knock  boldly  at  the  door  of  the  College 
of  Physicians  and  gain  admittance ;  and  desire  him  to  ex- 
plain the  nature  of  the  ceremony  that  would  take  place. 

If  you  can  come  to  Oxford,  write  soon,  that  I  may  fix  the 
day  for  certain.  Bring,  if  you  can,  the  last  bill  of  mortality. 
I  dread  the  sight  of  it. 

Most  truly  yours, 

Edward  Jenner. 

CheUenhcun,  December  (ilk,  181.3. 

394  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

•  P.  S.  John  Ring  has  been  in  dudgeon,  and  broken  off  his 
correspondence  with  me  near  a  twelvemonth.  I  have  no 
conception  why ;  1  wish  you  could  find  it  out. 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

My  dear  Friend, 

You  must  excuse  everything  I  do  amiss  now.  Your  two 
letters  have  remained  long  unanswered,  and  1  wish  these 
were  all,  as  it  would  relieve  me  from  some  of  my  anxieties ; 
but  what  is  to  take  from  me  my  heavy  load  of  sorrow  ?  That 
you  cannot  tell.  You  have  care  enough  of  your  own,  and  I 
will  not  entangle  you  into  a  participation  of  mine. 

Can  I  afford  you  any  assistance  in  your  laborious  work, 
the  History  of  Vaccination  ?  I  am  at  present  unacquainted 
with  your  plan.  I  suppose  you  will  trace  it  step  by  step 
over  the  globe,  and  shew  the  little  opposition  it  met  with 
from  professors  abroad,  compared  with  what  it  found  from 
those  at  home.  Certainly  here,  the  opposition  was  marked 
with  unexampled  atrocity.  Among  the  many,  you  will  find 
a  difficulty  in  fixing  on  the  man  who  has  a  claim  to  the 
severest  stigma.  The  sale  of  a  part  of  the  Small-pox  Hos- 
pital delights  me.     It  will  be  a  charming  feature  for  you. 

I  think  your  conjecture  a  fair  one  respecting  the  spread- 
ing of  the  small-pox  in  London.  We  know  nothing  of  it  in 
this  district,  nor  have  we  for  near  sixteen  years.  The  same 
may  be  said  of  Cheltenham  and  its  vicinity,  except  now  and 
then  a  straggler  passing  through  the  town  ;  but  then  it  was 
always  insulated,  or  nearly  so  ;  and  this,  by  the  way,  is  the 
only  stimulus*  the  common  people  feel  for  bringing  their 
children  to  be  vaccinated.  This  apathy  should  be  roused. 
I  like  the  idea  of  the  goblet,  and  wish  more  of  these  things 
were  distributed.  What  if  £500  per  annum  were  allowed  by 
government,  would  the  national  purse  find  any  diminution 
in  its  weight  ?     Your  countrymen  fairly  won  the  prize.     A 

*  The  accidental  appearances  of  the  smail-pox. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  395 

similar  present,  I  think,  should  be  sent  to  some  one  in  this 
country,  or  it  will  look  like  partiality.  The  reverend  Mr. 
Reed,  I  think,  has  a  claim  :  you  have  got  his  circular. 

There  is  a  lady  whom  I  could  name  that  has  vaccinated 
10,000.  But  above  all,  in  this  country,  I  think  John  Ring, 
with  all  his  peculiarities  on  his  head,  stands  foremost.  Think, 
my  friend,  on  his  vast  losses  in  devoting  so  much  time  and 
expenditure  to  our  cause,  and  pray  mention  it  to  the  Board. 
I  should  not  regard  paying  for  it  myself,  if  it  could  be  done 
without  his  knowing  it. 

I  admire  the  ingenuity  of  your  metaphor,  but  I  must  cut 
it  down  to  ordinary  prose.  You  talk  of  rekindling  the  lymph 
when  its  fire  has  gone  out.  Its  quality  may  be  so  modified 
by  passing  through  herpetic  skins,  that  it  becomes  unfit  for 
the  intended  purpose.  It  will  produce  pustules  of  a  dimi- 
nutive size,  with  a  faint,  or  even  without  any,  areola,  and 
finishes  its  course  prematurely.  Is  this  what  you  mean  to 
tell  me  ?  I  hope  it  is,  for  it  is  very  important.  When  in 
the  deteriorated  state,  it  gets  into  bad  hands,  and  much  mis- 
chief may  arise. 

Now  for  the  sable  emperor.  You  speak  of  something 
inclosed  in  your  packet  from  a  negro  gentleman  who  is  going 
to  Hayti.  Nothing  came,  at  least  from  him ;  but  there  was 
a  letter  from  Mr.  Wilberforce,  speaking  of  the  Avishes  of  this 
gentleman  with  respect  to  vaccination  at  Hayti.  Pray  contrive 
to  present  my  compliments,  and  to  assure  him,  the  black  gen- 
tleman, how  much  pleasure  it  would  give  me  to  do  anything  in 
my  power  to  further  his  wishes.  With  this  I  shall  send  two 
or  three  detached  papers  of  mine,  which  may  be  useful,  and 
some  others.  They  should  be  accompanied  by  my  original 
paper,  but  it  is  out  of  print.  Can't  you  get  him  to  write  to 
me  ?  I  should  like  a  letter  from  him  very  much.  Indeed 
there  is  another  reason  for  my  wishing  it.  I  have  had 
the  misfortune  to  lose  or  mislay  Mr.  Wilberforce's  letter,  so 
that  I  am  ignorant  even  of  the  address  of  this  enlightened 
African.     I  must  now  give  you  a  little  history  in  which  you 

396  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

will  hear  something  of  Petion,  the  semi-sable  Emperor  of 
Hayti,  who  I  understand  divides  the  kingdom  with  Chris- 
tophe.  In  my  list  of  patients,  last  autumn,  at  Cheltenham, 
were  several  gentlemen  of  respectability  settled  as  merchants 
at  St.  Domingo.  One  of  them,  a  Mr.  Windsor,  informed 
me  how  much  it  was  the  wish  of  Petion  to  establish  a  re- 
gular vaccine  institution  there.  I  promised  to  furnish  him 
with  vaccine  materials,  but  was  prevented  from  what  befel 
me  at  that  period.  Mr.  Windsor  took  instructions  for  calling 
on  the  National  Establishment,  but  as  you  say  nothing  of 
the  matter,  I  don't  imagine  you  saw  anything  of  him.  All 
the  gentlemen  whom  I  have  seen  from  the  island  speak  of 
Petion  in  the  most  exalted  terms,  as  one  possessed  of  great 
intellectual  powers,  and  who  employs  them  for  the  best  of 
purposes.  Now  what  shall  we  do  in  this  matter?  I  must 
leave  it  to  your  discretion.  Mr.  Windsor's  address  was  at 
Messrs.  Peel,  Turner,  and  Scott,  109,  Cheapside :  but  I  fear 
he  is  gone. 

You  ask  me  to  come  to  town.  The  quiet  of  this  place 
suits  my  mind  much  better  at  present.  But  I  call  into  action 
all  the  reason  I  can  muster,  and  have  always  company  in 
my  house.  These  privations  are  very  dreadful,  and  make  a 
man  wish  he  never  had  existed ;  but  wishes  of  this  sort  should 
be  banished,  and  give  way  to  patience  and  resignation.  My 
daughter  is  with  me,  and  begs  her  best  remembrances  to  you 
and  Mrs.  Moore.  Robert  is  at  Oxford,  and  would  be  glad 
to  see  you  if  chance  should  take  you  there,  at  Exeter  Col- 
lege.   When  you  see  Miss  Dunbar,  give  her  our  best  wishes. 

Pray  don't  serve  me  as  I  serve  you,  but  give  me  another 
letter  soon. 

Yours,  my  dear  Friend,  most  truly, 

Edward  Jenner. 
Berkeley,  Decembei'  3rd,  1815. 

Perhaps  I  have  mistaken  the  whole  business  in  sending 
any  papers.  Set  me  right  if  I  am  wrong.  The  paper  on 
"the  Varieties  and  Modifications"  should  have  universal  cir- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  39/ 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

Berkeley,  March  5  th,  1816'. 

My  dear  Friend, 
Our  correspondence  has  again  grown  slack;  no  blame 
lies  at  your  door,  but  all  at  mine.  1  should  have  told  you 
before  this  time,  that  I  feel  cheered  by  what  you  said  of  the 
vaccine  medal,  and  the  poem  which  was  found  enveloped 
in  so  much  splendour  in  the  library  of  the  ex-Emperor. 

Mrs.  Moore  saw  my  copy  of  the  poem,  and  I    do  not 
think  liked  it  much.     Perhaps  she  might  think  the  thread 
spun  a  little  too  fine.     The  poet's  fancy  has  certainly  flown 
in  all  manner  of  directions,  and  if  you  would  like  to  judge 
for  yourself,  my  daughter  bids  me  tell  you  she  will   with 
pleasure  copy  for  you  a  faithful  analysis  presented  to  me  by 
a  lady  here,  a  complete  mistress  of  the  Italian  language.     I 
do  not  mean  the  whole  poem,  but  its  outline.     The  fact,  as 
you  have  an  excellent  knack  at  managing  these  things,  would 
perhaps  find  admittance  with  some  advantage  in  the  work 
you     are  now  engaged  in,  as  a  rub  to    the   British  Bards, 
not  one  of  Avhom,  whose  voice  has  obtained  celebrity,  has 
sung  one  single  note  in  honour  of  Vaccina.    Anstey,  perhaps, 
may  be  considered  as  an  exception,  who  piped  up  a  Latin 
Ode  about  a  dozen  years  ago,  which  the  indefatigable  John 
Ring  translated  neatly  into  Enghsh  verse. 

You  are  no  stranger,  I  dare  say,  to  a  murmur  that  is 
spreading  through  various  parts  of  the  Empire,  excited  by 
what  has  been  supposed  a  deteriorated  state  of  the  vaccine 
matter.  Much  has  been  written  upon  it  in  the  public 
journals,  and  much  has  been  said  to  me  in  private  corres- 
pondence. Medical  men  are  more  expert  than  any  others  in 
discovering  causes  without  the  fatigue  of  much  thinking,  and 
in  the  present  instance  they  have  all  hit  upon  the  wrong 

398  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

one — no  great  wonder.  They  attribute  the  lessened  activity 
of  the  matter  which  may  happen  to  fall  into  their  hands,  and 
its  disposition  to  produce  imperfect  vesicles,  to  the  great 
length  of  time  which  has  elapsed  since  it  was  taken  from  the 
cow,  and  consequently  to  the  immense  number  of  human 
subjects  through  whom  it  has  passed.  This  is  a  conjecture, 
and  I  can  destroy  it  by  facts.  The  matter  may  undergo  a 
change  that  may  render  it  unfit  for  further  use,by  passing  even 
from  one  individual  to  another,  and  this  was  as  likely  to 
happen  in  the  first  year  of  vaccination  as  in  the  twentieth ; 
for  in  spite  of  long  experience,  and  instructions  sent  out 
from  societies  and  individuals  throughout  the  country,  there 
are  still  medical  men  who  will  take  any  thing  they  can  catch 
under  the  mere  name  of  vaccine  matter,  or  from  a  pustule 
incorrect  in  all  its  genuine  characters.  To  guard  against 
this  important  error,  1  have  again  and  again  pointed  it  out  in 
every  way  I  could  think  of,  and  at  the  same  time  made  re- 
marks upon  its  ordinary  source.  It  is,  then,  from  the 
spread  of  matter  of  this  description  through  many  districts 
that  the  dissatisfaction  I  speak  of  has  arisen,  and  I  fear 
there  will  be  some  difficulty  in  setting  aside  the  delusion ; 
for  alas  !  how  much  more  easy  it  is  to  see  what  is  right 
and  good,  than  to  effect  it.  The  matter  sent  out  by 
the  National  Vaccine  Establishment  is  much  complained 
of.  I  was  applied  to  a  few  weeks  since,  by  the  surgeons 
of  the  hospital  at  Gloucester,  for  some  vaccine  matter, 
and  their  request  was  accompanied  by  the  following 
observation :  "  that  after  using  thirty  points  sent  from 
town,  not  a  single  pustule  was  produced."  The  fault  could 
not  be  in  the  mode  of  using  them,  for  those  sent  by  me  were 
effective.  1  vaccinate  the  poor  here  weekly,  and  the  pustules 
(vesicles,  if  you  please)  are  in  every  resjiect  as  perfect  and 
correct  in  size,  shape,  colour,  state  of  the  lymph,  the  period 
of  the  appearance  and  disappearance  of  the  areola,  its  tint, 
and  finally  the  compact  texture  of  the  scab,  as  they  were  in 
the  first  year  of  vaccination ;  and  to  the  best  of  ray  know- 

LIFE     OF    DR.    JENNER.  399 

ledge,  the  matter  from  which  they  are  derived  was  that  taken 
from  a  cow  about  sixteen  years  ago.  If  there  were  a  real  ne- 
cessity for  a  renovation,  I  know  not  what  we  should  do,  for 
the  precautions  of  the  farmers  with  respect  to  their  horses^ 
have  driven  the  cow-pox  from  their  herds.  If  you  find  any 
thing  here  worth  communicating  to  the  Board,  I  beg  you 
will  present  it  with  my  best  compliments. 

What  shall  you  have  to  report  this  session  to  Parliament  ? 
Your  small-pox  list  is  much  longer  than  one  could  have 
wished,  but  it  is  pleasant  to  hear  that  the  next  year's  account 
of  the  mortality  promises  at  present  to  be  far  more  satisfac- 
tory. I  have  not  observed  from  any  quarter,  where  com- 
ments have  been  made,  and  where  this  list  has  been  called 
tremendous,  that  it  has  brought  forth  a  comparison  between 
the  fatality  of  the  small-pox  now,  and  previously  to  the  in- 
troduction of  the  vaccine.  Justice  to  the  cause  demands 
this,  and  I  hope  it  will  not  escape  your  recollection  when  you 
form  your  Report,  We  may  surely  calculate  on  the  reduc- 
tion of  at  least  half  the  number ;  for,  if  I  recollect  right,  the 
average  amounted  to  two  thousand  annually.  In  the  pro- 
vinces, the  reduction  is  very  far  beyond  that  of  the  metro- 

All  this  was  written  before  your  second  letter  arrived, 
conveying  the  sad  intelligence  of  your  being  an  invalid. 

I  am  no  stranger  myself  to  the  sciatica,  having  had  many 
sharp  attacks.  The  last  time  was  in  London,  four  or  five  years 
ago,  while  I  was  living  in  Cocksi)ur-street.  One  day  in  an  agony 
of  pain,  I  resolved  on  trying  the  popular  remedy,  walking; 
and  effected  a  most  painful  piece  of  pedestrianism  up  to 
Temple-Bar  and  back.  On  my  return  I  flung  myself  on  my 
sofa  in  a  state  of  exhaustion  with  torture  and  fatigue  ',  but 
it  really  proved  a  cure,  and  I  have  never  had  a  relapse. 

Your  friend.  Lord  Sidmouth,  was  once  a  friend  of  mine, 
and  perhaps  remains  so  still.  His  good  humour  was  an 
over-match  for  his  firmness  when  Premier.     Such  characters 

400  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

are  estimable,  but  not  fit  to  take  a  lead  in  state  affairs,  no 
more  than  my  acquaintance  Dr.  Lamb  is  in  the  affairs  of 
the  Board  of  Directors.  I  never  think  of  this  part  of  the 
system  of  your  establishment  without  irritation.  As  soon 
as  a  set  of  men  have  learned  how  to  conduct  the  business, 
they  vanish,  and  others  are  put  in,  who  are  totally  igno- 
rant of  vaccination. 

The  account  you  give  of  your  boys,  is  very  pleasing  to 
me  J  for  be  assured  I  take  a  sincere  interest  in  every  thing 
that  adds  to  your  comfort. 

My  coming  to  town  this  spring  or  summer  is  very  uncer- 
tain. I  cannot  make  a  good  report  to  you  of  my  health. 
Among  other  maladies  brought  on  by  my  sad  domestic 
affliction,  was  palpitation  of  the  heart.  This  at  intervals 
still  pursues  me,  and  a  very  unpleasant  sensation  it  is,  es- 
pecially as  it  prevents  sleep ;  but  I  am  tolerably  easy  about 
it,  as  at  my  time  of  life  I  must  expect  to  see  and  feel  the  pre- 
paration going  forward  for  the  extinction  of  vitality :  but  so 
long  as  it  remains  unaccomplished,  I  shall  remain,  my 
dear  Friend, 

Most  truly  yours, 

Edw.  Jenner. 
Berkeley,  215/  March,  1816. 

My  best  wishes  attend  Mrs.  Moore. 

To  James  Moore,  Esq. 

My  dear  Moore, 

Before  you  make  a  comparative  calculation  of  failures 
between  the  vaccine  and  variolous  inoculations,  you  must 
consider  the  immense  disparity  between  the  numbers  inocu- 
lated with  the  one  and  the  other.  If  you  calculate  on  a 
period  of  forty  years,  I  should  conceive  that  in  the  course 
of  the  last  twenty  years  there  have  been  at  least  five  times 
as  many  vaccinated  as  have  been  variolated. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JKNNER.  4()l 

Then  you  must  take  into  the  account  failures  attributable 
to  ignorance,  neglect,  &c.  &c.  &c.  Why  is  not  the  list  of 
failures  from  small-pox  brought  forth  ?  My  friend,  John 
Ring,  had  this  in  progress  some  years  ago ;  but  nothing  ap- 
pears in  a  compact  form  from  any  quarter.  No  less  than 
seventeen  of  such  cases  have  been  found  in  the  families  of 
the  nobility.  The  late  Mr.  Bromfield,  whom  you  must  re- 
collect was  surgeon  to  the  Queen,  abandoned  the  practice  of 
inoculation  in  consequence  of  his  failures,  one  of  which  was 
at  the  palace,  from  an  inoculation  with  a  portion  of  the 
same  thread  as  was  used  on  the  arms  of  the  Duke  of 
Clarence  and  Prince  Ernest,  the  Queen's  brother.  Is  not 
tliis  a  precious  anecdote  for  your  new  work  ? 

The  above  was  written  long  before  the  expiration  of  the 
last  year.     I  have  just  copied  it,  as  the  paper  was  injured, 
and  you  must  take  it  as  a  proof  that  I  do  not  intentionally 
neglect  you.     It  gives  me  pleasure  to  think  that  your  second 
volume  is  so  nearly  completed  ;  but  I  pray  you  not  to  let  it 
go  before  the  public  eye  till  it  has  passed  the  ordeal  of  mine. 
Many  new  lights  have  been  let  in  on  the  vaccine  practice  most 
certainly  since  my  own  observations  first  appeared.     With 
regard  to  the  late-formed  matter  and  the  scab,  there  is  still 
a  field  open  for  further  experiments.     I  will  communicate 
one   to  you  that  I  made  not  long  since.     Several  punctures 
were  made  in  the  arms  of  a  healthy  child  with  vaccine  mat- 
ter, taken  from  the  edges  of  the  vesicle  when  three-fourths  of 
the  centre  were  incrusted.     Not  one  of  them  took   effect. 
Some  weeks  afterwards,  with  a  solution  of  the   same  scab,  I 
vaccinated  effectually.     This,  I  think,  may  be  accounted  for — 
the  scab  is  made  up  of  the  early  as  well  as  the  late-formed 
matter.     On  this  point,  I  was  certainly  cautious  in  the  in- 
structions I  first  gave  out ;  for  an  error  on  my  part  in  this 
particular  could    not  possibly  be    injurious    to  the  public. 
Those  who    attacked  me   on   this  subject  made  themselves 
ridiculous,  as  they  made  me  say  what  I  never  said.*     I  am 
*  Especially  with  respect  to  the  areola. 

VOL.    II.  2    D 

402  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

grieved  to  observe  that  we  do  not  think  more  alike  upon  a 
practical  position  that  I  have  long  laid  down.     What  it  can 
arise  from,  I  am   quite  at  a  loss  to  discover.     I  allude  to 
diseases  of  the   skin   coincident  with  the   progress  of  the 
vaccine  vesicle.     You  name  to  me  a  case  of  tinea   capitis 
under  which  a  child  was  vaccinated,  and  every  thing  went 
right.     Why,  my  friend,  that  is  the  very  exception*  I  made 
in  my  paper  on  the  subject.     It  is  the  minor  affections  of 
the  skin — what   you  are   sometimes  obliged  to  search  for 
with  some  diligence, — which   more  frequently  occasion  the 
impediment.     If  I  am  deceived  in  this,  every  pupil  I  have 
ever  had  in  this  country  is  deceived  also ;  for  they  all  re- 
mark it. 

You  tell  me  you  have  got  a  good  report  for  the  present 
year — that  is  a  good  thing.  The  inclosed  paper  wall  amuse 
you,  but  probably  be  of  no  further  use.  The  drawing  of 
the  temple  which  accompanied  the  paper  is  mislaid  :  how- 
ever, you  will  find  it,  I  think,  in  your  Pantheon,  as  it  was  in 
that  of  Hygeia  at  Rome.  What  gratitude  !  and  in  a  region 
so  distant !  In  what  part  of  Britain,  should  you  and  I  take 
a  ramble,  could  we  discover  any  thing  like  this  ? 

I  suppose  it  will  be  my  fate  to  summer  among  my  oaks 
and  elms  (if  I  summer  at  all)  at  Berkeley :  but  the  book — 
this  is  a  most  interesting  thing.  Of  course  you  have  your 
proof  sheets,  or  sheets  of  some  description.  Could  not  you 
send  me  these  in  succession,  and  I  will  really  look  them  over 
and  send  them  back  with  all  the  care  and  expedition  in  my 
power.  Try  me  once  more.  I  feel  as  if  I  should  be  faith- 
ful— this  is  odd  language — but  my  meaning  is,  that  I  shall 
execute  the  task  with  fidelity  and  despatch,  unless  physically 

I  have  a  great  respect  for  your  elegant  cousin,  and  am 
liappy  to  hear  she  is  about  to  form  an  union  in  every  respect 

*  Not  an  absolute  exception.     The  contrary  appears  in  the 
case  of  Church,  published  by  Willan. 

LIFE    OF    DR.   JENNER.  403 

so  promising.  Give  her  my  best  congratulations,  and  unite 
with  them  those  of  my  daughter,  to  whom  you  were  all  so 
kind  when  she  was  in  town ;  and  I  must  not  forget  to  thank 
you  for  it.  Pray  send  me  a  list  in  your  next  of  the  Board^ 
of  which  you  speak  so  handsomely.  I  know  Latham  and 

To  refer  once  more  to  your  last  letter.  You  must  not 
risk  it  as  an  axiom  that  the  lymph  of  a  regular  vesicle,  when- 
ever taken,  will  excite  only  a  regular  vesicle.  It  might,  in- 
deed it  would,  in  A,  with  a  sound  skin  ;  but  it  is  ten  to  one 
if  it  would  in  B,  with  a  skin  on  which  any  of  the  irritative 
eruptions  aj^peared.  The  disturbance  of  the  specific  action 
going  forward  in  the  vesicles  by  the  rude  thrust  of  a  lancet, 
is  what  I  have  often  named  as  more  likely  to  weaken  or  even 
destroy  its  power  than  robbing  it  of  its  contents  by  means 
of  a  delicate  touch  or  touches.  The  following  is  a  curious 
fact ;  its  proof  occurred  in  a  village  in  this  country  not  long 
since.  A  female  had  been  vaccinated  by  means  of  a  single 
puncture — a  good  vesicle  appeared — from  this  several  of  her 
neighbours  were  vaccinated  at  different  times  during  its 
progress.  The  woman  caught  the  small-pox,  and  had  it 
severely.  This  excited  alarm  among  those  who  had  received 
the  infection  from  her ;  they  were  all  subjected  to  variolous 
inoculation,  and  all  resisted  it. 

I  have  told  you  ere  now  that  I  dislike  the  appearance  of  a 
large,  irregular  cicatrix  after  vaccination  as  much  as  I  do 
one  that  is  but  just  perceptible.  A  young  lady  whom  I 
lately  chanced  to  see,  and  who  had  been  vaccinated  when 
a  child,  had  a  mark  of  this  description  on  her  arm,  and  one 
only.  I  mentioned  my  suspicions,  and  she  readily  allowed 
me  to  insert  some  vaccine  lymph.  The  consequence  was, 
the  appearance  of  five  vesicles,  which  passed  through  their 
stages  correctly,  and  from  which  I  vaccinated  with  perfect 
effect.  I  have  inclosed  a  proof  impression,  the  seven- 
teenth in  succession,  and  hope  you  will  greatly  admire  my 
ingenuity,  as  well  as  the  amazing  length  of  my  letter ;  but 

2   D  2 

404  LIFE   OF    DR.    JENNER. 

lest  you  should  have  too  much  of  a  good  thing,  I  will   con- 

Believe  me,  dear  Moore, 
With  best  affections,  most  truly  yours, 

Edward  Jenner. 
I  am  half  disposed  to  think  the  first  part  of  my  letter  was 
sent  to  you  before ;  but,   right  or  wrong,  it  must  go  now. 
You  see  how  muddy  my  head  is. 

Did  you  ever  see  my  communications  to  Willan,  pub- 
lished in  his  work  on  the  Vaccine  ?     You  can  easily  get  it. 
Berkeley,  lOth  March,  181 7. 

P.S.  On  second  thoughts  I  shall  send  your  letter,  intended 
for  the  post  diy^ect,  to  the  care  of  Dr.  Hervey,  as  I  beheve  it 
will  reach  you  on  the  committee  day.  You  will  be  able,  I 
hope,  to  give  a  good  account  of  your  Essex  expedition.  Pray 
call  to  your  recollection  the  inquiry  that  formerly  took  place 
at  Ringwood.  The  patients  of  one  medical  man  there,  were 
almost  all  susceptible  of  small-pox  after  supposed  security 
from  vaccination,  while  those  of  another  escaped  the  con- 
tagion. The  true  mode  of  conducting  this  process  is,  for 
the  most  part,  very  imperfectly  understood  every  where. 

The  inconsiderate  have  a  shield.     If  they  fail,  no  blame, 
they  would  have  their  neighbours  believe,  attaches  to  them  ; 
it  is  the  thing  itself  that  is  imperfect.     They  know  no  more 
than  the  mere   outhne  of  the  practice,  that  is,  taking  the 
lymph  from  one  arm  and  inserting  it  into  another.     Some- 
times, indeed,  they  err  with  their    eyes   open.     A  medical 
man,  not  far  from  hence,  a  short  time  since  was  called  upon 
to  vaccinate  a  number  of  paupers  for  a  certain   sum.     The 
only  source  of  infection  was  two  very  imperfect  vesicles,  or 
rather  jmstules^  on  the  arms  of  a  scabby  child,  which  I  had 
condemned  as   deceptions.     Notwithstanding  this  sentence 
(being  in  the  situation  of  Shakspeare's  apothecary),  the  job 
was  done,  and  he  brought  home  beef  and  mutton  in  his 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  405 

I  shall  send  up  in  a  few  days  some  neivly  created  vaccine 

Ever  truly  yours, 

Edward  Jenner. 

The  following  letters  being  of  a  miscellaneous 
nature,  and  not  connected  with  vaccination,  have 
been  placed  in  their  present  order,  that  they  might 
not  interfere  with  that  subject. 

To  THE  Rev.  Dr.  Worthixgton,  Southend. 

Berkeley,  25th  Sept.  1809. 
My  dear  Sir, 

Before  I  say  any  thing  of  your  second  letter,  allow  me  to 
thank  you  most  sincerely  for  your  first.  You  endeavour  to 
cheer  me,  and  that  is  very  friendly  and  kind  of  you.  Mrs. 
Jenner  as  well  as  myself  is  sensible  of  your  goodness,  and 
begs  her  best  thanks.  There  is  no  material  alteration  in 
the  state  of  poor  Edward  since  I  last  wrote  to  you — no 
return  of  heemorrhage. 

The  epidemic  you  speak  of  has  not  been  observed  here ; 
at  least  it  has  not  come  under  my  observation  in  any  degree 
beyond  the  common  run  of  these  maladies.  Your  mind,  I 
know,  never  sleeps  over  human  calamities.  You  speak  of 
prevailing  ophthalmia.  Excuse  my  suggesting  the  great  be- 
nefit you  may  bestow  on  your  neighbours  by  the  free  use  of 
the  unguent,  hydrar.  nitrati.  Theory  says,  "  use  it  only 
when  the  eye-lids  are  aff*ected ;  "  but  practice  says,  "  spare  it 
not  when  the  eye  itself  is  as  red  as  a  cherry."  In  short,  I  have 
been  in  the  habit  of  using  it  in  ophthalmia,  under  all  its 
varieties,  with  the  most  decided  success.  In  cases  of  the 
most  violent  kind,  and  which  quickly  threaten  to  destroy  the 
eye,  I  introduce  a  seton  in  the  temple,  about  an  inch  from 
the  outward  angle  of  the  eye.  The  latter  practice  has,  I 
really  believe,  given  sight  to  thousands  since  I  first  made  it 

406  LIFE    OF    BR.    JENNER. 

public,  about  the  year  1783.  I  now  make  you  my  debtor, 
by  giving  two  receipts  for  one.  I  shall  put  about  your  plan 
for  making  good  butter,  but  Prejudice  is  a  giant :  however,  I 
shall  fling  my  pebbles  at  him  as  hard  as  I  can.  Your  ex- 
periments seem  to  have  decided  the  superior  excellence  of 
the  horse-hoe,  and  I  hope  you  will  give  a  paper  on  the  sub- 
ject to  the  Agricultural  Society,  of  which  I  have  the  honour 
to  be  a  member,  and  should  be  proud  to  transmit  it. 

I  should  have  been  happy  in  seeing  your  nephew  as  he 
passed  along.     Newport  is  only  a  mile  from  my  residence. 

You  must  be  disappointed  at  finding  a  certain  vacuum  in 
my  letter — no  vaccine  matter.  The  fact  is,  I  have  none  at 
present  but  what  I  fear  is  unlit  for  your  use.  Such  numbers 
have  been  vaccinated  around  me,  that  I  have  worked  myself 
out  of  employ,  and  can  now  only  catch  a  subject  occasionally 
as  it  drops  into  the  world.  I  shall  have  one  soon,  when  you 
shall  be  immediately  supplied.  But  if  you  are  in  a  hurry 
pray  write  to  the  National  Vaccine  Establishment  in  Lon- 
don. They  like  to  have  applications  from  professional  gen- 
tlemen in  the  country.  Direct  as  follows, — Dr.  Hervey, 
National  Vaccine  Establishment,  Leicester  Square,  under 
cover  directed  to  the  Secretary  of  State  for  the  Home  De- 

Believe  me,  my  dear  Sir,  most  truly  yours, 

Edw.  Jenner. 

To  THE  Rev.  Dr.  Wortiiixgton. 

Berkeley,  V6tk  Dec.  1809. 
My  dear  Sir, 
I  certainly  have  delayed  answering  your  letter  of  the 
tenth  of  November  beyond  any  reasonable,  and  I  almost 
fear,  pardonable  period ;  but  if  you  can  forgive  me,  pray 
do.  Nothing  would  plead  my  excuse  so  forcibly  as 
your  seeing  the  confusion  in  which  I  am  doomed  to  live, 
and  nothing  but  your  seeing  it  would  give  an  adequate  idea 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  407 

of  it,  for  it  defies  the  power  of  description.  I  am 
by  accident^  you  know,  become  a  public  character;  and 
having  the  worst  head  for  arrangement  that  ever  was  placed 
on  a  man's  shoulders,  I  really  think  myself  the  most  unfit 
for  it.  You  may  form  some  judgment  of  my  accumulated 
vexations,  when  I  tell  you,  that  I  am  at  this  moment  more 
than  a  hundred  letters  behindhand  with  my  correspondents. 
I  have  lately  been  deprived  of  the  aid  of  my  secretary. 
He  was  cut  off  by  the  same  dreadful  disease,  which,  I  fear, 
will  shortly  take  from  me  my  son.  He,  poor  fellow,  still 
exists,  though  I  cannot  but  consider  his  case  as  hopeless. 
His  cough  has  somewhat  subsided,  but  his  pulse  is  seldom 
under  one  hundred  and  twenty,  and  he  is  extremely  ema- 
ciated. One  thing  is  remarkable,  from  the  commencement 
of  the  disease  to  the  present  period,  I  do  not  think  the  se- 
cretions discharged  from  the  lungs  (pus,  mucus,  or  what- 
ever they  may  be)  would  amount  to  half  a  pound  in  weight. 
Allow  me,  my  dear  Sir,  to  thank  you  for  the  very  kind  and 
soothing  manner  in  which  you  speak  of  him.  Mrs.  Jenner 
feels  this  as  well  as  myself,  and  desires  to  join  her  thanks 
with  mine.  What  dreadful  strides  pulmonary  consumption 
seems  to  be  making  over  every  part  of  our  island.  I  trust 
some  advantage  may,  one  day  or  another,  be  derived  from 
my  having  demonstrably  made  out  that  what  is  tubercle  in 
the  lungs  has  been  hydatid.  But  I  must  not  tell  you  a  long 
story  on  this  subject  now,  as  you  must  be  impatient  for  my 
going  into  another.  I  M^as  quite  delighted  with  the  detail  of 
your  successful  experiments  in  the  profitable  science  of  agri- 
culture, and  am  happy  to  find  you  have  finished  your  Re- 
port ;  but  if  my  letter  is  not  destroyed,  and  you  can  refer  to 
it,  I  believe  you  will  find  that  I  told  you  I  was  a  member  of 
the  Board  of  Agriculture,  meaning  that  in  London.  If  I 
said  the  Agricultural  Society,  you  have  certainly  been  led 
into  an  error.  Thinking  your  observations  worthy  of  the  fiist 
society  in  Europe,  I  did  not  look  to  the  second.  Utrum 
harum  ?     It  may  not  be  material.     Your  design,  I  know,  is 

408  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

to  impart  knowledge ;  and  if  your  paper  is  drawn  up  for  the 
express  purpose  of  going  to  the  Bath  Society,  I  can  convey 
it  there  with  great  ease,  being  intimately  acquainted  with  the 
presidents  of  both.  To  convince  you  how  attentive  I  have 
been  to  your  letter,  you  must  know  that  I  made  an  effort  to 
have  a  drop  of  good  cider  in  my  house  as  well  as  yourself, 
and  imprisoned,  as  firmly  as  I  was  able,  a  hogshead  of  apple- 
juice  fresh  from  the  mill ;  but  about  the  tenth  day  it  seemed 
so  determined  to  break  loose,  that  to  prevent  the  bursting  of 
the  cask,  I  was  obhged  to  give  it  liberty :  perhaps  I  was  not 
sufficiently  expeditious,  for  it  must  be  confessed  that  one 
half  of  it  had  been  exposed  to  the  air  the  day  before  the 
whole  was  bunged  up.  I  anticipate  great  crops  of  pota- 
toes, &c.  &c.  if  I  live  to  see  another  summer.  Pray  do  not 
suffer  what  I  have  said  respecting  my  pile  of  letters  to  deter 
you  from  writing  to  me,  if  you  can  put  vip  with  such  a  bad 
correspondent  as  I  have  proved  myself  to  be.  Indeed,  if 
you  do  not  write  to  me  soon,  I  shall  think  you  are  offended, 
and  believe  me  that  would  make  a  heavy  addition  to  my  bur- 
den of  cares. 

With  great  regard,  my  dear  Sir,  truly  yours, 

Edward  Jexner. 

To  THE  Rev.  Dk.  Wortiiixgtox. 

My  dear  Sir, 
I  know  you  Avill  require  no  apology  from  me  for  suffering 
your  last  letter  to  remain  so  long  unanswered.  You  know 
the  sad  movements  of  the  mind  in  a  case  like  mine,  and  how 
it  sits  brooding  over  melancholy,  unless  absolutely  dragged  out 
of  it.  I  have  placed  your  letter  in  my  view  for  some  time 
past ;  and  it  has  at  length  urged  me  to  take  )iiy  pen  and  an- 
swer it.  First,  let  me  thank  you  for  your  little  essay  on  con- 
solation ;  you  are  perfectly  right ;  a  person  under  affliction 
had  better  be  left  to  his  undisturbed  meditations.  But,  my 
good  Sir,  you  have  been  useful  to  us  without  being  conscious 
of  it ;  you    have  inculcated  that    great   Christian  principle 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  409 

humility  in  so  impressive  a  way  in  one  of  your  sermons,  that 
I  feel  greatly  obliged  to  you  for  it. 

After  the  account  I  have  given  of  myself,  you  may  sup- 
pose your  Agricultural  Report  is  still  lying  among  my 
papers.  Believe  me  it  has  long  been  a  hundred  miles  off, 
and  in  the  hands  of  Lord  Somerville.  Indeed,  ere  now  I 
should  suppose  it  has  reached  its  place  of  destination,  the 
Board  of  Agriculture,  where  I  anticipate  its  meeting  with 
the  reception  it  merits. 

The  state  of  your  drilled  wheat,  I  hope  will  make  con- 
verts of  the  surrounding  peasantry.  The  difference  between 
yours  and  theirs  is  this  :  yours  had  a  plentiful  larder  to  go  to, 
while  theirs  was  starved,  or  at  least  had  not  sufficient  sup- 
plies to  keep  out  the  cold.  It  was  that  dreadfid  frosty  night 
which  came  suddenly  about  nine  weeks  ago,  that  made  such 
havoc  among  vegetation.  Its  effects  are  every  where  visi- 
ble here.  Pray  do  not  part  with  youx  free  martin ;  it  will 
be  a  beavitiful  animal,  and  docile  and  useful  in  your  fields  as 
the  ox.  I  have  dissected  many ;  but  why  this  mingling  of 
the  sexes  should  arise  under  such  circumstances,  eludes  all 
my  guesses.  Some  of  the  tricks  going  forward  among  the 
inhabitants  of  the  uterus  I  have  long  since  pretty  well 
made  out ;  but  this  is  too  much  for  me.  I  was  the  first 
who  made  the  fact  known  (some  thirty  years  ago)  to  Mr. 
Hunter.  He  soon  went  to  work  upon  the  subject,  and  the  re- 
sult was  an  excellent  paper  in  the  Philosophical  Transactions. 
It  was  re-pubhshed  in  his  work  on  the  Animal  Economy. 

I  want  to  have  a  deal  of  talk  with  you  on  matters  of  this 
sort  before  I  go  hence.  Oh  that  you  had  but  taken  the  Pe- 
dington  farm  !  But  it  is  wrong  to  repine,  all  is  right.  We 
see  through  a  mist,  and  shall  till  our  eyes  receive  a  new  lus- 
tre.     God  bless  you  and  yours  ! 

Yours,  my  dear  Sir,  most  faithfully, 

Edward  Jenner. 
Berkeley,  5th  April  1810. 

P.  S.  Your  son  has  my  begt  wishes.  From  what  I  have 
heard  of  Mr.  Freer,  his  situeition  must  be  very  promising. 

410  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER 

To  THE  Rev.  Dr.  Worthington. 

My  dear  Sir, 

I  received  the  inclosed  by  last  night's  post,  and  hasten  to 
lay  it  before  you,  both  for  your  credit  and  my  own  too. 
I  am  unfortunately  a  little  given  to  procrastination  ;  and  ray 
character,  I  have  reason  to  apprehend,  is  beginning  to  be 
known  some  thirty  miles  north  of  me.  But  a  word  in  exte- 
nuation— I  am  more  apt  to  neglect  my  own  affairs  than  those 
of  my  friends.  This  mode  of  conduct  we  philosophers  can 
account  for.  A  man  will  get  censured  for  neglecting  the 
latter ;  but  with  regard  to  himself,  he  can  easily  accommo- 
date the  matter.  Having  proved,  then,  by  the  inclosed  certi- 
ficate from  my  Lord  Somerville,  how  well  I  have  executed 
the  business  entrusted  to  my  care,  I  hope  it  will  recommend 
me  so  strongly  to  your  attention,  that  you  wiU  take  me  into 
your  service  whenever  you  can  make  me  in  the  least  degree 

I  suppose  you  are  now  in  the  midst  of  that  pleasant 
branch  of  agriculture,  potatoe-planting.  What  a  gift  from 
Heaven  was  this  extraordinary  vegetable — a  ready-made 
loaf — and  reserved  too,  till  the  hour  when  population,  in 
these  realms  at  least,  began  first  to  increase ;  and  then 
coming  we  scarcely  know  how.  Away  with  Malthus  and 
his  drear)'  speculations  !  The  skies  are  filled  with  Benevo- 
lence, and  let  population  increase  how  it  may,  let  us  not 
distrust  it,  and  suppose  that  men  will  ever  pick  the  bones  of 
each  other.  To  descend  a  step  or  two,  I  find  that  at  this 
season  of  the  year  and  at  the  first  coming  of  the  potatoe, 
in  order  to  have  it  in  perfection  at  my  table,  I  must  deviate 
from  that  mode  of  cookery  (certainly  the  best  from  October  to 
March),  which  has  been  pointed  out  by  the  Irish,  namely,  put- 
ting it  into  cold  water  and  suffering  the  water  gradually  to  rise 
to  the  boiling  heat ;  but  7ioiv  a  plunge  into  boiling  water  at  once 
is  the  thing,  where  it  must  remain  till  the  process  is  finished. 
Steam  I  found  equally  bad  witl^the  cool  regimen ;  it  renders 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  411 

a  potatoe  viscid  and  watery,  which  dressed  in  the  other  way- 
is  mealy,  and  readily  crumbles  under  the  knife  or  spoon. 
If  any  thing  further  can  add  to  the  improvement,  it  is  a  little 
steaming,  when  the  net  is  taken  from  the  pot,  under  close 
cover.  Will  your  cook  pardon  this  impertinent  intrusion 
upon  her  province  ? 

Believe  me  truly  yours, 

Edward  Jenner. 
Berkeley,  25  th  April,  1810. 

From  Lord  Somerville  to  Dr.  Jenner. 

Pardon  me,  my  dear  Doctor,  for  not  replying  sooner  to 
your  obliging  letter ;  but  I  have  had  a  cold-street,  hot-room, 
silk-stocking,  champagne  fever  in  London,  which  has  con- 
fined me  to  the  bed  for  some  days,  or  you  should  have  heard 
from  me  before. 

When  my  great  sale  of  sheep  is  over,  which  will  be  in  eight 
days,  I  shall  have  both  leisure  to  present  and  pleasure  in 
doing  the  needful  with  Dr.  Worthington^s  excellent  Treatise; 
it  now  lies  in  my  portfolio  ready  for  action ;  but  I  wish  to 
be  there  when  it  is  read. 

You  keep  aloof  in  this  new  Vaccine  National  Establish- 
ment, and  wise  you  are  in  doing  it,  for  Avell  I  know  that  the 
mean  spirit  which  presides  sometimes,  of  jealousy  and  in- 
trigue, is  hostile  to  your  nature  ;  and  you  are  now  enabled 
to  keep  a  whip  ready  for  the  backs  of  those  who  play  foul 
in  it ;  in  this  way  you  will  be  of  twice  the  use  you  could 
otherwise  be.  In  every  sense  of  the  word  I  am  alive  to 
every  thing  that  can  do  you  honour  or  profit.  When  you 
come  to  town  you  owe  me  a  visit  at  this  farm,  which  for 
purity  of  air  and  beauty  of  views  can  hardly  be  equalled. 

Ever  very  sincerely. 
My  dear  Sir, 

I  am  yours, 


Fair-Mile  Farm,  Cohhamf  Surrey. 

412  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

To  THE  Rev.  Dr.  Worthington. 

Berkeley,  4th  May,  1810. 
My   dear  Sir, 

I  have  been  favoured,  since  my  last  dispatch  to  Southend, 
with  your  neat  little  Essay  on  Vaccination  and  your  obser- 
vations on  dipping.  Have  you  seen  an  account  of  some 
bold  Vaccine  transactions  now  going  forward  among  the 
medical  men  of  the  county  ?  Their  resolutions  appear  in 
the  Gloucester  and  Cheltenham  papers.  Your  county  I 
hope  will  soon  follow  this  laudable  example.  The  small-pox 
will  never  be  subdued,  so  long  as  men  can  be  hired  to 
spread  the  contagion  by  inoculation. 

With  regard  to  the  other  subject  you  mention,  be  assured 
my  thoughts  have  not  been  idle  upon  it,  having  lived  man 
and  boy  much  beyond  half  a  century  in  a  dipping  country. 
Pyrton  Passage,  four  miles  only  from  this  place,  has  been 
noted  for  this  practice  time  immemorial;  and  true  it  is,  I 
never  saw  or  heard  of  a  single  case  of  hydrophobia  after 
dipping  in  the  Severn,  or  as  our  friend  Westfaling  has  it, 
drowning;  for  so  it  is,  as  you  shall  hear.  I  once  asked  a 
long-experienced  professor  what  length  of  time  he  kept  his 
patients  under  water  ?  His  reply  was,  "  As  to  that  I  can^t 
tell,  but  I  keep  them  under  till  they  have  done  kicking, 
when  I  bring  them  up  to  recover  their  senses  and  get  a 
little  breath,  and  then  down  with  them  again,  and  so  on  to 
a  third  time,  observing  the  same  rule,  not  to  take  them  up 
till  their  struggle  is  over." 

You  see  then  what  a  shock  the  vital  principle  receives 
from  this  process.  The  modus  operandi  let  us  not  trouble 
our  heads  about,  if  the  fact  can  be  established  that  it  deadens 
the  action  of  the  inserted  virus.  I  have  wished  to  see  how 
far  it  can  be  supported  by  analogy,  by  getting  some  vacci- 
nated patient  dipped  within  a  few  days  after  the  insertion  of 
the  vaccine  lymph.     At  all  events  an  inquiry  so  highly  im- 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  413 

portant  should  be  taken  up,  and  it  cannot  be  in  better  hands 
than  yours. 

The  case  of  the  unfortunate  farmer  is  extremely  interest- 
ing, and  I  look  forward  to  your  reports  upon  it  with  much 
anxiety.  A  person  is  certainly  in  more  danger  after  receiv- 
ing the  poison  on  the  hand  or  the  face  than  on  other  parts, 
for  obvious  reasons.  The  tooth  must  be  wiped  by  the 
clothes  before  it  can  reach  them. 

I  expect  to  hear  from  my  Lord  Somerville  as  soon  as  your 
papers  have  been  presented  and  read. 

Believe  me  most  truly  yours, 

Edward  Jenner. 

To  THE  Rev.  Dr.  Worthington. 

London,  Fladong^s  Hotel,  Oxford 
Street,  June  2Qth,  1811. 
My  DEAR  Sir, 
A  great  bundle  of  letters  has  just  reached  me  b)^  the 
Gloucester  coach.  Yours  of  the  20th  is  among  the  number, 
and  if  I  do  not,  in  spite  of  the  worries  of  this  shocking  place, 
take  immediate  notice  of  it,  what  will  you  think  of  me  ?  I 
am  much  obliged  to  the  bed  of  nettles  ;  they  have  introduced 
you  to  a  very  pleasant  family,  with  whose  ancestry  I  have 
heretofore  played  all  the  pranks  you  speak  of.  I  have  gone 
further,  and  entertained  a  tea-party  by  placing  the  young 
cuckoo,  when  about  four  days  old,  on  the  table,  in  its  little 
twiggy  cottage,  where  I  have  caused  it  to  exhibit  its  won- 
derful performances  of  discarding  any  thing  placed  there  not 
too  ponderous  for  it  to  carry  up  to  the  edge  of  the  nest  and 
throw  out.  Pray  be  attentive  to  your  young  charge,  as  you 
will  be  able  to  confirm  what  I  have  said  on  this  extraordi- 
nary subject.  A  little  search  may  perhaps  bring  more  nests 
to  your  view. 

I  told  Westfaling,  in  a  conversation  on  dipping,  that  there 
might  be  bad  dippers  as  well  as  bad  vaccinators,  for  which 

414  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

there  seems  at  present  to  be  no  allowance.  Pray  do  not  be 
deterred  from  prosecuting  your  inquiry.  Yesterday  I  dined 
with  Professor  Davy.  I  wish  you  had  been  with  us.  His 
mind  is  all  in  a  blaze.  He  seems  to  be  one  of  those  rare 
productions  which  nature  allows  us  to  see  once  in  a  score  of 
centuries.  We  touched  on  hydrophobia.  He  started  an 
ingenious  idea,  that  of  counteracting  the  effects  of  one  mor- 
bid poison  with  another.  What  think  you  of  a  viper  ?  Not 
its  broth,  but  its  fang,  as  soon  as  the  first  symptom  of  disease 
appears  from  canination.  If  this  should  succeed,  we  must 
domiciliate  vipers  as  Vv^e  have  leeches.  But  from  this  hint 
I  should  be  disposed  to  try,  under  such  an  event,  vaccina- 
tion ;  as  it  can  almost  always  be  made  to  act  quickly  on  the 
system,  whether  a  person  has  previously  felt  its  influence  or 
not,  or  that  of  the  small-pox. 

An  answer  to  one  of  your  questions.  I  am  sure  the 
cuckoo  has  nothing  to  do  with  hatching,  as  all  the  adults 
are  off,  while  a  great  number  of  their  eggs  remain  unhatched. 
I  should  put  dogs  quite  out  of  the  question  in  the  new  re- 
search, and  confine  myself  totally  to  the  human  animal ;  I 
mean,  with  respect  to  dipping. 

Success  to  your  crops.  I  should  like  to  see  them  before 
they  fall  beneath  the  sickle  ;  and  do  not  yet  quite  despair. 
My  stay  here  will  be  a  few  days  longer  only.  You  can 
never  write  too  often,  or  too  much  to  me ;  but  how  can  you 
put  uj)  with  such  shocking  returns  for  your  kindness  ? 
When  your  cuckoo  has  gone  through  all  his  manoeuvres, 
pray  give  me  your  notes. 

Believe  me. 

Most  truly  yours, 

E.  Jemner. 

To  Mr.  E.  Gardner,  Frampton. 

Gloucester,  Saturday,  April  I3th,  18 IG. 
Dear  Gardner, 
I  do  not  think  you  haA^e  written  to  me  since  the  time  you 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  415 

promised  to  spend  the  Easter  vacation  at  Berkeley.  It 
would  be  a  shock  to  you  to  stalk  into  the  old  cottage,  and 
find  nothing  within  it  but  chairs  without  associates,  grates 
without  fires,  and,  worse  still,  tables  with  nothing  on  them 
but  their  varnish.  In  good  truth  I  am  still  at  Gloucester, 
under  the  roof  of  my  friend  Baron,  and  have  been  detained 
here  the  whole  of  this  tremendous  assize.  My  intention  is 
to  quit  this  place  (rendered  dreary  by  the  tragic  scene  at 
this  instant  about  to  be  acted  on  the  horrid  platform)  to- 
morrow, and  go  to  Berkeley ;  but  what  renders  my  return 
home  a  little  uncertain  is  a  bad  catarrh,  accompanied  with 
sore  throat  and  head  ache.  If  Monday,  then,  was  the  day 
you  fixed  upon  for  coming  to  Berkeley,  pray  do  not  put  it  off; 
my  motive  for  writing  being  nothing  more  than  taking  off 
the  fear  that  you  might  possibly  go  to  Berkeley  and  be  dis- 
appointed, and,  indeed,  more  than  disappointed,  for  you 
might  feel  hurt  at  being  neglected  by  an  old  friend.  I 
should  like  for  you  to  collect  the  feelings  of  the  country  re- 
specting the  execution,  as  I  must  go  deeply  into  the  consi- 
deration of  the  case  when  we  meet.  They  certainly  did  not 
ofo  out  with  intent  to  commit  murder.  But  it  is  somehow 
expected  that  the  meanest  individual  in  the  state  is  to  be 
acquainted  with  our  penal  laws  and  all  their  intricacies.  But, 
in  my  opinion,  this  is  unreasonable,  for  no  general  provision 
is  made  for  engrafting  this  knowledge  on  the  mind.  An 
outline  might  be  imparted  by  our  clergy,  by  reading  to  their 
congregations  four  times  a  year  a  sketch  of  these  laws ;  at 
the  same  time  they  might  be  blended  with  moral  instruction  : 
so  that  the  laws  and  the  evil  consequences  of  breaking  them 
might  be  committed  to  memory  at  the  same  time.  In  short, 
the  village  peasant  knows  no  more  at  present  of  the  laws 
which  are  to  act  as  restraints  on  his  vicious  inclinations — that 
is,  when  they  move  into  paths  of  intricacy — than  the  village 
doctor  does  of  those  of  the  animal  economy.  We  want  a 
new  school.  Experience  has  shewn  that  the  present  system 
of  tuition  with  respect  to  instructing  children  in  the  know- 

416  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

ledge  of  the  Creator  is  faulty  in  the  extreme,  and  I  have 
every  reason  to  think,  that  the  plan  I  have  long  proposed, 
and  with  which  you  are  acquainted,  if  acted  upon,  would 
prove  of  incalculable  importance  to  the  rising  generation. 

Dear  Gardner, 

Truly  yours, 

E.  Jenner. 

P.S.  I  have  every  expectation  of  going  home  to-morrow. 

To  THE  Rev.  W.  Davies,  Rockhampton. 

Dear  William, 

I  must  wait  patiently  till  I  find  an  opportunity  of 
going  with  you  for  the  purpose  of  exploring  the  Breccia 
rocks  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Thornbury.  For  this  pur- 
pose I  must  have  a  clear  day  and  a  clear  head,  that  is,  I 
must  seize  on  some  lucky  hour,  if  I  can  find  it,  when  I  can 
get  rid  of  perplexity,  and  think  of  one  thing  at  a  time.  If 
one  could  manage  the  rays  of  thought  as  easily  as  those  of 
the  sun,  bring  them  to  a  focus,  and  to  bear  upon  a  particu- 
lar point,  what  clever  fellows  we  should  be  !  Perhaps  too 
clever  for  the  scheme  of  Providence  :  so  we  must  take  things 
as  they  are,  be  humble,  and  be  thankful. 

Your  brother  Edward,  I  find,  is  very  soon  going  to  town  ; 
will  you  desire  him  to  purchase  for  me,  at  some  I'eputable 
shop,  a  few  packets  of  good  garden  seeds,  such  as  carrot, 
onion,  lettuce,  &c.  &c.  and  the  most  dwarfish  of  all  the  dwarf 
peas  ?  There  is  a  sort  which  grows  scarcely  higher  than  this 
sheet  of  paper,  and  are  excellent  bearers.  I  am  going  to 
Kingscote  to-morrow,  to  see  poor  little  Caroline.  I  fear, 
poor  thing,  the  injury  will  prove  too  severe  for  her,  and  that 
she  will  sink  from  the  extent  of  it.  What  pity  it  is,  that 
precaution  with  regard  to  fire  is  scarcely  ever  attended  to  in 
our  nurseries.  A  shower  bath,  constantly  charged,  should 
be  ever  ready  as  an  instantaneous  extinguisher.     This  I  have 


LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  417 

been  recommending  very  generally  for  many,  many  years,  but 
I  never  heard  that  one  was  put  up  in  consequence.  Remote 
evil  is  seldom  heeded. 

Adieu !    Aflfectionately  yours, 

Edward  Jenner. 
Berkeley,  Jan.  14,  1818. 

To  THE  Rev.  Dr.  Wortiiington. 

Berkeley,  January  26',  1818. 

You  si^eak  to  me,  my  dear  doctor,  about  indulging  hope. 
I  have  almost  done  with  this  business,  and  it  is  very  odd 
one  should  continue  to  grasp  at  it  so  long,  when  it  is  as  slip- 
pery as  a  soaped  pig's  tail.  Did  you  ever  watch  little  boys 
running  after  butterflies?  A  pretty  picture  of  Hope  this. 
And  now  about  corporal  strength  and  animal  spirits. 

The  corporal  is  in  tolerably  good  condition  and  fit  for 
service  ;  but  of  the  latter,  if  I  give  any  account  at  all,  it 
must  be  such  a  miserable  one,  that  I  will  spare  the  feelings 
of  a  friend,  and  say  nothing. 

What,  poor  Maria  not  well  yet  ?  The  fashionable  remedy 
.  is  laurel  leaves,  made  limp  by  the  fire  like  the  leaves  of  the 
cabbage,  when  used  as  an  application.  As  for  myself,  I  have 
not  a  fair  chance,  as  I  am  tossed  about  in  carriages  from 
morning  to  night  over  roads  I  should  suppose  as  bad  as 
ever  the  coachman  of  Julius  Csesar  drove  over.  You  little 
think  what  a  condition  this  Swindon-batter'd  shoulder  of 
mine  is  in — seldom  free  from  pain  by  day,  and  at  night  it 
often  so  terrifies  poor  quiet  Morpheus,  he  won't  come  near 
me.     What  is  all  this  about  Beavan  and  the  Blues  ? 

I  must  not  forget  to  tell  you  that  I  have  a  weekly  stock 
of  vaccine  fluid,  some  of  which  shall  become  solid  across  the 
Atlantic  whenever  you  will  order  it.  A  letter  at  the  same 
time  might  be  useful,  as  the  matter  (which  I  shall  take  care 
to  mention)  has  not  been  many  months  taken  from  its  ori- 
ginal source ;  and  all  they  have  now  in  use  in  America  has 

VOL.    II.  2    E 


418  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

been  passing  there  from  arm  to  arm  for  nearly  the  fifth  part 
of  a  century. 

Catherine  is  still  on  the  hills  at  the  ill-fated  house  of 
Kingscote,  where  she  officiates  as  first  nurse.  I  begin  to  think 
the  burnt  girl  will  recover.  Poor  dear  Harriet's  case  re- 
mains undetermined.  I  shall  never  prevail  on  any  one  to 
keep  a  shower  bath  in  some  corner  of  a  nursery,  charged. 
Were  a  child  on  fire,  it  might  be  extinguished  in  an  instant ; 
and,  indeed,  just  as  soon  on  a  full  grown  female.  Well ; 
such  a  letter  as  this  for  length  has  not  been  thrown  off  the 
nib  of  my  pen  for  many  a  month.  Shall  you  be  ever  able  to 
get  through  it  ?  Certainly  not,  if  I  go  on  much  longer ;  so, 
adieu,  my  good  doctor,  and  with  kind  regards  to  aU  at  the 
Albion,  believe  me  most  sincerely  yours, 

Edward  Jenxer, 

To  THE  Rev.  Dr.  Wortiiington. 

My  dear  Doctor,  Berkeley,  May  2,  1818. 

I  suppose  I  am  got  into  a  sort  of  scrape  with  you,  but  it 
will  be  very  strange  if  the  day  should  not  extricate  me. 
Three  letters  from  Swindon  !  All  prime,  too — right  genuine ; 
and  not  one  answered  yet.  Too  bad  !  There  is  my  confes- 
sion ;  take  it,  and  be  merciful. 

You  must  be  impatient  to  know  something  about  my 
petition  to  the  India  House  in  favour  of  Mr.  Roberts.  This 
has  been  made  some  time  since,  but  not  the  least  notice  has 
yet  been  taken  of  it.  On  this  I  put  a  construction  so  far 
favourable,  that  it  is  clearly  under  consideration.  Observe, 
I  did  not  make  my  application  to  the  directors  point  blank ; 
for  they  are  all  under  obligations  to  me,  and  consequently 
wovild  have  thrown  my  letter  with  a  "  pish "  under  their 
table,  in  a  moment.  It  was  made  to  a  banker  who  is  inti- 
mate with  many  of  them,  and  who,  on  a  former  occasion, 
got  me  a  cadetship  for  a  young  man  of  this  place.  I  almost 
envy  you  when   you   are  talking  of  the  state  of  your  fine 

LIFE  OF  DR.  jennp:r.  419 

vegetables.  I  can  get  nothing  but  a  few  spring  greens. 
Ragged  jacks  and  jerusalenis  I  will  show  with  any  body ; 
but  if  you  want  a  capital  thing,  get  some  Bucla  kale- 
seed,  and  sow  immediately.  The  grass,  &c.  which  I  put 
into  trenches  last  summer  in  my  kitchen  garden,  re- 
mains nearly  in  a  state  of  perfect  preservation.  How 
is  this  ?  I  did  it  from  a  rule  laid  down  in  the  works 
of  the  Horticultural  Society ;  which  paper,  by  the  way, 
was  copied  by  the  fair  Emilia  for  you.  Old  John  and 
I,  at  last,  after  about  thirty  years'  association,  are  come 
asunder ;  or  rather  we  did  separate,  and  are  again  forming 
something  like  an  acquaintance  with  each  other.  The  old 
Celt  dug  up  all  my  precious  beet-root,  just  as  it  was  in  high 
perfection,  and  conveyed  it  to  the  dung-heap.  Within  a 
week  old  John  felt  the  loss  of  the  pantry  so  much,  that  one 
half  of  him  evaporated.  I  am  daily  expecting  packets  of 
seeds  from  Italy  and  the  south  of  Spain.  Nothing,  you 
know,  ripened  here  last  year.  When  will  our  seas  disgorge 
the  polar  ice  ?  If  all  of  it  is  to  make  the  tour  of  the  At- 
lantic, what  will  become  of  us  while  this  is  about  ? 

Wliat  could  destroy  poor  Griffiths  ?  It  could  not  be 
fulness  in  the  head.  When  his  successor  is  established,  and 
all  the  new  arrangements  are  completed,  then  for  a  compli- 
mentary reply  to  a  certain  paper  on  the  subject  of  flannel  in 
contact  with  the  skin.  If  ever  taraxacum,  the  tooth  of  the 
lion,  bit  off  the  head  of  disease,  it  must  have  been  at  such  a 
season  as  this.  It  never  appeared  to  be  more  sharply  set. 
"  Farewell,  a  long  farewell."  I  fear  ^^ou  have  all  taken  to 
this  place. 

To  THE  Rev.  Dr.  Worthington. 

Saturdaij  niyht,  Feb.  13,  1819. 

Yes,  my  good  doctor,  so  it  is,  and  so  it  ever  will  be.     The 

laws  enacted  by  that  mighty  Potentate,  whose  government  will 

have  no  end,  wall  never  be  repealed.     The  poor  dear  woman, 

whose  untimely  loss  we  now  deplore,  had,  it  seems,  for  seve- 

2  E  2 

420  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

ral  months  past,  those  premonitory  whisperings  in  her  ear, 
which  led  her  to  beheve  her  days  were  nearly  at  an  end. 
How  often  we  witness  this;  and  in  those,  who,  like  herself, 
were  apparently  in  good  health.  My  nephew  carried  his 
heavy  load  of  affliction  with  a  firm  and  steady  step,  and  is 
making  some  admirable  arrangements  for  the  welfare  of  his 
young  family.  Emily,  I  believe,  is  acquainted  with  one, 
which  seems  to  be  highly  promising. 

Ere  now,  I  trust  you  are  liberated  from  the  dreary  charge 
you  took  upon  yourself  in  your  own  family  ;  but  when  you 
say  you  have  been  long  watching  over  the  afflicted  domestic, 
do  you  really  speak  literally  ?     If  so,  I  must  say  you  have 
been  unnecessarily  bold.     I  saw  it  carried  to  an  extreme  in 
iliejirst  case.     Watching  the  progress  of  this  epidemic  as  I 
have  for  several  months  past,  I  am  warranted  in  saying  that 
it  is  more  contagious  than  any  thing  of  the  kind  ever  wit- 
nessed by  me  before,  but  far  less  destructive.  The  fatal  arrow 
seems  aimed  at  the  brain ;  and  if  we  can  so  blunt  its  point 
that  it  shall  not  penetrate  too  deep,  we  have  done   every 
thing.    You  have  got  Bateman.     He  seems  belter  informed 
on  the  subject  than  any  author  I  have  met  with  ;  but  why 
he  should  entirely  discard  antimony  from  his  remedies,  I  can- 
not conceive.     We  have  all,  perhaps,  our  prejudices.    One 
thing  I  cannot  help  naming  to  you,  as  you  have  been  very 
heedless  about  it ;  and  that  is  the  use  of  the  anti-pestilential 
vapour.     From  a  wide  range  of  observation,  I  can  speak  po- 
sitively of  its  guardian  powers.     We  have  at  last  imported 
the  disease  into  this  place.     Henry  Jenner,  who,  though  lie 
has  seen  nearly  half  a  century  fly  over  his  head,  has  not  yet 
begun  to  think,  perched  himself  in  the  midst  of  a  poor  family 
pent  up  in  a  small  cottage.     It  was  the  abode  of  wretched- 
ness, had  the  addition  of  pestilence  been  wanting.     He  was 
infected,  of  course  ;  and  his  recovery  is  very  doubtful.     I  am 
told  to-day  that  he  is  very  full  of  an  eruption,  the  appear- 
ance   of    which     stands    midway   between    small -pox   and 
chicken-pox.     This   has  been   spoken   of  by   some  of  the 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  421 

Dublin  and  Edinburgh  authors.  The  Cheltenham  Chro- 
nicle certainly  appears  here  weekly,  but  I  seldom  see  much 
more  of  it  than  its  cover.  On  searching,  I  have  found 
your  second  and  third  number,  but  shall  defer  my  critique 
till  I  find  the  first.  Why  did  you  not  mention  your  de- 
sign upon  us  sooner  ?  To  say  the  truth,  I  begin  to  lose 
my  relish  for  the  inquiry ;  and  not  only  this,  but  all  others. 
Yet  why  should  I  discard  fossils  ?  they  will  soon  be  my 
associates.  Never  did  I  spend  so  cheerless,  so  wretched  a 
winter.  I  am  become  a  "  sheer  hulk,"  my  masts  and  rigging 
all  shot  away. 

Old  Nixon  was  a  wonderful  fellow ;  but  what  this  unnatu- 
ral season  is  to  produce  who  can  tell  ?  Its  physical  conse- 
quences will  ere  long  appear.  Nothing,  I  hope,  will  happen 
to  destroy  a  certain  vegetable  yclepped  Nicotiana ;  if  so,  the 
little  remnant  of  my  comfort  is  snatched  from  my  life,  and 
all  is  lost ! 

Your  whole  house  have  the  best  wishes  of,  my  dear  doctor, 

Yours  most  truly, 
Edward  Jenner. 

On  looking,  I  perceive  it  is  your  middle  paper  that  is  miss- 

To  THE  Rev.  Dr.  Worthington. 

Berkeley,  Sept.  4,  181*>. 
My  DEAR  Doctor, 
It  was  not  till  within  these  three  days,  that  I  heard  you  had 
once  more  bent  your  steps  towards  your  Gloucestershire 
dwelling.  Some  reports  had  sent  you  into  France,  and 
others  had  made  you  a  wanderer  among  watering-places  on 
our  own  shores ;  but  I  am  happy  in  the  viva  voce  evidence 
of  a  reverend  divine,  who  was  your  fellow-traveller,  in  find- 
ing that  you  are  again  breathing  the  air  of  our  country. 
May  I  hope  that  ere  long  you  will  take  a  mouthful  or  two  of 
that  v.'hich  sweeps  over  the  meadows  of  our  ever-green  val- 
ley.    Are  you  alone  ?     I  hear  nothing  of  your  having  com- 

422  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

.  panions,  save  and  except  poor  old  Tartar,  Minx,  and  her 
kitten.  /  am  in  perfect  solitude,  and  have  been  so  these  six 
weeks.  Mr.  Fitzhardinge  is  grousing  in  the  Highlands,  and 
Catherine  is  in  Yorkshire. 

My  hot-house  has  been  beset  by  a  new  species  of  white 
blight ;  it  differs  somewhat  from  that  which  has  so  long  beset 
our  apple-trees ;  but  great  has  been  the  havoc  it  has  made 
among  the  vines.  Know  you  how  to  destroy  vermin  of  this  de- 
scription ?  One  occurrence  is  worth  remarking :  the  trees  at 
each  end  of  the  conservatory,  which  were  exposed  to  frequent 
fanning  by  the  opening  of  the  doors,  are  in  the  highest  vi- 
gour, free  from  vermin,  and  bearing  most  luxuriantly.  It 
shews  us  how  necessary  ventilation  is  to  vegetable  life.  As 
the  affair  between  me  and  letter-writing  is  nearly  come  to  a 
termination,  I  shall  desire  Stephen  Jenner  to  make  a  fill  up 
by  throwing  one  of  his  sketches  into  the  vacant  page. 

Most  truly  yours,  my  dear  doctor, 

Edward  JeiNner. 

P.  S.  Stephen,  I  see,  has  played  old  scratch  with  the 
paper ;  but  it  must  go,  and  you  must  keep  it  till  we  send  a 
better.  He  has  done  a  country  auction,  and  grou2:(ed  about 
thirty  figures.  In  my  opinion,  it  is  a  production  of  uncom- 
mon merit. 

We  are  all  at  a  loss  for  a  precise  direction. 

To  Dr.  Baron,  Gloucester. 

Berkeley,  Monday,  Jan.  12,  182 J. 
My  dear  Baron, 
I  am  frequently  hearing  of  your  amencled  health,  and  hope 
soon  to  find  that  you  are  wound  up  to  your  usual  standard, 
and  able,  without  the  aid  of  wheels,  to  come  and  spend  a 
day  at  the  Chantry.  If  you  do  not  come,  let  me  have  a 
line  soon. 

I  cannot  get  my  nerves  in  good  order.    Certain  sounds, 
such  as  I  am  frequently  exposed  to,  still  irritate  them  like 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  423 

an  electric  shock.  The  blunt  sounds,  such  as  those  issuing 
from  the  bells  in  the  tower,  two  pieces  of  wood  striking  each 
other — indeed,  obtuse  sounds  of  any  kind — do  not  harm  me ; 
but  the  sharp  clicking  of  tea-cups  and  saucers,  tea-spoons, 
knives  and  forks  on  earthen  plates,  so  distract  me,  that  I  can- 
not go  into  society  which  has  not  been  disciplined  and  learnt 
how  to  administer  to  my  state  of  distress.  But,  my  dear 
Baron,  I  will  not  repine,  I  have  enough  and  enough  of 
mercies  to  be  thankful  for  ;  and  trust  you  never  will  find  me 
ungrateful  to  the  Almighty  God  who  bestowed  them.  May 
you  have  his  blessings  !     Adieu,  my  dear  friend. 

With  best  affections,  most  truly  yours, 

Edward  Jenner. 
A  letter  of  mine,  which  I  never  expected  to  have  seen  in 
our  County  Paper,  appeared  there  this  morning  in  a  state  of 
perfect  nudity.  For  the  benefit  of  the  people  in  a  district 
in  Wiltshire,  I  allowed  some  of  their  chieftains,  who  ear- 
nestly entreated  me,  to  publish  it  in  the  Devizes  paper  ;  but 
it  was  preceded  by  a  letter  from  the  'squire,  and  followed  by 
another  from  Dr.  Headly,  a  man  of  the  first  reputation  and 
respectability  in  the  county  of  Wilts. 

To  THE  Rev.  Dr.  Wortiiington. 

Berkeley,  Feb.  24,  1821. 
I  have  Avritten  but  seldom  to  you  lately,  my  dear  doctor, 
for  I  have  met  with  very  little  worth  writing  about ;  at  least 
very  little  in  which  you  would  feel  interested.  Yet  you 
would  have  been  plagued  with  a  letter  or  two  full  of  nothing- 
ness (excuse  the  paradox)  had  not  my  old  ill  luck  pursued  me. 
I  rise  in  the  morning  tolerably  active,  and  disposed  to  work 
with  mind  and  muscle,  and  actually  do  work,  though  scarcely 
half  an  hour  in  the  day  in  the  way  I  could  wish,  from  in- 
cessant thwartings  and  interruptions.  What  is  to  be  done, 
then  ?  Those  who  understand  all  this,  will  not  corrugate 
their  faces  at  me;  those  who  do  not,  will :  but  it  must  be  borne. 

424  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

.  Another  thing,  too,  must  be  taken  into  the  account;  though  I 
boast  of  my  strength  in  a  morning,  yet  evening  seems  to 
come  before  its  time.  My  afternoon  is  all  evening,  and  my 
evening  midnight.  Such  are  the  uncontrollable  workings  of 
the  old  partners  mind  and  matter  (body  and  soul,  if  you 
will),  after  the  firm  has  been  very  long  established. 

I  hear  you  like  Bristol ;  and  that  the  people  behave  more 
than  civilly  to  you — kind  and  attentive;  that  you  have  received 
civic  honours,  and  I  know  not  what.  Is  it  so  ?  If  you  say 
yes,  I  shall  be  agreeably  surprised  at  their  civilky  and  dis- 
cernment. My  late  patient,  I  trust,  has  found  benefit  from 
the  pleasant  weather  we  have  had  so  long,  for  though  the 
nights  have  been  a  little  frosty,  the  days  have  been  deli- 
cious from  the  total  absence  of  currents  of  air.  My  best 
affections  to  her  and  her  sister. 

The  practice  of  an  humble  submission  to  our  misfortunes, 
or  what  we  are  apt  to  suppose  such,  is  the  best  smoother  of 
the  rugged  roads  of  life.  But  what  am  I  about?  stepping 
into  a  territory  that  belongs  to  you  and  not  to  me.  Pardon 
my  presumption,  my  dear  doctor ;  and  believe  me  with  best 

Most  truly  yours, 
Edward  Jenner. 

P.  S.  Mr.  Langharne  commonly  goes  down  to  Bristol 
every  Wednesday;  and  I  shall  keep  this  till  he  sets  off.  His 
return  is  generally  on  a  Friday  or  Saturday  morning.  I 
almost  forgot  to  thank  you  for  the  snuffers ;  capital,  like  the 
last  patent  corkscrew ;  superior  to  the  ne  plus  ultra. 

To  THE  Rev.  Dr.  Wobthington. 

Saturday,  June  16,  1821. 
My  dear  Doctor, 
As  I  cannot  apologise  for  myself  for  the  long  neglect  of 
your  numerous  and  intelligent  letters,  I   must  request  the 
favour  of  you  to  do  it  for  me.     Neglect,  do  I  say  ?     I  should 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  425 


not  bring  a  false  accusation  against  myself  neither.  It  is 
the  constant  occupation  of  my  mind  on  subjects  that  impe- 
riously demand  attention^  that  distracts  and  tears  me  away 
from  what  would  be  far  more  pleasant  to  my  feelings.  The 
pull  is  unequal,  and  go  I  must  when  the  tug  begins ;  for  the 
public  have  hold  of  one  end  of  the  rope,  and  an  individual, 
only,  of  the  other.  You  see,  then,  how  the  matter  stands  ;  and 
I  feel  certain  that  you  will  plead  for  me  if  arraigned  at  the 
Inchbrook  bar. 

You  have  been  kind  enougli  to  say  a  great  deal  to  me  on 
the  score  of  health,  and  in  two  points  I  have  profited 
materially  by  your  monitions^  namely,  exercise  and  diet. 
The  mile  before  breakfast,  briskly  performed,  is  a  capital 
prelude  to  the  correct  movements  of  the  living  machinery  for 
the  day,  at  least  this  puts  all  into  right  tune ;  it  resins  the 
bow,  and  puts  all  the  pegs  and  screws  in  their  right  places. 
Two  miles  before  dinner,  and  a  pretty  long  see-saw  walk 
after,  settles  the  account  between  me  and  my  props,  as  far  as 
the  aiFair  of  exercise  is  concerned  ;  but  how  stands  the  ma- 
nagement of  the  interior  ?  Thus: — I  indulge  the  natural  de- 
mands of  the  stomach  with  larger  supplies  both  of  wine  and 
animal  food,  even  to  the  libation  of  two  full  glasses  of  bronti, 
and  sometimes,  on  gcla  days,  to  as  large  a  potation  of  cider — 
wine  glasses,  mind  me.  The  scoop  is  an  utensil  I  cannot 
touch  without  burning  my  fingers.  My  sleep  is  sound,  and 
I  enjoy  enough  of  it.  I  go  to  bed  at  eleven,  and  rise  before 
eight.  Once  more,  and  I  have  done  with  my  egotisms.  The 
cHcks  still  annoy  me ;  but  far  more  faintly  than  when  you 
were  here  last.  Thomas,  as  usual,  daily  plants  his  batteries;  but 
though  he  seems  to  load  his  artillery  to  the  very  muzzles,  the 
balls  do  not  get  through  the  cranium  and  penetrate  the  inte- 
rior. In  addition  to  the  remedial  history,  I  should  tell  you, 
that  commonly  more  than  once  a  day  I  have  taken  a  weak 
solution  of  carbonate  of  soda,  which  the  learned  among  us 
now  insist  upon  it,  is  the  best  and  most  wholesome  alkali  of 
the  three. 

426  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

I  wish  you  a  pleasant  voyage  to  the  east.  Shall  you  not 
be  in  town  during  the  bustle  of  the  king's  crownation?  The 
broad  shadows,  which  the  enemies  of  vaccination  endea- 
voured to  cast  over  it,  are  vanishing.  Sunshine  takes  their 
place.  Pray  look  over  the  Gloucester  Journal  for  Monday 
next.  I  am  told,  that  Mr.  Richard  Hill  intends  to  say  a 
word  or  two  on  the  subject  to  some  of  the  faculty  in  Wotton. 
Twenty  in  that  small  town  already  slain  by  the  jooisoned 
arrow  of  Variola!  Is  not  this  too  shocking?  Can  you  for- 
bear saying  a  word  or  two  to  these  murderous  peoi^le,  after 
you  have  seen  what  comes  from  the  brain  of  the  Right  Rev. 
R.  H.  Look  back  and  invoke  the  same  genius  of  inspiration 
that  nestled  in  your  heart  when  you  penned  the  pathetic 
appeal  to  the  humanity  of  Cheltenham.  You  need  not  be 
in  a  hurry.  I  fear  the  mischief  is  not  finished.  These 
death-deeds  will  go  on  as  long  as  some  of  the  faculty  in 
Wotton  can  get  a  fee  for  their  perpetration. 

We  will  endeavour  to  keep  your  white  terrier  till  you  re- 
turn. The  animal  is  promising,  but,  at  present,  in  rather  a 
shapeless  state,  which,  I  understand,  is  to  be  modelled  into 
the  beautiful,  by  the  hand  of  Time.  I  have  procured  a  brace 
of  the  Genii  of  your  native  isle,  and  prevailed  upon  them  to 
be  placed  at  your  disposal,  among  your  Penates. 

Not  one  word  yet  for  poor  Mary ;  and  on  a  rummage  I 
can  scarcely  find  one.  The  same  monotony  that  is  to  be 
found  in  every  sequestered  village  in  the  world  dwells  here. 
Among  the  locomotive  corals  very  little  variety  is  to  be  found. 
The  fixtures  shine  in  all  their  lustre,  and  passing  downward 
in  the  scale,  attract  by  their  simplicity.  Nature's  primitive 
buildings  are  all  constructed  on  the  same  plan ;  the  coral  is 
as  perfect  as  the  man,  as  far  as  regards  the  stable  part  of  the 
building.  All  that  we  see  is  shell,  or  analogous  to  it,  fluids 
as  well  as  solids.  The  vital  principle  is  in  the  interior  of  the 
cabinet,  under  the  lock  of  the  DEITY.  When  this  escapes, 
at  once  it  falls  into  dilapidation,  and  is  carried,  particle  by 
particle,  by  agencies  visible  and  invisible,  through  all  the 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  427 

regions  of  the  air,  earth,  sea,  and  in  the  course  of  time  lends 
its  assistance  in  building  new  mansions,  and  in  rebuilding, 
or  rather  rej^airing,  the  old.  This  for  Mary.  It  is  a  slice  otF 
the  same  loaf  slie  used  to  get  in  "  days  lang  syne  '^  for 
breakfast  at  the  Chantry,  sometimes  pretty  well  baked, 
sometimes  not  so ;  and  this,  I  fear,  has  more  crust  than  pith 
about  it. 

You  must  be  pretty  well  tired  of  me  by  this  time.    Adieu, 
my  dear  doctor. 

Believe  me,  most  truly  yours, 

Edward  Jenner. 

The  Rev.  Dr.  Worthington» 

Berkeley,  Aug.  2,  1821. 
Want  of  ability,  my  dear  doctor,  and  not  inclination,  has 
occasioned  this  seeming  neglect  of  you.  Here  is  the  old 
apology  come  again,  and  I  fear  not  for  the  last  time.  While 
you  have  been  enjoying  luxuries  of  all  descriptions  (among 
the  rest  the  luxury  of  woe),  I  have  been  a  fixture  in  this 
joyless  spot,  and  here  am  likely  to  remain,  till  removed  in 
one  way  or  another.  Perhaps  if  there  were  that  extent  of 
communication  between  soul  and  soul  which  may  be  known 
hereafter,  it  will  be  found  that  I  have  said  a  thousand  things 
to  you  now  in  inaudible  tones,  since  last  we  held  converse 
in  the  ordinary  way ;  but  your  ear  must  be  new  modelled  be- 
fore you  can  catch  sounds  of  this  description,  that  is,  sounds 
issuing  from  the  tongue  of  the  mind.  It  almost  makes  me 
tremble  to  speak  of  sounds,  for  I  am  as  susceptible  as  you 
ever  saw  me  of  those  pointed  sounds  emanating  from  the 
utensils  which  spread  over  our  dinner  and  breakfast  tables. 
The  blunt  noises,  such  as  issue  from  a  peal  of  bells,  I  re- 
gard not.  I  stood  at  the  foot  of  the  tower  a  short  time  since, 
and  regarded  it  no  more  than  the  hum  of  Gray^s  beetle,  which 
now  enchants  my  garden  every  evening.  The  cry  of  hounds 
and  the  halloo  of  the  huntsmen  would  still  be  music  to  me ; 
but  the  horrible  click  of  a  spoon,  knife,  or  fork,  falling  upon  a 

428  LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER. 

plate,  gives  my  brain  a  kind  of  death  blow.  Though  I  soon 
scramble  out,  I  am  instantly  engulfed  as  it  were  in  an  abyss 
of  misery.  You  see,  then,  that  I  am  almost  driven  out  of 
society  by  this  misfortune,  if  one  may  be  allowed  to  call 
any  thing  a  misfortune  which  occurs  to  us  during  our  jour- 
ney through  life. 

My  feelings  tell  me  that  I  shall  not  be  able  to  notice  many 
things  you  have  communicated  to  me  in  your  letters,  for  I 
begin  to  flag.  Accept,  then,  this  patchij  scrap ;  but  ere  I 
quite  conclude,  I  must  say  a  word  or  two  respecting  the 
land  of  St.  David.  I  have  a  sort  of  mingled  feeling  about  it, 
and  so  have  you  and  my  kind  friends  M.  and  E.  for  (why  is 
it?)  mortals  of  every  description,  from  the  sultan  to  the  shoe- 
black, when  pleasure  enters  the  brain,  cannot  seal  up  the  cre- 
vice through  which  pain  creeps  in  at  the  same  time,  and  vice 
versa.  Till  I  made  the  inqviiry  a  day  or  two  ago,  I  had  no 
notion  the  distance  from  hence,  with  a  carriage,  to  x'Vberga- 
venny  was  fifty  miles  ;  but  never  mind  that,  when  you  are 
settled,  should  I  be  able,  I  think  it  highly  probable  you  will 
see  me  there.  I  shall  find  no  acquaintance  but  you  and  your 
household.  An  M.  D.  lived  there  not  many  years  since, 
who  came  from  Thetford  in  Norfolk.  He  was  first  at  Chel- 
tenham, and  there  I  knew  him.  You  must  understand  by 
this,  that  I  am  not  acquainted  with  any  body  at  Abergavenny, 
u.nless  this  gentleman  be  still  there. 

Adieu,  my  dear  doctor ;  with  best  wishes  to  my  friends  on 
the  banks  of  the  Inch,  believe  me  truly  yours, 

Edward  Jenner. 

To  Misses  M.  and  E.  Worthington,  Cefn  Cot- 
tage, Abergavenny. 

Confessionsto  young  ladies  from  Ryounff  fellow, snch  as  I  am, 
are  no  uncommon  occurrences.  Speak,  Maria,  and  you,  Miss 
Emily,  are  they  ?  You  shall  hear.  What  a  blundering  piece 
of  work,  then,  did  I  make  when  my  last  dispatch  was  sent  off 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  429 

to  the  Cefn.  Instead  of  returning  Dr.  Baillie's  letter,  as  I 
intended^  lo  !  an  epistle  of  the  wandering  doctor's  (Pa's)  was 
sent  in  its  stead  ;  at  least,  I  think  so.  I  could  not  be  quite 
at  ease,  touching  this  blockheady  business,  till  you  received 
an  explanation  ;  but  mind,  both  of  you,  it  is  not  very  likely 
my  blunderings  will  stop  here.  The  commander-in-chief,  the 
director  of  all  the  forces  combined,  moral  and  physical, 
which  form  this  vital  machine,  is  himself  disorderly.  Mar- 
vel not,  then,  at  deranged  emanations,  and  in  future  expect 
no  apologies. 

The  chicken ;  you  shall  have  some  to  a  certainty,  and  just 
those  things  you  describe,  made  out  of  grain  that  passed 
through  my  own,  my  very  own,  hands. 

I  am  still  in  solitude  here :  Catherine  at  Bath,  and  Ro- 
bert lives  at  the  castle.  If  it  were  not  for  a  job  or  two  I  have 
promised  to  perform,  I  would  cut  the  black  cable  that  holds  me 
here,  weigh  anchor,  and  sail  at  once  for  Goatland  *.  I  could 
bring  the  poultry  with  me.  What  eggs  you  will  have  for  a 
spring  breakfast,  if  the  doctor  does  not  give  a  little  check  to 
their  progress,  by  chopping  the  chicken's  heads  off  for  dis- 
turbing the  regularity  of  his  drill  horticulture.  Have  you 
preserved  some  chrysanthemums  for  me  ?  As  soon  as  any 
of  the  party  can  convey  some  information  to  me  respecting 
the  outlandish  country  you  are  got  into,  I  hope  they  will. 
Wliat  do  you  call  the  cottage  ?  Is  the  C  in  the  Welsh  lan- 
guage pronounced  like  the  K  ? 

Well,  believe  me,  I  as  much  intend  paying  a  visit  to  the 
cottage,  the  sweet  cottage,  sprinkled  with  the  dews  (pretty  !) 
from  the  sugar  loaf,  as  I  do  to  sign  my  name  to  this  letter, 
and  tell  how  truly  and  sincerely  I  am  yours, 

Edward  Jenneb. 

Berkeley,  I5th  Sept.  1821. 

In  your  next,  say  how  many  letters  have  been  received 
from  me  at  Cefn  Cottage. 

*  Wales. 

430  LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER. 

To  Ills  NIECE  Miss  Emily  Kingscote^  now  Lady 


Chantry  Cottage,  Oct.  IG,  1822. 
My  dear  Emily, 

More  rabbits  from  Kingscote  !  So  your  mamma  is  not  in 
dudgeon  with  me,  that  is  certain ;  but  I  should  be  out  of 
humour  with  myself,  if  for  an  hour  I  had  mentally  neglected 
her  ;  nay,  I  have  a  great  deal  of  intercourse  with  her.  For 
I  see  what  I  hear,  and  all  the  accounts  that  reach  me  look 
as  pleasant  as  I  can  reasonably  expect.  This  is  not  too  me- 
taphysical for  your  luminous  mind  to  comprehend. 

Your  cousin  writes  cheerfully  to  her  relatives  here,  Susan 
and  Caroline.  We  must  all  contribute  and  lend  a  hand  to- 
wards the  plantation  of  her  flower  garden,  which  she  is  lay- 
ing out  most  tastefully  J  and  by  what  I  hear,  it  is  nearly 
one  half  the  size  of  your  morning  room.     "  Prodigious !" 

I  send  this  by  James  Hazen's  mother.  Her  son,  at  one 
period,  seemed  to  be  travelling  fast  towards  your  church-yard. 
I  had  then  the  honour  to  be  consulted ;  and  stopped  his 
journey  by  the  tartar  emetic  ointment.  This  is  medical,  and 
must  go  to  your  mamma.  You  see  I  am  thought  but  little 
of  in  my  own  household.  It  must  be  so;  or  unerring  lips 
would  have  spoken  erringly. 

According  to  the  Almanack,  it  is  a  long  time  to  winter ; 
and  I  do  not  despair  of  coming  to  see  you  all  before  Caro- 
line can  give  me  a  snow  ball.  If  I  recollect  rightly,  she  is 
an  adept  at  this  fun ;  give  my  love  to  her,  for  all  that.  I  like 
her  mind,  at  present  uncontaminated  hj  fine  ladyism.  Ex- 
cuse word-coining. 

To  Dr.  Baron,  Gloucester. 

My  dear  Doctor, 
From  the  period  of  our  first  acquaintance  to  the  present 
time,  I  have  been  convinced,  from  a  thousand  instances,  of 

LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER.  43J 

your  friendly  attention ;  and,  I  may  venture  to  say,  of  your 
partiality  to  me.  Though  your  firstpublication  on  tuberculous 
affections  told  this  tale  pretty  plainly,  yet  I  am  still  more  highly 
gratified  at  seeing  my  name  prefixed  to  your  last  work,  under 
such  high  marks  of  kindness  and  distinction ;  and  the  more 
so,  as  I  well  know  that  friendship  only,  powerfully  as  it  ope- 
rates on  the  human  mind,  would  not  lead  you  one  inch  from 
the  path  of  truth  and  sincerity.  This  gives  a  value  to  your 
dedication  which  I  trust  1  shall  know  how  to  prize,  and 
would,  were  it  possible,  rivet  my  esteem  to  you  still  more 
closely  than  before.  Having  been  in  possession  of  your 
work  but  a  few  days,  I  have  not  yet  scarcely  run  over  it  in  a 
cursory  way,  but  I  like  the  glance  I  have  taken.  My  inten- 
tion is  quietly  to  go  through  it ;  and  to  commit  to  paper 
any  remarks,  should  they  occur,  for  your  inspection.  May 
you  long,  my  dear  fi'iend,  in  the  calmness  of  peace  of 
mind  and  health  of  body,  enjoy  the  fruits  of  your  la- 
bours and  every  earthly  blessing.  This  is  the  sincere 
wish  of 

Your  affectionate  and  faithful  friend, 

Edward  Jenner. 
Chantry  Cottage,  Berkeley,  '^rd  Dec.  1822. 

To  Miss  Emily  Kingscote. 

Berkeley,  10  Jan.  1823. 
My  dear  Emily, 
The  carelessness  of  the  carter  is  a  little  unlucky,  as  my  let- 
ter to  your  mamma  contains  a  line  or  two  of  a  private  nature, 
but  not  of  any  great  consequence.  Sooner  or  later,  I  dare  say, 
it  will  find  the  place  of  its  destination.  You  are  very  good 
in  writing  so  kindly  to  me,  after  my  seeming  neglect  of  you 
all.  You  think  me  idle,  no  doubt.  Ah !  my  dear  Emily,  if 
you  did  but  know  the  laborious  work  I  have  to  go  through, 
your  opinion  would  soon  be  changed.     In  earlier  days,  in- 

432  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

deed  at  any  period  of  my  long  life^  I  do  not  think  there 
ever  was  a  period  when  I  worked  harder.  It  is  no  bodily 
exertion,  of  course,  that  I  allude  to ;  but  it  is  that  which  is 
far  more  oppressive,  the  toils  of  the  mind.  I  am  harassed 
and  oppressed  beyond  any  thing  you  can  have  a  conception 
of.  In  the  midst  of  these  embarrassments  I  have  not  a 
soul  about  me  who  can  afford  me  assistance,  except,  in- 
deed, my  two  good-humoured  nieces,  who  copy  letters  for 
me,  and  would  willingly  do  more  if  they  could.  When 
next  I  climb  your  icy  mountains,  do  pray  see  if  you  and  the 
ingenious  inhabitants  of  the  morning-room  cannot  devise 
some  means  to  extricate  me  from  my  irksome  situation.  I 
have  a  thought : — a  silver  spoon  lies  in  a  small  compass  ;  and 
a  voyage  to  Botany  Bay  would  be  a  happy  exchange  for  me. 
Should  I  have  your  good  wishes,  Emily,  as  I  passed  over  the 
ocean  ?  I  know  I  should ;  and  you  have  mine,  and  your 
mamma,  and  all  my  good  friends  around  you. 

Edward  Jenner. 

To  Mr.  E.  Gardner,  Frampton. 

Berkeley,  Jan.  l.S,  1823. 
Dear  Gardner, 
What  a  bustle  this  Frampton  watchmaker  makes.  Your 
letter  is  delivered  to  me  whilst  I  am  eating  my  chop,  and  an 
answer  demanded  immediately ;  and  so,  that  disappointment 
in  this  respect  may  not  add  to  your  catalogue  of  sufferings, 
I  quit  my  bone  to  pack  up  for  you  some  vaccine  matter, 
fresh  and  fine,  from  the  arm  of  Edward  Jenner,  my  young 
neighbour.  With  the  scab  I  never  fail,  nor  with  the  glasses, 
on  which,  if  you  hold  them  to  the  light,  the  inspissated  mat- 
ter becomes  visible.  Moisten  it  with  a  small  portion  of  cold 
water,  and  then  insert  it  by  three  or  four  punctures,  as  if  it 
were  just  taken  from  the  arm.  If  you  use  the  scab,  moisten 
it  with  water  on  the  back  of  a  plate,  and  work  it  with  a  little 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  433 

water  by  means  of  a  clean  knife,  then  insert  the  matter.  If 
you  do  not  succeed  with  all  this,  I  shall  say  you  are  no  pupil 
of  mine,  or  perhaps  call  you  a  bungler,  or  shall  suspect  that 
your  patients  have  eruptions.  I  begin  to  fear  I  shall  not  see 
you  at  Berkeley  this  Christmas.  "  Where  is  Mr.  Gardner  ?  " 
is  the  cry  of  my  intimate  neighbours.  I  have  an  attack  from 
a  quarter  I  did  not  expect,  the  Edinburgh  Review.  These 
people  understand  Uterature  better  than  physic ;  but  it  will 
do  incalculable  mischief.  I  put  it  down  at  100,000  deaths, 
at  least.  Never  was  I  involved  in  so  many  perplexities. 
Metaphysics  are  on  the  shelf;  but,  mind  me,  T  do  not  con- 
ceive there  is  a  single  living  particle  of  matter  in  the  universe. 
The  brain,  ay,  and  the  nerves,  too,  are  dead  as  my  hat.  All 
life  is  in  that  something  superadded  to  matter,  the  anima,  dif- 
fused through  matter,  if  you  will ;  but  to  speak  like  a  che- 
mist, not  chemically  combined  with  it,  not  forming  an  inte- 
grant part,  but  merely  influential.  "  There  is  something  be- 
hind the  throne  greater  than  the  throne  itself.^'  Susan  and 
Caroline  are  at  Ebley ;  Catherine  is  very  well,  and  I  believe 
very  happy.  Edward  Davies  has  been  on  a  visit  to  her,  and 
speaks  highly  of  ber  situation. 

Truly  yours, 

Edward  Jenner. 

To  Master  W.  Davies,  his  Grand  Nephew. 

This  letter  was  written  the  day  before  Dr.  Jenner' s  fatal 
seizwe.     It  was,  I  believe,  the  last  he  ever  penned. 

Chantry  Cottage,  24  Jan.  1 823. 
My  dear  William, 

I  hear  by  your  father  that  you  will  return  in  a  few  days 
to  Bristol.  Be  assured  you  will  take  with  you  my  best 
wishes  and  affections,  which  I  present  to  you  with  greater 
delight  than  at  any  former  period,  because  you  are  more 
entitled  to  them,  for  I  am  happy  to  certify,  that  no  boy  could 
behave  better  than  you  did  during  your  stay  with  me  at  the 
Chantry.    Pursue  this  line  of  good  conduct,  my  dear  Wil- 

VOL.  II.  2    F 

434  LIFE    OF    DR.    .TENNER. 

liam,  and  you  will  be  happy  yourself,  and  make  your  father 
and  every  one  who  loves  you  happy  too. 

Your  affectionate  uncle, 

Edward  Jenner. 

Most  of  the  following  compositions  are  connected 
with  incidents  in  Dr.  Jenner's  personal  history.  The 
first  refers  to  his  old  gardener  John  Jones,  who  was 
in  his  service  for  nearly  thirty  years.  He  died  in 
1 82 1 ,  and  was  followed  to  the  grave  by  his  indulgent 
master.  The  second  brings  before  the  reader  two  of 
his  favourite  animals.  Minx  and  Tartar,  who  were 
the  constant  visitors  of  the  parlour,  each  occupying 
a  place  on  the  hearth  rug.  The  third  is  taken  from 
a  poem  of  considerable  length,  entitled  Berkeley 
Fair,  and  contains  a  humorous  account  of  his  mu- 
seum. He  introduces  himself  as  the  showman,  and 
carries  on  the  character  in  a  very  graphic  manner. 
Two  others  arose  from  little  occurrences  in  the  do- 
mestic history  of  his  daughter  Catherine,  and  give 
pleasing  illustrations  of  the  writer's  mind.  The  last 
is  an  enigma  full  of  point,  and  capable  of  bearing  a 
comparison  with  most  similar  compositions. 

On  seeing  an  Old  Man  mowing. 

Ah,  poor  old  John,  with  low  bent  back 

See  he  pursues  his  steady  track ; 

The  wild  flowers  tumbling  at  his  blade. 

Prostrate  before  him  fall,  and  fade. 

Yet  httle  reck'st  thou,  honest  John, 

Intent  thy  'customM  work  upon, 

Of  that  old  mower,  grisly  Time, 

Though  long  hast  thou  gone  by  thy  prime ; 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  435 

Witness  thy  grey  locks  loosely  spread 

In  lessening  numbers  o'er  thy  head. 

Thy  wither'd  cheek,  thy  tawny  brow, 

Once  smooth  and  fair,  but  furrow'd  now. 

Yes,  soon  the  keen  edge  of  his  scythe  thou'lt  feel : 

Look  round,  old  John,  'tis  close  upon  thy  heel. 

Dialogue  between  Minx  the  Cat  and  Tartar  the 


Tartar.  Well,  Minxy,  you've  been  out  again, 
Killing  poor  birds  for  prog  ; 

Minx.  And  you  have  kill'd  the  bantam  hen, 
You  have,  you  nasty  dog. 

Tartar.  How  very  clever  and  well  bred  ! 

You've  much  improved,  I  see; 
But  think  on  what  hangs  o'er  your  head, 

Look  up  the  willow  tree. 
Suppose,  now,  I  M  a  mind  to  tell 

What  happ'd  within  this  hour, 
Did  I  not  see  thy  talons  fell 

At  work  in  yonder  bower  ? 
Too  plain  I  heard  the  dying  scream 

Of  a  poor  robin  there, 
Too  plain  I  saw  the  life-blood  stream. 

Whilst  thou  its  limbs  didst  tear. 

Minx.  Well,  Tartar,  if  you  go  to  that, 
I  a  sharp  Avord  could  say ; 
Who  was  it  kill'd  the  farmer's  cat  ? 

Now  chew  on  that,  I  pray. 
How  sheepish  now  thy  looks  appear, 

Thou  drop'st  thy  ears  and  tail, 
As  if  thou  thought'st  the  halter  near — 
Ho  !  ho  !  I  've  hit  the  nail. 

2   F  2 

436  LIFE    OF    DR.   JENNER. 

Tartar.   Why  talk,  pray,  of  such  stuff  as  this  ; 
Why,  'twas  but  one  old  cat : 
It  cost  her  but  a  few  short  moans — 
Now,  Minxy,  pray  take  that. 
Minx.  Take  that,  indeed  !     Who  stole  the  fish 
The  cook  miss'd  t'  other  day. 
And  spoil'd  entirely  the  dish  ? 
Now  hold  your  jaw,  I  pray. 
Tartar.  What,  not  a  word  ?  I  see  you  're  fast. 
Yes,  Mrs.  Minx,  you're  dumb; 
Well,  let  us  think  of  what  is  past, 
And  mend  for  time  to  come. 

Extracts  from  Berkeley  Fair. 

It  opens  thus  .-  — 

The  sun  drove  off  the  twilight  gray. 

And  promised  all  a  cloudless  day  ; 

His  yellow  beams  danced  o'er  the  dews, 

And  changed  to  gems  their  pearly  hues. 

The  song-birds  met  on  every  spray. 

And  sang  as  if  they  knew  the  day ; 

The  blackbird  piped  his  mellow  note. 

The  goldfinch  strain'd  his  downy  throat. 

To  join  the  music  of  the  plain 

The  lark  pour'd  down  no  common  strain ; 

The  little  wren,  too,  left  her  nest. 

And,  striving,  sang  her  very  best ; 

The  robin  wisely  kept  away. 

His  song  too  plaintive  for  the  day — 

'Twas  Berkeley  Fair,  and  Nature's  smile 

Spread  joy  around  for  many  a  mile. 

The  rosy  milkmaid  quits  her  pail. 

The  thresher  now  puts  by  his  flail ; 

His  fleecy  charge  and  hazel  crook. 

By  the  rude  shepherd  are  forsook; 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  437 

The  woodman,  too,  the  day  to  keep, 
Leaves  Echo  undisturb'd  in  sleep  : 
Labour  is  o'er — his  fugged  chain 
Lies  rusting  on  the  grassy  plain. 

**^  ^^  ^^  ^f 

^^  *J^  ^*  rf* 

**^  *^  *1*  ^^ 

*^  ^P  ^^  ^* 

Here,  neighbours,  are  sights,  such  as  never  before 
Were  seen  at  a  Fair,  and  never  may  more. 
Myself  and  my  partner  have  taken  great  pains 
To  display  all  the  wonders  of  fossil  remains. 
Now  at  once,  my  good  friends,  you  all  may  inspect 
Some  remains  of  the  ruins  when  Nature  was  wreck'd ; 
When  mountains,  vales,  oceans,  together  were  hurl'd. 
And  dread  desolation  dash'd  over  the  world. 
My  cabinets  all,  the  subject's  terrific. 
Shall  nothing  contain  which  is  not  scientific ; — 
There's  an  encrinite's  head,  a  cornu  ammonis. 
And  marquisites  fit  to  adorn  an  Adonis  ; 
Fine  corals,  all  fossil,  from  Woodford's  grand  rock  j 
And  granites  from  Snowdon  in  many  a  block  ; 
Alcyonites,  too,  we  have  join'd  to  our  stock; 
Hippopotamus'  bones,  and  the  great  alligator, 
And  things  most  surprising  thrown  out  of  a  crater ; 
All  changed  into  flint  are  an  elephant's  jaws, 
The  mammoth's  vast  teeth,  and  the  leopard's  huge  paws  ; 
There  are  beautiful  agates  wash'd  up  by  the  fountains, 
And  crabs  that  were  found  on  the  tops  of  the  moun- 
tains ; 
Asbestos,  chert,  chrysolite,  quartz,  hcematites. 
Madrepore,  schistus,  basalt,  and  pyrites ; 
Oolites,  zoohtes,  gryphites  a  store, 
Pentacrinites,  chlorites,  and  many  things  more. 
All  this  we'll  display  to  those  who  are  willing — 
Though  the  sight's  worth  a  crown — yet  for  one  single 

shilling ! 

438  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

And  now  the  clamours  die  away. 
The  sun  has  sent  a  farewell  ray ; 
The  hills  have  lost  their  goldett  hue, 
And  wrapp'd  themselves  in  mantle  blue  ; 
The  showman's  voice  has  lost  its  tone^^ 
The  trumpet's  clang  becomes  a  moan ; 
The  Giant  now  lays  down  his  head, 
And  Lady  Morgan's  gone  to  bed. 
The  lions  all  begin  to  dose. 
And  tigers  seek  a  soft  repose  ; 
The  customer  no  more  is  courted. 
And  every  standing  is  deserted  : 
The  Fair  is  o'er.     But  joys  like  these 
Lons:  revel  in  a  heart  at  ease. 
The  milkmaid,  as  she  skims  her  cream, 
Long  on  the  happy  time  will  dream  ; 
And  many  a  simple  rustic  swain 
Will  strive  to  whistle  out  the  strain. 
While  raking  up  the  new  mown  hay 
All  in  the  merry  month  of  May, 
That  Jonathan's  melodious  bow 
Bade  in  his  bosom  ever  glow  ; 
And  little  girls  and  Httle  boys 
Will  for  a  moment  quit  their  toys. 
And  cling  about  their  mother's  knee. 
Asking  when  Fair  again  will  be ; 
While  every  breast  with  hope  will  burn. 
To  see  the  happy  day  return. 

From  her  Dormouse  to  Catherine  Jenner,  1810. 

Start  not,  fair  maid,  to  see  a  mouse 
Obtrude  himself  upon  your  house  ; 
Not  one  of  those  sad  elves  am  I 
Who  pilfer  cheese  and  spoil  the  pie. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  439 

Who  through  your  chambers  ever  freaking. 
Disturb  you  with  a  nightly  squeaking; 
Quite  opposite  am  I  in  nature 
To  this  intolerable  creature. 

My  birth  I  boast  beneath  the  bower 
Hard  by  the  foot  of  yonder  tower. 
Whose  battlements  o'erhang  the  place 
Long  honour'd  by  a  Ducie's  race.  * 
But  now  I  've  left  my  leafy  cell 
With  you,  dear  Catherine,  to  dwell. 
No  dainties  seek,  I  pray,  for  me. 
My  food   grows  on  the  hazel  tree  ; 
I  ask  but  this,  except  a  sup 
Of  water  from  an  acorn  cup. 
Then  for  a  house — oh  !  any  thing 
Will  serve  for  this,  that  you  can  bring : 
Tliat  little  box,  in  which  you  place 
Your  pearly  trinkets  and  your  lace. 
No  clothes  I  want ;  for,  see,  I'm  drest 
By  Nature  in  an  ermine  vest. 
Can  looms  that  weave  the  satin  fine, 
Produce  a  robe  so  fair  as  mine  ? 
Ah !  no — for  she  will  ne'er  impart 
The  means  of  rivalling  her  art ; — 
Some  moss  entwined  with  leaves  of  willow 
Will  make  an  admirable  pillow. 
You  must  not  take  it  much  amiss 
If  I'm  particular  in  this, 
For  well  you  know  I  'm  one  of  those 
Who  like  whole  months  of  soft  repose  ; 
And  when  you  come  to  take  a  peep 
And  find  your  little  charge  asleep, 

*  Tortworth,  Gloucestershire. 

440  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

Pity  'twill  be  indeed  to  wake  me, 

And  from  my  dreams  of  you  to  take  me. 

But  tho'  the  hand  that  made  my  frame 

And  my  Catherine's  were  the  same. 

Another  time  perhaps  I  may 

Expatiate  on  what  I  say  ; 

But  now  I  only  can  aiFord 

Just  time  enough  to  drop  a  word : 

Sometimes  I  dream  that  you  're  surrounded 

By  much  temptation,  and  confounded 

Just  for  a  moment,  when  arise 

The  world's  delights  before  your  eyes ; 

But  then,  before  I  end  my  nap, 

I'm  sure  to  see  you  take  the  map 

Which  shews  life's  road  and  all  its  danger 

To  every  inquiring  stranger  ; 

The  craggy  rock,  the  deep  morass. 

The  precipice,  the  treacherous  pass. 

And  charm'd  am  I  to  see  you  steer 

By  the  just  compass  of  Montier ;  * 

Which  ne'er  will  lead  my  Kate  astray 

From  Truth's  undeviating  way. 

Good  bye — I  know  we  shall  agree. 

You  will  be  ever  kind  to  me ; 

And  this  shall  be  my  constant  plan. 

To  please  in  every  thing  I  can. 

To  A  Tom  Tit 

who  was  fed  every  morning  at  the  bed-room  window  of 
Catherine  Jenner,  at  Cheltenham. 

Oh  !  tell  me  m  hy,  my  dearest  Thomas, 
You  stay'd  so  long  this  morning  from  us  ? 

*■  Miss  Jenner's  governess. 

LIFE    OF    DR.   JENNER.  441 

I  peepM  at  eighty  at  nine,  at  ten. 
And  then  I  peep'd,  and  peep'd  again. 
But  oh  !  my  heart !  my  pretty  bird 
Was  neither  to  be  seen  or  heard ; 
Untouch'd  the  breakfast  I  had  spread — 
Nice  apple  chopp'd,  and  crumbled  bread ; 
Yes,  and  the  cup  I'd  early  dipp'd 
In  the  clear  Chelt  remain'd  unsipp'd. 
Ah  !  me,  said  I,  some  ruffian  from  me 
Has  surely  torn  my  darUng  Tommy — 
Some  murd'rous  hawk,  or  ravenous  kite, 
Hides  him  for  ever  from  my  sight. 
And,  while  thus  wailing  was  your  Kate, 
Methought  I  saw  what  sealed  your  fate. 
For  to  my  window,  now  alas  ! 
Some  doA\Tiy  feathers  seem'd  to  pass  ; 
Feathers  so  beautifully  blue. 
They  could  belong  to  none  but  you ; 
But,  sweet  to  teU,  my  grief,  my  sadness. 
Changed  in  a  moment  was  to  gladness. 
The  joy  I  felt  I  cannot  utter. 
When  I  beheld  thy  charming  flutter ; 
Heard  thy  sweet  voice  upon  the  tree, 
And  saw  thee  look,  and  look  for  me : 
But  I  must  chide  thee,  dearest  bird. 
Indeed  I  must,  upon  my  word. 
Well,  well,  it  sha'n't  be  now — but  then. 
Tommy,  ne'er  serve  me  so  again. 


Through  many  an  age  did  I  sleep  quite  profound. 
Deep  hidden  from  mortals,  beneath  the  cold  ground. 
As  harmless  and  quiet  as  if  I'd  been  dead. 
Till  insulted  by  rapine,  and  dragg'd  out  of  bed. 

442  LIFE    OF    DR.  JENNER. 

Then,  without  any  crime,  by  tyrannical  power. 
Committed  was  I,  under  guard,  to  the  Tower ; 
There  stampt  upon,  cut,  yet  it  gave  me  no  pain. 
Though  it  made  an  impression  that  long  will  remain. 
At  length  I'd  the  luck  from  the  place  to  escape. 
And  now  to  all  ranks  dare  exhibit  my  shape. 
When  first  I  forth  started,  I  own  it  with  pride. 
His  Majesty  stuck  very  close  to  my  side ; 
But,  as  I  grew  older,  how  hard  is  my  case. 
The  connexion  he  quits,  and  scarce  shows  me  his  face. 
Tho^  the  great  scarcely  own  me,  the  pallid-faced  poor 
With  pleasure  behold  me  come  out  of  a  door. 
How  oft  may  you  hear  them,  in  tones  very  pressing, 
Solicit  my  visiting  them  as  a  blessing ! 
I'm  the  ficklest  fellow,  perhaps,  in  the  nation. 
For  ever  am  shifting  and  changing  my  station ! 
Nay  myself  can  I  change  too,  without  going  far. 
For  a  gingerbread  watch,  or  a  quid  for  a  tar. 
When  alone  I^m  a  pauper — a  mate  for  a  clown. 
Yet  join'd  to  my  comrades  can  purchase  a  crown  : 
ril  give  a  hint  more,  tho',  perhaps,  you  may  laugh — 
I'm  one  perfect  whole,  yet  exactly  a  half.* 

The  letters  printed  in  this  section  of  the  work,  in- 
dependent of  the  information  which  they  convey  re- 
specting the  most  remarkable  phenomenon  in  the 
physical  history  of  man,  are  worthy  of  observation, 
on  account  of  the  naturalness  and  simplicity  of  the 
style.  There  is  an  exquisite  perception  of  propriety 
in  the  manner  of  expression,  and  an  ease  and  freedom 
in  the  choice  of  words,  which  has  seldom  been  ex- 
ceeded in  any  similar  compositions. 

The  subjoined  meditations  are  of  a  very  miscella- 

*  Halfpenny. 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  443 

neous  character,  and  are  selected  in  order  to  afford 
specimens  of  the  varied  powers  of  the  writer's  mind  ; 
and  the  tone  of  reflection  in  which  he  delighted  to  in- 
dulge, and  with  which  his  note  books  and  his  journals 

It  is  possible  that  the  surface  of  the  earth,  or  more  than 
the  mere  surface,  forming  the  Berkeley  district,  may  by  one 
of  those   vast   convulsions    (which,  it  is  plain,  at   distant 
periods  threw  the  globe  into  the  utmost  disorder)  have  been 
covered  with  materials  brought  from  very  distant  regions. 
The   shells  and  corals  found  in  the  rocks  at  Gibraltar  are 
similar  to  those  found  in  the  rocks  at  Thornbury,  and  so  are 
the  fragments  of  some  of  the  stones.    The  coral,  so  abundant 
in  the  range  of  many  miles,  was  never  probably  generated  in 
the  spot  on  which  it  now  reposes  :  nor  any  of  the  families  of 
stones  which  lie  about  the  surrounding  country.     All  might 
have  been  impelled  forward  at  the  same  period,  driven  by  the 
mighty,  the  irresistible  torrents  of  the  great  deep  rushing 
from  their  subterraneous  prisons.     That  these  corals,  such 
as  appear  from  the  immense  masses  in  which  they  are  heaped 
together  in  the  rocks  of  Woodford  and  of  Falfield,  have  been 
forced  from  their  original  position,  seems  to  admit  of  demon- 
stration from  fragments  of  these  identical  corals  being  found 
among  the  Thornbury  Breccia.   This  Breccia  appears  to  con- 
sist of  portions  of  rocks  varying  in  size  from  a  large  block 
down  to  miscroscopic  atoms ;  and  it  appears  to  be  the  aggre- 
gation of  these  atoms  which  forms  the  cement  which  binds 
these  fragments  together.     These  fragments  do  not  appear 
to  belong  to  any  rocks  in  our  neighbourhood ;  but  seem  to 
have  been  mingled  together,   and  driven  over  an  immense 
space,  by  one  mighty  sweep  of  that  powerful  element,  water. 
Not  only  corals  and  shells  are  found  among  this  Breccia,  but 
even  fragments  of  basalt  itself.    This,  indeed,  does  not  prove 
the  basalt  rocks  to  have  moved  forward  with  the  general 
sweep ;  as  tliese  might  have  been  detached,  and  mixed  with 
other  fragments  by  passing  onwards. 

444  LIFE    OF    DR.   JENNER. 

Observations  on  the  Night-Blowing  Primrose. 

Walking  one  evening  in  the  early  part   of  July  in  the 
garden  of  a  gentleman  at  the  west  end  of  the  town,  my 
attention  was  drawn  towards  that  curious  plant  the  night- 
blowing  primrose,  which  was  growing  abundantly   and   in 
great  perfection  in  the  borders.     The  petals  of  this  plant, 
about  the  setting  of  the  Sun,  burst  rather  suddenly  from  the 
calyx  in  which  they  are  involved  during  the  day,  and  imme- 
diately display  themselves  in  full  expansion.     In  the  morn- 
ing they  are  puckered  up  and  withered,  without  a  vestige  of 
their   beauty    remaining.     On   contemplating    this    curious 
subject,  one  thing  struck  me  as  very  singular — the  apparent 
waste  of  that  food   (the  nectarium)   which  affords  nourish- 
ment to  so  many  insects,  and  with  which  I  found  the  plant 
plenteously  stored.     On  visiting  the  spot  again  an  hour  after 
sunset,  the  subject  still  occupying   my  thoughts,  the  mys- 
tery was  cleared  up,  and  the  scheme  of  nature  most  charm- 
ingly displayed.     I  now  saw  a  considerable  number  of  moths 
of  various  kinds  hovering  about  every  primrose  bush,  and 
passing  from  flower  to  flower,  sucking  through  the  proboscis 
the  nutritious  fluid  so  admirably  prepared  for  them.     Tliese 
moths  lie  dormant  during  the  day.     Should  one  of  them  be 
accidentally  disturbed  and  compelled  to  take  wing,  it  is  at 
once  beset  and  taken  by  those  birds,  which  are  eagerly  look- 
ing out  for  insects  for  food  for  their  young.     Hence  the 
necessity   of    some  provision  for  their   support   about  the 
commencement  of  twilight,  when  their  enemies  have  retired 
to  rest.     It  should  be  remarked,  that  the  petals  of  many  of 
those  plants  which  afford  the  nectarium  abundantly  are  open 
by  day  only,  and  are  closed  at  night,  as  the  jessamine,  marvel 
of  Peru — a  species  of  geranium.     The  garden  willows  are 
night-blowing  plants,  and  doubtless,  in  this  respect,  destined 
to  answer  the  same  purpose  in  the  system  of  nature.     Tliere 
are  doubtless  many  other  plants  which  afford  nectar  to  the 
moth  during  the  night  besides  the  night-blowing  primrose ; 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  445 

but  I  bring  the  above  observation  forward  as  illustrative  of 
the  economy  of  nature  in  preserving  for  the  support  of  a 
tender  insect,  what  to  superficial  observation  appeared  to  be 
wasted ;  the  nectar  aiforded  by  this  plant  being  in  its  recep- 
tacle but  for  a  few  hours,  and  that  during  the  night  only. — 
April  7th,  1818. 

Physicians  will  probably  find  one  great  impediment  to  the 
progress  of  their  art  in  the  revolutions  which  take  place  in 
the  course  of  diseases. 

The  human  body  is  a  kind  of  commonwealth ;  the  seat  of 
government  does  not  seem  confined  to  one  director  only,  but 
to  several,  among  which  the  brain  is  the  chief. 

It  is  not  an  universal  law  that  diseases  of  the  stomach 
affect  the  head,  and  that  those  of  the  head  affect  the  stomach. 
When  W.  destroyed  himself  by  taking  nearly  half  an  ounce 
of  arsenic,  his  head  was  free  from  pain,  and  the  intellects 
clear,  during  the  eleven  hours  of  existence  after  he  received 
the  poison  into  his  stomach. 

The  human  body  is  an  immense  laboratorj^,  divided  and 
subdivided  into  ten  thousand  compartments,  the  chief  of 
which  is  the  glandidar  system. 

We  are  mistaken  if  we  suppose  that  the  stomach  is  the 
grand  sufferer  among  the  vital  organs  of  the  drunkard.  No, 
it  is  the  brain.  Whoever  mil  consider  the  phenomena,  will 
soon  be  convinced  of  this ;  and  from  these  phenomena  may 
be  deduced  the  crumbling  down  of  the  constitution,  by  the 
dilapidation  of  the  vital  organs. 

I  want  to  do  away  with  the  whole  stomach  pathology  at  a 
sweep,  and  to  place  the  brain  upon  the  top  of  the  lofty 
pedestal  allotted  to  it ;  to  shew  it  as  exercising  a  complete 
sovereignty  over  every  vital  action. 

Among  the  vulgar,  the  great,  and  the  little  vidgar,  nothing 
is  recounted  or  recorded  of  vaccination  but  its  imperfections ; 
its  benefits  are  passed  by,  and  are  often  forgotten.    Vacci- 

446  LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER. 

nation  has  to  contend  with  more  ignorance  than  any  other 
process  the  faculty  are  engaged  to  attend  to ;  and  in  some 
instances  for  this  reason  : — if  a  failure  take  place,  the  vacci- 
nist  is  shielded,  by  declaring  that  it  is  vaccination  itself  that 
is  imperfect,  and  no  fault  in  his  conducting  the  process.  If 
vaccination  ever  fails,  it  must  be  owing  co  some  peculiarity 
in  the  constitution.  From  the  year  1762  to  1792,  the  num- 
ber that  died  of  small-pox  in  the  Danish  dominions  amounted 
to  9,728.  About  the  year  1802  vaccination  was  first  intro- 
duced, and  the  practice  became  general,  but  not  universal ; 
however,  fifty-eight  persons  only  died  of  the  small-pox  to  the 
year  1810.  Vaccination,  by  command  of  the  King,  was  now 
universally  adopted,  and  small-pox  inoculation  prohibited. 
And  from  the  year  1810  to  the  year  1819,  not  a  single  case 
of  small-pox  has  occurred. 

One  interesting  trait  in  vaccination  is,  what  every  ob- 
server of  its  progress  must  have  witnessed,  namely,  that 
every  thing  has  worked  together  for  its  good.  The  oppo- 
nents have  been  greater  instruments  in  facilitating  its  pro- 
gress than  its  promoters,  by  calling  up  inquiry,  which  has 
always  ended  in  full  proofs  of  its  eflicacy. 

Vaccination  has  been  extensively  practised  in  this  country, 
yet  very  imperfectly  understood. 

What  instance  has  occurred  to  throw  a  real  slur  on  vacci- 
nation ?  I  pledge  myself  to  this  point.  I  could  not  pos- 
sibly go  farther,  than  that  in  every  instance  it  would  afford 
security  equal  to  the  small-pox  inoculation,  if  the  rules  I 
laid  down  were  strictly  observed. 

The  Sacred  Scriptures  form  the  only  pillow  on  which  the 
soul  can  find  repose  and  refreshment. 

The  power  and  mercy  of  Providence  is  sublimely  and 
awfully  displayed  in  lightning  and  in  tempest.  It  scarcely 
ever  happens  during  what  is  called  a  thunderstorm  but 
we  hear  of  some  human  being  suddenly  losing  his  life  by 
a  flash  from  the  Heavens.     And  when  the  tempest  roars 

LIFE    OF    DR.    JENNER.  447 

around  us,  we  know  that  some  destruction  always  follows. 
But  how  beautifully  is  power  here  seasoned  with  mercy ! 
We  are  shewn,  that  instead  of  partial  chastisements,  it  might 
have  been  universal.  The  Almighty  arm  that  struck  pros- 
trate a  single  individual  might  at  the  same  time  have  hurled 
his  bolts  on  the  heads  of  all.  He  that  directed  the  storm  to 
shew  his  mighty  strength  by  partial  destruction,  shews  every 
beholding  eye,  that  at  his  fiat  it  might  have  swept  oif  every 
living  thing.  But  how  beautifully  is  it  modified  !  it  goes 
just  to  the  point,  where  every  thing  terrestrial  seems  upon 
the  verge  of  universal  wreck,  and  then  mercifully  softens 
into  a  calm.  How  sublime,  how  awful  is  this  display  of  the 
power  and  mercy  of  God ! 

Our  ordinary  language  shews  us,  as  it  were,  unconsciously, 
our  ideas  of  a  compound  existence,  the  subserviency  of  the 
body  to  the  agency  of  the  soul : — "  I  tore  myself  out  of  the 
house;"  "  I  was  out  of  my  mind,"  i.  e.  my  mind  was  out  of  me. 

"  I  have  heard  of  thee  by  the  hearing  of  the  ear,  but  now 
mine  eye  seeth  thee."  The  above  is  appHcable  to  the  sub- 
ject of  reform  in  the  education  of  children.  The  great  book 
of  the  world  is  open  to  all  eyes.  My  wish  is,  that  every 
human  being  might  be  taught  to  read  it.  The  poor  man 
does  not  know  what  a  rich  library  he  is  in  possession  of; 
that  he  has  an  equal  right  with  the  proudest  monarch  on  the 
globe  to  have  access  to  it.  A  sincere  acquiescence  in  the 
dispensations  of  Pro\adence  will  check  discomposure  of 
mind  beyond  any  thing.  It  will  produce  a  calm  in  the 
midst  of  a  storm. 

If  we  fear  all  things  that  are  possible,  we  live  without  any 
bounds  to  our  misery. 

The  highest  powers  in  our  nature  are  our  sense  of  moral 
excellence,  the  principle  of  reason  and  reflection,  benevo- 
lence to  our  fellow  creatures,  and  our  love  of  the  Divine 


No.  I. 

Chronological  List  of  Diplomas,  Honours,  Addresses,  and 
various  Communications  from  Public  Bodies  and  distin- 
guished Individuals  to  Dr.  Jenner,  on  his  Discovery  of  Vac- 

1801.  Plymouth  Dock.  Feb.  20. — Address  from  Dr.  Trot- 
ter, and  forty-four  medical  officers  of  the  Navy,  subcribers  to 
the  Jennerian  Medal. 

NovARA.  May  29, — Address  of  respect  and  application  for 
imbued  threads,  from  the  "  Physician  dele<;ated  "  of  the  de- 
partment de  I'Agogna,  (Cisalpine  Republic.)  Signed,  Gautieri; 
Mantillari,  Secretary.     (In  English). 

Paris.  16  Thermidor. — Address  from  the  Bureau  of  the 
National  Institute  of  France ;  and  thanks  for  the  disserta- 
tion communicated  to  them.  Signed,  Coulomb,  Pt.  G.  Cuvier, 
Sre.  Delambre. 

GoTTlNGEN.  Sept.  14. — Diploma  of  Fellow  of  the  Royal  So- 
ciety of  Sciences  at  Gottingen.  Signed,  Henricus  Augustus 
Wrisberg,  Philosoph.  et  Medic.  Doct.  Britann.  Regi  a  Consil. 
aula?.  Medicina?  et  Anatom.  Professor,  publ  ordinar,  necnon 
Societat.  reg.  Getting,  h.  t.  Pro  Director, 

1802.    Manchester  Infirmary,     Fei.— Certificate  of  the 
VOL.    II.  2    G 


success  of  Vaccine  Inoculation,  and  complimentary  Address 
thereupon.  Signatures.  Physicians  :  Thomas  Percival,  M-D. 
Physician  Extraordinary,  John  Ferriar,  M,D.,  Samuel  Argent 
Barclay,  M.D.,  James  Jackson,  M.D„  Edward  Holme,  M.D. 
— Surgeons  :  Wm.  Simmons,  John  Bill,  Alexander  Taylor, 
M.D.,  R.  W.  Killer,  M.  Ward,  G.  Hamilton,  J.  Hutchinson, 
House  Surgeon ;  Thomas  Henry,  John  Boutflower,  Visiting 

London.  Feb.  20. — Diploma  of  Fellow  of  the  Physical  So- 
ciety of  Guy's  Hospital.  Signed,  Joannes  Haighton,  M.D., 
Thomas  Walshman,  M.D.,  Jacobus  Curry,  M.D.,  Ricardus 
Saumarez,  Astley  Paston  Cooper,  Thomas  Hardy. 

Feb,  25  — Testimonial  and  Addi*ess  from  the  Presidents  and 
Members  of  the  above  Society.  Signed  by  the  six  Presidents 
and  one  hundred  and  six  Members. 

Edinburgh.  March  7. — Diploma  of  Fellow  of  the  Royal  Me- 
dical Society  of  Edinburgh.  Signed  by  four  Presidents  and 
twenty-live  Fellows. 

Paris.  24  Ventose. — Diploma  of  Foreign  Associate  of  the 
Medical  Society  of  Paris.  Signed,  Thouret,  President;  Ali- 
bert.  Secretaire-general. 

Tours.  30  Germinal.  —  Official  Address  from  the  Medical 
Society  of  Indre  et  Loire,  Signed,  Bouviat,  D.M.  M.  Secre- 
taire-general de  la  Societe  Medicale  seante  a  Tours. 

Massachusetts.  Mai/ 25. — Diploma  of  Fellow  of  the  Ameri- 
can Society  of  Arts  and  Sciences  in  Massachusetts.  Signed, 
John  Adams,  President ;  Joseph  Willard,  Vice-President ; 
Attest.    John  Davis,  John  Quincy  Adams,  Secretaries. 

Paris.  Juli/29. — Official  Letter  of  respect  and  congratula- 
tion upon  the  general  success  of  Vaccination  in  France,  from 
the  Central  Committee  of  Vaccination.  Signed,  Thouret,  Di- 
recteur  de  I'Ecole  de  Medicine,  President ;  Flusson,  Secre- 
taire. Conveyed  by  Citizens  Huzardand  Parmentier ;  and  ac- 
companied ])y  a  Letter  from  the  Secretary  of  the  said  Commit- 

PowLowsK.  Avynst  10. — Letter  from  the  Dowager  Empress 


of  Russia,  signed  "  Marie,"  and  accompanied  by  a  ring  set  in 

Tours.  2  Messidor. — Diploma  of  Corresponding  Associate  of 
the  Medical  Society  of  Tours.  Signed,  Bruneau,  President; 
Bouriat,  D.  M.  M.  Secretaire-general. 

Avignon.  27  Brumalre — Appointment  of  Associate  from  a 
Society  at  Avignon.  Signed,  Fortia,  Vice-President ;  Hya- 
cinthe  Morel,  Sec. 

1803.  March  IG.— Diploma  of  Member  of  the  Society  of  Me- 
dicine at  Avignon.  Signed,  Voulonne,  Med.  President;  G. 
Guerin,  Secretaire;  Clement,  fils.  Sec.  Adj. 

London.  August  11. — Freedom  of  the  City  of  London, 
presented  in  a  gold  box  of  the  value  of  one  hundred  guineas. 

Madrid.  August  15. — Diploma  of  Fellow  of  the  Royal  Medi- 
cal and  Economical  Society  of  Madrid.  Signed,  Antonius 
Franseri,  Pro-pra3ses  ;  Hippolytus  Ruiz,  Rei  Pharmac.  Cen- 
sor ;  Liz.  Philipus  Soniova,  Chirurgiaj  Censor ;  Joannes  Penal- 
va,  Scientiar.  natural.  Censor;  Casimirus  Ortega,  in  rebus  ad 
exteros  spectantibus  a  secretis  ;  Ignatius  Maria  Ruiz  ....  a  se- 

Massachusetts.  August  31  — Diploma  of  LL.D.  from  the 
Senate  of  Harvardian  Cambridge  University,  Massachusetts. 
Signed,  Josephus  Willard,  S.  T.  D.,  LL.D.,  Prasses ;  Olive- 
rius  Wendell,  Simeon  Howard,  S.T.  D,  Johannes  Lathrop, 
S.  T.  D.,  Eliphalet  Pearson,  LL.D.,  .lohannes  Davis,  Socii ; 
Ebenezer  Storer,  Thesaurarius. 

London.  Sejjtember  14. — Diploma  of  Honorary  Member  of 
the  Royal  Humane  Society  of  London.  Signed,  President, 
Stamford  and  Warrington ;  Treasurer,  John  Coakley  Lettsom, 
LL.  D.  M.  D. 

Paris.  28  Vendemialre. — Diploma  of  Foreign  Associate  from 
the  School  of  Medicine  at  Paris.  Signed,  Chaptal,  President; 
Le  Clerc,  Secretaire. 

NiSMES.  21  Frimarie. — Diploma  from  the  Society  of  Medi- 
cine, Departement  du  Gard.  Signed,  Vitalis,  President ;  J. 
R.  Dubois,  Presid.  honor. 

2    G   2 


1804.     Dublin.  Marc/*.— Freedom  of  the  City  of  Dublin. 

Philadelphia.  April  7. — Diploma  of  Member  of  the  Ameri- 
can Philosophical  Society  at  Philadelphia.  Signed,  Th.  Jeffer- 
son, President;  C.  Wistar,  Jun.,  R.  Patterson,  Vice-Presi- 
dents ;  Benjamin  Smith  Barton.  Attested,  John  Redman 
Coxe,  Thomas  C.  James,  Adam  Seybert,  Thomas  H.  Hewson, 

Edinburgh  October  31. — Freedom  of  the  City  of  Edin- 
burgh, transmitted  by  Sir  William  Fettes,  Bart,  of  Wam- 
phray,  Lord  Provost;  William  Coulter,  Archibald  Campbell, 
John  Turnbull  and  James  Goldie,  Esquires,  Baillies  ;  John 
Muir,  Esq.  Dean  of  Guild  ;  Peter  Hill,  Esq.  Treasurer;  and 
the  remanent  Members  of  the  Council. 

WiLNA.  16  Kal.  Dec. — Diploma  of  Fellow  of  the  Imperial 
University  of  Wilna,  issued  by  command  of  the  Emperor  of 
Russia,  Alexander  I.  Signed,  Hieronymus  Stroynowski,  My. 
Josephus  Mickiewicz,  Decanus,  Professorum  ordinis  scientia- 
rum  Physicarum  et  Malhemat.  Canonicus  Cathedralis  Samogi- 
tiensis,  Mpp.  ;  Simon  Malewski,  Juris  Nat.  et  Gen.  Prof.  Con- 
siliarius  Aul.  Seer.  Imper.  Univers.  Vil. 

1806.  Stockholm.  March  31. — Diploma  of  Foreign  Associ- 
ate of  the  Royal  College  of  Physicians  at  Stockholm.  Signed, 
Elias  Salomons,  D.  Rung,  Job.  L,  Odelius,  Andreas  Sparr- 
man.  Job.  Hardtman,  C.  Von  Schulzenheim,  L.  Hedin,  W. 
fiz.  Hadstrom,  J'oran  Rooth,  N.  Almroth,  Fredric  Krey, 
Loco  Secretarii,  Conrad  Eckerborn, 

Edinburgh.  May  20. — Diploma  of  Honorary  Fellow  of 
the  Royal  College  of  Physicians,  Edinburgh. 

1807.  Valencia.  March  5. — Diploma  of  Honorary  Asso- 
ciate of  the  Royal  Economical  Society  of  Valencia.  Signed, 
Juan  Sanchez  Cisneros,  SSrio.  pptuo. 

Liverpool.  April  1. — Freedom  of  the  Borough  of  Liverpool. 
Thomas  Molyneux,  Esq.  Mayor. 

Stockholm.  April  23. — Diploma  of  Foreign  Associate  of  the 
Royal  Academy  of  Sciences  at  Stockholm. 


Fort  George,  Upper  Canada.  November  8, — Address  of 
the  Five  Indian  Nations,  with  a  Wampum  Belt.  See  Chapter 
IV.  p.  104  of  this  Volume! 

1808.  Munich.  M«rcA  28.— Diploma  of  Fellow  of  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Sciences  at  Munich.  Signed,  Jacohi,  President ; 
Schlichtegroll,  Gen.  Seer.  Moll. .  .  . 

Portsmouth,  America.  May  25. — Diploma  from  the  Pre- 
sident and  Fellows  of  the  JVewhampshire  Medical  Society. 
Signed,  L.  Spalding,  Secretary. 

Paris.  June  20. — Diploma  of  Corresponding  Member  of  the 
National  Institute  of  France,  in  the  class  of  the  Physical  and 
Mathematical  Sciences.  Signed,  Le  Secretaire  perpetuel,  G. 

Glasgow.  September  1. — Freedom  of  the  City  of  Glasgow, 
from  the  Hon.  James  Mackenzie,  Lord  Provost;  James  Denis- 
town,  Nicol  Brown,  William  Glen,  John  Ballantyne,  and 
George  Lyon,  Esquires,  Baillies  ;  James  Black,  Esq.,  Dean 
of  Guild ;  William  Brand,  Esq.  Deacon  Convenor,  and  the 
other  Members  of  the  Common  Council.  Jas.  Reddie,  Town 

1809.  KiRKALDY.  April  '21. — Freedom  of  the  Burgh  of 
Kirkaldy,  with  thanks  for  his  discovery,  from  Walter  Fergus, 
Esq.  Provost ;  Robert  Brown  and  James  Mackie,  Esquires, 
Baillies;  Michael  Beveridge,  Esq.  Dean  of  Guild;  and  David 
Morgan,  Esq.  Treasurer,  and  the  Common  Council  of  the  said 
Burgh;  Will.  Drysdale,  Clk. 

1810.  Manchester.  April  27. — Diploma  of  Honorary 
Member  of  the  Literary  and  Philosophical  Society  of  Man- 
chester. Signed,  by  the  Presidents,  Vice-Presidents,  and 
Secretaries;  Thomas  Henry,  Edward  Holme,  John  Dalton, 
William  Henry,  B.  Gibson,  William  Johns,  I.   A.  Ransome. 

1811.  Palais  de  Rambouillet.  May  13  and  19.— Diplo- 
ma of  Foreign  Associate  of  the  Imperial  Institute  of  France,  in 


the  Class  of  the  Physical  and  Mathematical  Sciences,  in  the 
room  of  M.  Maskelyne,  deceased,  and  with  approbation  of  His 
Majesty,  the  Emperor  and  King.  Le  Ministre  Secretaire 
d'Etat,  signe,  le  Conite  Daru.  Pour  ampliation  conforme, 
Le  Secretaire  perpetuel  pour  les  Sciences  mathematiques,  De- 

1813.  Oxford.  December  'd. — Diploma  of  Doctor  in  Medi- 
cine of  the  University  of  Oxford,  from  the  Chancellor,  Mas- 
ters, and  Scholars  of  that  University.  Seal  inclosed  in  a  gold 

1814.  Bordeaux.  July  1. — Diploma  of  the  Royal  Society 
of  Medicine  at  Bordeaiix.  Signed,  Lapeyret,  President ;  G. 
M.  Caillau.  D.  M.  Prof.  Royal  Secretaire  general. 

Brunn  in  Moravia.  October  20. — Address  of  the  Inhabi- 
tants of  Briinn.  Signed,  Medicinae  Doctor,  Rincolini,  Physi- 
cian Claviger,  first  Surgeon  and  Vacciner  of  Vaccine  Institute 
at  Briinn.* 

1815.  Erlangen.  January  20. — Address  of  Honorary  Asso- 
ciate of  the  Physico-Medical  Society  of  Erlangen.  Signed,  Dr. 
Chr.  Fr.  Harles,  Soc.  Director ;   Dr.  Adolph  Henke,  Secretar. 

1821.  London.  March  16. — Appointment  of  Dr.  Edward 
Jenner  to  be  Physician  Extraordinary  to  the  King  of  Great 

1822.  Berlin.  August  30. — Diploma  of  Foreign  Correspon- 
dent to  the  Medico-Chirurgical  Society  of  Berlin. 

This  Document  will  close  the  List ;  and  is  inserted  for  its  ex- 
pressive simplicity. 

SociETAS  Medico  Chirurgica  Berolinensis. 
Societas  Sociuni  Correspondentem  Celeberrimum  D.  Jenner 
uno  consensu  elegit. 

Berolini,  datum  die  30  Aug.  1822. 

D.  Hufeland,  Pnieses. 

*  See  Chapter  VI.  p.  214  of  this  Volume. 


The  originals  of  nearly  all  these  oflicial  documents  were 
found  in  the  possession  of  Dr.  Jenner  at  his  decease  ;  and  many 
other  direct  testimonials  in  favour  of  vaccination  and  its  disco- 
verer are  contained  in  Reports,  Addresses,  and  Resolutions  of 
thanks  from  Medical,  Civil,  and  Military  Authorities  ;  and  the 
Catalogue  might  be  greatly  enlarged  by  the  addition  of  com- 
mendatoi-y  letters  from  exalted,  noble,  and  scientific  personages, 
which  are  almost  innumerable.  Many  of  the  latter  have  been 
enumerated  in  Mr.  Pruen's  Comparative  Sketch. 

No.  II. 

In  this  place  it  was  my  intention  to  have  inserted  a  copy  of 
the  Madrid  Gazette,  which  was  issued  on  the  return  of  the  expe- 
dition under  Balmis,  x\s,  however,  a  pretty  full  analysis  of  that 
document  has  been  given  in  the  text,*  I  am  unwilling  to  swell  this 
volume  by  printing  it.  The  same  reason  induces  me  to  withhold 
Dr.  Sacco's  paper,  to  which  a  reference  has  been  made  at  p.  234. 
I  will  only  state  that  his  experiments  clearly  show  that  vaccina- 
tion duly  performed  does  not  lose  its  influence  by  time  ;  that 
persons  who  had  had  small-pox,  as  well  as  those  who  had  been 
vaccinated,  were  attacked  by  the  varioloid  disease.  This  mo- 
dified disease,  when  propagated  by  inoculation,  at  first  produced 
a  mild  affection  akin  to  the  Variola3  Vaccinae.  A  second  inocu- 
lation often  produced  the  genuine  Variolar. 

In  these  statements  I  can  find  nothing  but  additional  confir- 
mation of  the  doctrines  contained  in  these  volumes  touching  the 
nature  and  influence  of  variolous  diseases.  1  take  tliis  oppor- 
tunity of  giving  another  illustration  of  the  same  truth.  I  have 
in  this  volume  mentioned  the  Variolous  Epizootic  in  Bengal,  and 
the  propagation  of  the  genuine  Variola?  Vaccina?  from  that  source. 
I  have  since  received  more  recent  intelligence  from  the  same 
quarter,  which  proves  that  more  extensive  inoculations  from  the 
diseased  cows  have  produced  not  the  mild  Vaccine  Vesicle,  but 

*  Seep.  78  el  seq.  vol.  ii. 


an  eruptive  disease  of  the  true  variolous  character.*  When 
the  black  cattle  in  England  were  affected  in  1780  with  a  destruc- 
tive variolous  complaint,  f  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  ino- 
culation from  this  disease  would  have  produced  similar  results. 
Dr.  Jenner  at  a  later  period  found  the  Variolae  among  the  cows 
of  a  more  mild  and  less  malignant  nature.  He  employed  this 
mild  virus,  and  with  what  success  all  the  world  knows. 

I  take  this  opportunity  of  expressing  my  regret  that  1  have 
employed  the  word  grease  in  alluding  to  the  disease  in  the 
horse.  Variola  Equina  is  the  proper  designation.  It  has  no 
necessary  connexion  with  the  grease,  though  the  disorders  fre- 
quently co-exist.|  This  circumstance  at  first  misled  Dr.  Jenner, 
and  it  has  caused  much  misapprehension  and  confusion. 

No.  III. 

List  of  Medals  struck  in  honour  of  Vaccination. 

1801.— Medal  presented  by  the  Medical  Officers  of  tlie  Navy. 
Obverse,  Apollo  introducing  a  young  seaman  recovered  from 
the  vaccine  inoculation  to  Britannia  ;  who  in  return  extends  a 
civic  crown,  on  which  is  inscribed  "  Jenner  ;"  above,  "  Alba 
nautis  Stella  refulsit ;  "  below,  1801.  On  the  reverse,  an  an- 
chor;  over  it,  "  Georgio  Tertiorege;  "  and  under  it,  "  Spencer 

1803. — The  Berlin  Medal.  Obverse,  A  child  pointing  with 
the  forefinger  of  the  right  hand  to  the  spot  where  vaccination 
is  generally  performed  on  the  left  arm.  In  the  left  hand  the 
child  holds  a  rose  ;  and  there  is,  besides,  a  garland  of  roses  and 

*  See  the  Quarterly  Journal  of  the  Calcutta  Medical  and  Physical  Society, 
No.  II.  April,  1837.  t  See  Vol.  i.  p.  214.  *  See  Vol.  i.  p.  242. 


a  cornucopia.  The  inscription  is  "  Edward  Jenner's  beneficial 
discovery  of  the  14th  of  May  1790."  The  Reverse  states  the 
object  of  the  Medal  in  words  to  this  effect:  "In  remembrance 
of  protection  afforded."  Presented  by  Dr.  Bremer.  Berlin, 

1804. — Gold  Medal  of  the  London  Medical  Society,  inscribed 
•'  E.  Jenner.  M.D.  Socio  suo  eximio  ob  Vaccinationem  explora- 

The  Napoleon  Medal.  One  of  the  most  beautiful  of  the 
series.  Obverse,  the  head  of  the  Emperor,  with  the  inscrip- 
tion. Napoleon  Empereur  et  Roi.  Reverse,  iEsculapius  pro- 
tecting Venus.  A  small  cow  on  one  side,  and  the  implements 
for  vaccination  faintly  appearing  on  the  other,  with  the  inscrip- 
tion "  La  Vaccine,  MDCCCIV." 

A  Medal  to  promote  and  commemorate  vaccination  in  the 
county  of  Sussex.  It  was  ordered  by  Mr.  Fuller,  but  I  have 
never  seen  it. 

1807. — A  Medal  struck  at  Bologna  bearing  this  inscription. 
"  Aloysio  Sacco  Mediol.  Med.  et  Chir.  Prof.  Jennerii  ajmu- 
lo  amici  Bononienses,  A.  I.  A.  B.  Ital.  Reip.  Cons." 

Another  struck  at  Brescia,  I  believe,  in  the  same  year,  in 
honour  of  the  same  cause. 

In  Prussia,  too,  a  medal,  worth  fifty  gold  ducats,  was  struck 
by  order  of  the  government,  to  be  conferred  on  those  who  dis- 
tinguished themselves  in  the  promotion  of  vaccination.  On  one 
side  is  a  head  of  the  King  with  the  inscription,  "  Fredericus 
Gulielmus  Rex,  Pater  Patriae."  On  the  reverse  is  a  cow  with 
the  Goddess  of  health,  and  the  motto,  "  In  te  suprema  salus." 
Round  the  edge,  "  Vaccinationis  praemium. 

1818. — It  was  likewise  intended  that  a  Medal  of  Jenner 
should  be  struck  at  Paris,  to  form  one  of  that  series  which 
commemorates  "  cles  hommes  illustres  de  tons  les  Pays." — I  find 
a  letter  announcing  this  fact,  dated  Nov.  16,  1818.  I  cannot 
say  whether  the  design  has  been  executed.     I  suspect  not. 


TO    THE 



Adams,  Dr.  368. 

Addington,  Mr.  3G1,  303. 

Affections,  cutaneous,  interfering  with  vaccination,  270. 

America,  progress  of  Vaccination  in  United  States  of,  1)4. 

Andersen,  Dr.  371. 

Anstey,  Christopher,  Esq.  his  Latin  Ode,  397. 

Anti-vaccinists,  their  exertions,  62. 

Arabians,  early  acquainted  with  Vaccination,  11. 

Armstrong,  Mr.  365. 

Army,  Vaccination  in  the,  241. 

Assize  at  Gloucester,  415. 

Association  in    Gloucestershire  to  promote   Vaccination,    150. 

Other  attempts  of  the  kind,  153,  154. 
Astronomy,  Lecturer  on,  at  Berkeley,  293. 
Auban,  Dr.  of  Constantinople,  his  account  of  the  knowledge  of 

Vaccination  among  the  Arabians,  11. 
Austria,  Emperor  of,  releases  captives  at  the  intreaty  of  Jeuner, 


increase  of  population  in,  257. 

Avelin,  Professor,  of  Berlin,  377. 


Baillie,  Dr.  his  character,  306. 

Balmis,  Dr.  Francis  Xavier,  his  expedition  to  carry  Vaccina- 
tion to  the  Spanish  Provinces  in  America,  78  et  seq.  455. 

Banks,  Sir  Joseph,  his  letter,  167. 

Bankes,  Mr.  329,  334. 

Barbosa,  spreads  Vaccination  in  the  Brazils,  10. 

Barker,  Mr.  British  Consul  at  Aleppo,  his  intelligence,  11. 

Baron,  Dr.  389,  415,  422,  430. 

Barrow  Hill  described,  199.  The  Club,  and  Extract  from  a 
poem  so  entitled,  202. 

Barton,  John,  Esq.  260,  note. 

Bedford,  Duke  of,  his  letter  to  Jenner,  60, 

John  Yecnd,  Esq.  290,  318. 

460  INDEX. 

Bengal,  cows  subject  to  Variolae,  228,  455. 
Benviston  de  Cliateauneuf,  M.  258. 
Berard,  M.  258. 
Berkeley,  Earl  of,  his  death,  147. 

Admiral,  334. 

• parish  of,  371 . 

tower  of  the  church  of,  296. 

town  of,  Jenner's  observation  on  it,  302, 

remarks  on  the  geology  of,  443. 

Berlin,  diploma  of  Medico- Chirurgical  Society  of,  presented  to 

Jenner,  454. 
Bernard,  Sir  Thomas,  130,  144. 
Biddulph,  Rev.  T.  T.  73. 
Birch,  359. 

Birds,  observations  on  the   migration  of,  277. 
Blair,  Mr.  108,  366. 
Blane,  Sir  Gilbert,  his  testimony  in  favour  of  Vaccination,  238. 

His  proposal  that  Jenner  should  be  buried  in  Westminster 

Abbey,  317. 
Blight,  the  white,  422. 

Bloomfield,  Robert,  the  Poet,  Jenner's  present  to  him,  39. 
Blucher,  General,  209. 

Board,  Vaccine,  their  interference  in  behalf  of  Jenner,  7. 
Bodleian  Library,  393. 
Bodoni,  printers,  379. 
Boisragon,  Dr.  218. 
Bonaparte,  392. 
Booker,  Rev.  Dr.  333. 
Boringdon,   Lord,  his   bill  respecting  Small-pox  inoculation, 

195,  387. 
Borlase,  Dr.  346. 
Bourne,  Sturges,  Mr.  69. 
Boutlatz,  Dr.  his  mission  to  spread  Vaccination  throughout  the 

Russian  Empire,  93. 
Brahmins  oppose  Vaccination,  12. 
Brazils,  success  of  Vaccination  in  the,  10. 
Breccia,  rocks  of  near  Thornbury,  416. 
Bremer,  Dr.  378. 
Bright,  Mr.  M.  P.,  320. 
British  Forum,  discussion  at.  111. 

Museum,  303,  387. 

Brodum,  Dr.  350. 

Bromfield,  Mr.  401. 

Brown,  Mr.  his  death,  324. 

Bryce,  Mr.  of  Edinburgh,  his  plan  to  prevent  Small-pox,  154. 

Brunn,  letter  and  monument  of  the  inhabitants  of,  213. 

Buckland,  Professor,  289. 

Burns,  the  Poet,  character  by  Gardner  of  his  life  by  Dr.  Cur- 

rie,  204,  note. 

INDEX.  461 

Calcraft,   Miss,  158. 
Cam,  Thomas,  his  musical  talent,  292. 
Cambridge,  Havardian  University  of,  in   Massachusetts,  confer 

a  degree  on  Jeuuer,  33. 
Canton,  Vaccination  there,  8.5. 
Casper,  Dr.  his  Essay  on  the  mortality  of  cliildren   in   Berlin, 

249, 256. 
Certificate  of  protection  from  Jenner,  116. 
Ceylon,  Vaccination  there,  15.     Report  from,  367- 
Chantry,  the,  described,  296,  422. 
Charlotte,  Queen,  211. 
Chelsea,  Royal  Military  Asylum,  Report  of  Vaccination  there, 

245,  note. 
Cheltenham,  the  residence  of  Jenner  in  1814,  212. 

Philosophical  and  Literary  Society,  218. 

■ —  Vaccinations  there,  53,  264 

Chinese  pamphlet  on  Vaccination,  356. 
Christie,  Mr.  367. 

Dr.  385,  392. 

Christophe,  Emperor  of  Hayti,  396. 

Circular  letter  of  Jenner,  on  the  influence  of  eruptive  diseases, 

Clarence,  Duke  of,  401. 

Claus,  William,  Esq.  his  speech  to  the  Five  Nations,  102, 
Claviger,  of  Briinn,  214. 

Cleaver,  Dr.  William,  Bishop  of  Chester,  274. 
Clinch,  Rev,  John.     See  Letters. 
Coley,  Dr.  188, 
Cooke,  Dr.  192. 
Coorg,  Rajah  of,  187. 
Corneiro,  his  pamphlet,  143. 
Cornwallis,  Lord,  325. 
Corvisart,  Baron,  38,  117-     His  request  in  favour  of  a  prisoner 

of  war,  367, 
Corunna,  battle  of,  361,  note. 
Cother,  Mr.  of  Cheltenham,  44. 
Courtney,  Mr,  332. 
Crawford,  Dr.  333, 
Creaser,  Thomas,  Esq,  318,  365. 
Cullum's  baths  at  Lisbon,  179.  ,      t^      t> 

Cup,  curious  antique,  presented  to  Jenner  by  Dr.  Reyss,  96. 


Dallas,  Sir  George,  356. 
Davies,  Rev.  William,  416. 
Davies,  Rev.  Edward,  318. 
Davies,  Edward,  Esq.  307,  384, 
Robert,  Esq,  318, 

462  INDEX. 

Davy,  Sir  Humphrev,  bis  account  of  Jenner,  287,  note,  384, 

Dean,  Forest  of,  201. 

De  Carro,  Dr.  his  intelligence  respecting  the  progress  of  Vac- 
cination, 10,  377. 

Dessalines,  114. 

Dialect  of  Gloucestershire,  304. 

Diplomas,  list  of,  presented  to  Jenner,  449. 

Dogs,  paper  on  distemper  in,  148. 

Drayton,  Mr.  S.  B.  bis  verses  on  Worgan,  76.  Portrait  of 
Jenner,  77,  note. 

Dublin  Corporation,  vote  freedom  of  the  city  to  Jenner,  33. 

Duncan,  Dr.  Andrew,  eulogy  on,  34. 

Dunning,  Mr.  bis  tract,  19.  Canon  respecting  two  pustules, 
22.     See  also  Letters. 

Duntisbourne,  the  seat  of  Dr.  Baillie,  described,  300. 

Dupin,  Mr.  257. 


East  Indies,  Vaccination  there,  .345. 

Edinburgh  Royal  College  of  Physicians  elect  Jenner  honorary 
Fellow,  95. 

. freedom  of  the  city  voted  to  Jenner,  34. 

Small-pox  fatal  there  in  1818,  232. 

review  on  Vaccination,  138,  note. 

Edmonds,  Mr.  his  table  of  mortality,  251. 

Egremont,  Lord,  55,  383. 

Ellenborough,  Lord,  his  opinion  of  Vaccination,  190. 

Ellis,  Mr.  Joyner,  a  friend  of  Jenner,  312. 

Embling,  Mr.  342,  344. 

Ernest,  Prince,  401. 

Eruptions,  artificial,  270. 

Evans,  Dr.  29. 

Expedition,  Spanish,  progress  of,  81  et  stq. 


Farquhar,  Sir  Walter,  150. 

Ferryman,  Rev.  Mr.  297,  318. 

Finsbury  Dispensary,  103. 

Five  Nations,  Vaccination  introduced  among  them,  101.  Their 

speech,  103. 
Fosbroke,  Rev.  T.  D.  his  Ode  to  Hygeia,  174. 

Dr.  John,  277,  note,  318. 

Fox,  Charles  James,  anecdote  of,  305,  328. 

Fowler,  Dr.  of  Salisbury,  108. 

France,   National   Institute  of,  elect  Jenner  a  Corresponding 

Member,  107.     And  Foreign  Associate,  100. 

Isle  of,  vaccination  introduced  there,  11. 

Franck,  Professor,  at  Wilna,  10,  52,  53, 
Free-martin,  409. 
French,  Dr.  231. 

INDEX.  463 

Friese,  Dr.  of  Breslau,  letter  to  Mr.  Ring,  50. 

Fuller,  John,  Esq.  M.P.  his   Bill  to  prevent  the  spreading  of 

Small-pox,  153. 
Fulneck,  near  Leeds,  73. 


Gardner,  Mr.  Edward,  202,  331,  387. 

Garland,  Mr.  liberated  by  Bonaparte,  115,  117. 

Garrow,  Mr.  his  advice  upon  libel,  181. 

Gemini,  Dr.  of  Constantinople,  11. 

Gold,  Mr.  liberated  by  Bonaparte,  115,  117. 

Gooch,  Captain,  370. 

Goldson,  Mr.  his  opposition  to  Vaccination,  IG,  338,  34C,  348. 

Gosling,  Mr.  365. 

Goss,  Mr.  357. 

Greendale  Oak,  allusion  to  the,  297. 

Grey,  the  Hon.  Mr.  328. 

Grosvenor,  the  Hon.  Robert,  his  case,  150,  207. 

Guise,  Sir  B.  W.,  M.P.  his  motion  for  a  monument  to  .Tenner, 

320  et  seq. 
Gwinett,  Mrs.  had  the  small-pox  five  times,  205. 


Halford,  Sir  Henry,  156. 

Halifax,  Rev.  Robert,  203,  227,  289,  318. 

Hands,  John,  Esq.  318. 

Hawkins,  Dr.  260,  note. 

Haygarth,  Dr.  168,  251. 

Hayley,  Mr.  74. 

Heberden,  Dr.  328. 

Hennen,  Dr.  his  opinion  of  the  preventive  power  of  vaccination, 

Herpes,  deranges  the  action  of  the  vaccine  pustule,  344. 
Hervey,  Dr.  385,  393,  404. 
Hicks,  Henry,  Esq.  141,  203,  318. 

John  Phillimore,  Esq.  307,  note. 

Thomas,  Esq.  318. 

Hill,   Rev.  Rowland,  the  friend   of  Vaccination,  95.     And  a 

vaccinator,  99,  note. 

Mr.  Richard,  426. 

Hindoos,  their  jealousy  of  vaccination,  229. 

ladies,  their  gratitude,  356. 

Hobday,  Mr.  his  picture  of  Jenner,  307,  note. 

Hoffman,  Dr.  physician  to  the  Elector  of  Mayence,  his  opinion 

of  vaccination,  216. 
Holland,  Lord,  325. 
Holloway,  Thomas,  Esq.  engraver  of  cartoons  of  Raphael,  76, 

Home,  Sir  Everard,  364. 
Hookah  presented  by  Duke  of  Sussex  to  .Jenner,  143. 

464  INDEX. 

Hope,  Dr.  335,  337. 

Horse  liable  to  variolous  disease,  22.5,  456.     Progress  of  equin 

virus  traced,  226. 
Hospital,  Siuall-pox,  163. 
Hunter,  Mr.  409. 
Hussey,  Dr.  385. 

Husson,  Captain,  his  case,  164,  375. 
Hydatids,  407. 
Hydrophobia,  dipping  for,  412. 


Indians,  Spanish  American,  their  reception  of  Vaccination,  81. 

Five  Nations,  ditto,  101  et  seq. 

Inoculation,  Small-pox,  bill  for  its  regulation,  194. 


Jacobi,  Baron,  115. 

Java,  island  of,  187. 

Jefferson,  Mr.  94. 

Jenkins,  Miss  Eliza,  of  Stone,  co.  Gloucester,  170. 

Jenner,  Dr.  settles  in  London,  3.    But  returns  into  the  country, 
4.      His   reply   to    timid   projectors,   13  et  seq.      Publishes 
Tract  on  the  varieties  and  modifications  of  the  vaccine  pus- 
tule, 21.     Degrees    and  honours  conferred  upon  him,  33  et 
seq.    Interferes  in  behalf  of  prisoners  of  war,  37.    His  present 
to  Robert  Bloomfield,  39.     Inoculates  his  son  Robert  with 
small-pox  virus,  and  why,  45.      His  vaccination,  53.     Re- 
newed application  to  parliament  in  his  behalf,  55  et  seq.  and 
£20,000  voted  to  him,  68.     Interview  with  the  minister,  and 
disappointment,  69,  70.      Domestic  pursuits,  71  et  seq.     Pa- 
tronises young  Worgan,  72.      Elected   honorary  fellow  of 
Royal  College  of  Physicians  of  Edinburgh,  95.     And  cor- 
responding Member  of  National  Institute  of  France,   107. 
Influence  of  his  name,  and  certificates  of  protection  current 
through  the  world,  115.     His  children  attacked  by  typhus, 
118.     Appointed   Director  of  National  Vaccine  Establish- 
ment, and  his  memorial  on  that  subject,  120.     Introduction 
of  the  author  to  him,  personal  appearance  and  manners  de- 
scribed, 136.    Death  of  his  son  Edward,  and  effect  produced 
upon  him,   141,  144.     Resident  at  Cheltenham,  147.     His 
illness  in  1811,  155.     Gives  evidence  on  the  Berkeley  Peer- 
age question,  162.    Degree  of  M.  D.  conferred  on  him  by  the 
University  of  Oxford  in   1813,  189.     His  rural  life,  habits, 
and  pursuits,  199.     Visits  London  for  the  last  time  in  1814, 
205.     Interview  with  the  Emperor  of  Russia  and  other  dis- 
tinguished personages,  206.      Effect  of  the  death  of  Mrs. 
Jenner,  220.      His  evidence  at   Gloucester  in  the  case  of 
Berkeley  poachers,  221.     Kindness  to  the  author,  222.     Ill- 
ness in  1816,  223.     Vaccinations  in  Cheltenham,  264.     In- 
structions respecting  do.,  271.     Circular  letter  in  1821,  272. 

INDEX.  465 

His  last  publication  in  18-22,  270.  Atteiuls  the  funeral  of 
Dr.  Parry,  277.  Paper  on  the  migration  of  birds,  ib. 
Domestic  habits,  personal  appearance,  and  character,  280  et 
seq.  Marriage  of  his  only  daughter,  289.  Her  death,  290. 
First  attacked  with  apoplexy  in  1820,  308.  Final  opinion  of 
vaccination,  311.  Last  attack  and  death  in  1823,  314.  Re- 
flections on  his  character,  314  et  seq.  Funeral,  318.  Pro- 
posals for  a  monument  to  his  memory,  319  ct  seq. 

Jenner,  Mrs.  her  health  declines,  5,  103,  200.  Attendant  on  her 
dying  son,  140.  Her  last  illness  and  death,  220.  Traits  in 
her  character,  281. 

Miss,  her  marriage,  289.     Death,  290. 

Rev.  George,  289,  305,  318,  374,  370. 

Henry,  Esq.  vaccinated,  270,  314,  318,  354,  420. 

Stephen,  313,  422. 

Jones,  John  Gale,  his  message  to  Jenner,  307. 
Josephine,  Empress,  38. 


Kahlert,  Dr,  of  Prague,  his  work  on  Variolar  Equina^,  232. 

Kelson,  Mr.  331. 

Kidd,  Dr.  190. 

Kite,  Mr.  342,  348. 

King,  Lord,  330. 

Kingscote,  Col.  318. 

Col.  N.  318. 

T.  Esq.  318. 

Knight,  Mr.  302. 
Knowles,  Dr.  108. 


Lamb,  Dr.  400. 

Langharne,  Mr.  424. 

Lansdowne,  Marquess  of,  his  letter  on  the  Spanish  Expedition, 

La  Place,  his  opinion  of  the  VarioL'e,  201,  note. 

Lausanne,  curious  account  from  a  chronicle  in  the  library  of, 
42,  note, 

Lawrence,  his  portrait  of  Jenner,  305. 

Leaper,  Joseph,  389. 

Lefevre,  Shaw,  Esq.,  an  Anti-vaccinist  in  the  House  of  Com- 
mons, 07. 

Letters,  and  Extracts  of,  from  Dr.  Jenner  to  various  cor- 
respondents, viz.  Dr.  Baron,  47,  54,  145,  101,  200,  221,  224, 
227,  290,  430.  Lord  Berkeley,  13  et  seq.  Sir  Thomas 
Bernard,  144.  Sir  Gilbert  Blane,  208.  Robert  liloomfield, 
39  Miss  Calcraft,  158.  Dr.  Coley,  188.  Dr.  Cooke,  192. 
Rev.  John  Clinch,  324,  350.  Rev.  William  Davies,  410. 
Master  William  Davies,  433.  R.  Dunning,  Esq.  22  et  seq. 
320  to  350  inclusive,  351  to  359  inclusive.  Dr.  Evans,  29 
VOL.  II.  2  H 

466  INDEX. 

Dr.  Fleming,  88.  Mr.  Edward  Gardner,  414,  432.  Henry 
Hicks,  Esq.  32.5  to  329  inclusive.  Miss  E.  Kingscote, 
430,  431.  Dr.  Lettsom,  69.  James  Moore,  Esq.  361  to  400 
inclusive.  Napoleon,  37.  Thomas  Paytherus,  Esq.  359. 
John  Ring,  141.  Dr.  Wortbington,  405  to  410  inclusive, 
413,  417,  418.  Misses  Wortbington,  428.  Anonymous  cor- 
respondents, 53,  75,  164,  264. 

Letters,  and  extracts  of,  to  Dr.  Jenner  from  various  correspond- 
ents, viz. ;  Sir  Josepb  Banks,  167.  Sir  Jobn  Barrow,  85. 
Duke  of  Bedford,  60,  86.  Admiral  Berkeley,  178.  Sir 
Tbomas  Bernard,  130.  Inbabitants  of  Briinn,  213.  Do.  of 
Calcutta,  87.  S.  T.  Coleridge,  tbe  poet,  175.  Baron  Cor- 
visart,  117.  Sir  Alexander  Cbricbton,  183.  Dr.  Franck. 
53.  Mr,  Edward  Gardner,  203.  Lieut. -Col.  Gore,  105, 
Mr.  Jefferson,  94.  Marquess  of  Lansdowne,  77.  Dr.  Lett- 
som, 31.  Dr.  Parry,  146.  Signor  Gioacbino  Ponta,  169. 
Rev.  T.  T.  A.  Reid,  274.  Dr.  Reyss,  96.  Dr.  Scott,  90. 
Lord  Somerville,  413.  Benj.  Travers,  esq.  6.  Dr.  Va- 
lentin, 132. 

Lines  to  tbe  memory  of  Worgan,  by  J.  B.  Drayton,  76,  note. 

from  tbe  Poem  of  Ponta,  172,  173. 

from  do.  of  Py,  174. 

from  do.  of  Rev.  T.  D.  Fosbroke,  175. 

from  do.  of  Gardner,  202,  203. 

on  an  Old  Man  Mowing,  434. 

Dialogue  between  Minx  and  Tartar,  435. 

Berkeley  Fair,  extracts  from,  436,  437. 

from  ber  Dormouse  to  Catberine  Jenner,  438. 

to  a  Tom  Tit,  440. 

Enigma,  441. 

Linnaeus,  pious  expression  of,  316. 

Lisle,  Mr.  332. 

Liver  disease  in  animals,  380. 

Lobenwein,  professor  of  anatomy  at  Wilna,  52. 

Love  to  God,  448. 


Macao,  vaccination  at,  82. 

M'llwain,  Mr.  108. 

M'Kenzie,  Dr.  359. 

Mackintosh,  Sir  James,  261,  note. 

M'Pberson,  bis  account  of  variola?  among  tbe  Cows  in  Bengal, 

227  et  seq. 
Madeira,  report  from,  368. 
Madrid  Gazette,  77- 
Magazine,  European,  329. 
Magistrates  meeting,  ludicrous  scene  at,  303. 
Manilla,  account  of  vaccination  from,  356. 
Manning,  bust  of  Jenner  by  him,  97. 
Marcet,  Dr.  377. 

INDEX.  467 

Maskelyne,  Dr.  166. 
Maton,  Dr.  136. 

Matthews,  Dr.  Member  of  ParliamentforHereford,  his  speech,  58. 

Mayalla,  Dr.  a  convert  to  vaccination,  51. 

Medal,  Napoleon,  to  commemorate  vaccination,  35. 

others  struck  at  Brescia  and  Bologna,  113. 

Medals  struck  in  honour  of  Vaccination,  456. 

Medical  men,  hardships  of,  301. 

Observer,  a  publication  so  called,  368. 

Medico  Chirurgical  Society,  Transactions  of,  148. 

Melon,  Mr.  226,  388. 

Millman,  Sir  Francis,  182,  376. 

Milne,  Dr.  371. 

Milton,  137,  note. 

Miranda,  General,  114. 

Missionaries,  French,  carry  vaccine  virus  to  Pekin,  84. 

Moore,  James,  Esq.  Author  of  the  History  of  Small-pox,  119, 
125,  126,  182,  349,  369,  383,  394. 

Morhall,  Mr.  218. 

Morpeth, Lord,  56 

Morris,  Edward,  Esq.  moves  in  the  Commons  for  a  double  re- 
muneration to  Jenner,  67. 

Mortality,  English,  German,  and  French,  tables  of,  247,  248. 
London  bills  of  for  1837,  255. 

Moseley,  Dr.  his  pamphlet,  349,  352,  354,  359. 

Mothers,  British,  their  plan  for  a  tribute  of  gratitude,  210. 

Moyle,  Mr.  344,  346. 

Murat,  King  of  the  Two  Sicilies,  169. 

Murray,  Charles,  384,  386,  389. 


Napoleon,  Emperor,  his  expression  respecting  Jenner,  38.  Re- 
leases captives  at  his  intreaty,  115,  117.  Encourages  vaccina- 
tion, 132.     His  abdication,  205. 

National  Vaccine  Establishment,  their  Report  in  1811,  157. 
Fruits  of  their  well-timed  efforts,  163,  398. 

Nelmes,  Sarah,  303. 

Norris, ,  403. 

Northcote,  his  portrait  of  Jenner,  365. 

Note-books  of  Jenner,  311. 

Nottingham,  report  from,  367. 


Oldenburg,  Duchess  of,  206. 

Ophthalmia,  cure  of,  405. 

Orloff,  Count,  209. 

Oxford  University  confers  degree  of  M.D.  upon  Jenner,  189. 


Paris,  plaster  of,  cast  of  cicatrix,  349, 

468  INDEX. 

Parr,  Dr.  32. 

Parry,  Dr.  of  Batli,  146,  218.  His  illness,  223.  And  funeral,  277. 

Dr.  Charles,  318. 

Miss  Augusta  Bertie,  inscription  by  Jenner  inlier  Bible,295. 

Pastor,  Francis,  carries  vaccination  to  the  province  of  Tobasca,  79. 

Paytherus,  Thomas,  Esq.  373,  374. 

Pearson,  Mr.  his  treatise  on  vaccination  translated  into  Chinese, 

83,  359. 
Dr.  silenced  by  Dr.  Lettsom,  32. 

Peel,  Mr.  Secretary,  321. 

Pegge,  Sir  Christopher,  190. 

Pennington,  Sir  Isaac,  opposes  vaccination,  43. 

Pepys,  Sir  Lucas,  118,  121. 

Perceval,  the  Right  Hon.  Spencer,  (30. 

Persian  Ambassador,  371. 

Peru,  fate  of  the  expedition  to  vaccinate,  80, 

Petion,  Emperor  of  Hayti,  39G. 

Petty,  Lord  Henry,  his  interview  with  Jenner,  50.  Speecli  in 
the  House  of  Commons,  57,  68. 

Philippine  Isles,  account  from,  356. 

Phipps,  first  vaccinated  patient,  304. 

Physicians,  Royal  College  of,  in  London,  recommend  vaccina- 
tion, 66.  Collect  information  respecting  it,  80.  Their  treat- 
ment of  Jenner,  191.    Their  report,  357,  359. 

Physicians,  Royal  College  of,  in  Edinburgh,  95,  320. 

Placards,  on  the  walls  of  London,  111. 

Plague,  supposed  to  be  controlled  by  vaccination,  12. 

Platofl;  the  Hetman,  209. 

Plumptre,  Rev.  James,  advocates  vaccination  in  a  sermon  dedi- 
cated to  Jenner,  40.     His  exertions,  47. 

Mrs.  Anne,  42,  note. 

Poachers,  affray  between  a  gang  and  the  gamekeepers  of  Lord 
Segrave,  22l'.    Their  trial  at  Gloucester,  222. 

Ponta,  Gioachino,  his  poem  on  the  Triumph  of  Vaccination 
analysed,  169,  171. 

Population,  increase  of  in  several  countries  of  Europe,  257. 

Potatoes,  method  of  cooking,  410. 

Powell,  his  case,  113. 

Prayer  of  Jenner,  295. 

Price,  Sir  Uvedale,  298. 

Prichard,  Dr.  of  Bristol,  234,  note. 

Primrose,  night-blowing,  444. 

Prince  of  Wales'  Island,  vaccination  at,  345. 

Py,  his  poem  on  vaccination,  173. 

Pruen,  Rev.  Thomas,  318. 

Prussia,  inoculation  in,  378. 

Kino-  of,  his  interview  with  Jenner,  209. 


Raffles,  Sir  Stamford,  187.      Visits  Jenner  at  Berkeley,  189. 

INDEX.  460 

Ramsden,  Dr.  note  in  his  sermon,  43. 

liedesdale,  Lord,  196. 

Reed,  Rev.  T.  A  274,  385 

Report  of  Parliamentary  Committee  on  Vaccination,   remarks 

upon,  133. 
Reyss,  Dr.  96. 
Rickman,Mr.  259. 
Rigby,  Mr.  384. 

Rigodit,  euseigne  de  vaisseau,  367,  369. 
Rincolini,  Dr.  of  Briinn,  214. 

Ring,  Mr.  108,  123,  141,  361,  377,  378,  383,  394,  395,  397. 
Ringwood,  in  Hampshire,  transactions  at,  108,  et  seq. 
Roberton,  Mr.  his  work  on  children,  247,  249. 
Roberts,  petition  in  his  favour,  418. 
Rome,  King  of,  vaccinated,  166, 
Rose,  Hon.  George,  108,  117,  121,  360,  376. 
Rowley,  Dr.  William,  his  appeal,  63,  352. 
Russia,  Report  from,  382. 

Emperor  and  Empress  Dowager  of,  promote  vaccina- 
tion, 52.     And  establish  it,  92. 

Emperor  of,  his  ukase  on  Vaccination,  184. 

his  interview  with  Jenner,  207. 


Sacco,  Dr.  his  vaccinations,  99,  112,  337.  His  view  of  the 
protection  afforded  by  the  genuine  vaccine,  234,  note,  379. 

Salvani,  Don  Francis,  sub-conductor  of  the  Spanish  expedition, 

Saunders,  Dr.  361. 

Sawahs,  Jennerian,  lands  set  apart  for  supporting  vaccination  in 
Java,  187. 

Saye,  print  by,  335. 

Sciatica,  cure  of,  399. 

Scindia,  Dowrat  Row,  orders  his  child  to  be  vaccinated,  12. 

Scott,  Dr.  of  Bombay,  his  communications  respecting  the  pro- 
gress of  vaccination,  10. 

Scriptures,  veneration  of  Jenner  for  the,  295,  446. 

Segrave,  Lord,  his  application  to  Queen  Charlotte,  211.  His 
resolute  and  judicious  conduct,  222,  318. 

Severn,  river,  scenery  of  it  described,  200. 

Sharpe,  the  engraver,  308,  note. 

Shoolbred,  John,  350. 

Shrapnell,  Henry,  227,  308,  314,  318. 

Sidmouth,  Lord,  399. 

Sims,  Dr.  31. 

Skelton,  Mr.  148. 

,  the  engraver,  308,  note, 

Skipton,  Mr.  231. 

Small-pox,  association  to  prevent,  150  el  seq. 

4/0  INDEX. 

Small-pox,  epidemic  in  1818,  232. 

case  of  inoculated  and  natural  in  the  same  subject 

after  vaccination,  26,  note. 

paper  on  secondary,  149. 

Smith,  Anker,  engraver  of  a  profile  of  Jenner,  77. 

Mr.  William,  68. 

Society,  Royal  Jennerian,  5. 

Medical,  of  London,  vote  a  gold  medal  to  Jenner,  31. 

Soemmering,  Dr.  215. 

Somerville,  Lord,  409  et  seq. 

Sounds,  effects  of  certain,  423,  427. 

Spain,  King  of,  releases  prisoners  of  war  at  the  intercession  of 
Jenner,  115. 

Spallanzani,  University  of  Pavia  spared  from  plunder  out  of 
respect  to  him,  35. 

Spens,  Dr.  95. 

Squirrel,  352.  Real  author  of  a  publication  under  that  name, 

St.  Helena,  island  of,  first  receives  vaccination  from  the  expedi- 
tion under  Balmis,  79. 

St.  James's,  anecdote  of  Jenner  in  the  drawing  room  at,  291. 

Statue  of  Jenner  by  Sievier  in  Gloucester  cathedral,  320. 

Staunton,  Sir  George,  his  translation  of  a  Treatise  on  Vaccina- 
tion into  the  Chinese  language,  84. 

Strongbow,  ivy  plucked  from  his  tomb  at  Tintern  Abbey,  296. 

Sudeley  parish,  case  of  a  poor  family  there,  342. 

Surgeons,  College  of,  in  Edinburgh,  320, 

Sussex,  Duke  of,  142,  143. 

Sweden,  effects  of  vaccination  in,  253. 


Tench,  Colonel,  332. 

Thompson,  Dr.  234. 

Thouret,  Dr.  132. 

Travers,  Benjamin,  Esq.  letter  of,  6. 

Trotter,  Dr.  38. 

Trye,  Charles  Brandon,   Esq.   his  character,  151,  note, 

Tubercle  in  the  lungs,  407. 


Vaccine,  la  Decouverte  de  la,  a  poem,  173. 

Vaccinia,  II  Trionfo  della,  do.,  379. 

Vaccination,  its  progress  in  various  parts  of  the  world,  10  et  seq. 
50  et  seq.  Conveyed  to  Spanish  America,  78.  Patronised 
by  sovereign  powers,  98  et  seq.  Establishment  for  spreading 
it  throughout  the  British  dominions,  117  et  seq.  Reports  of 
it  from  the  Havannah,  Caraccas,  Spanish  America,  Milan, 
and  Vienna,  Russia  and  the  East  Indies,  182  et  seq.  187. 

INDEX.  471 

Vaccination,  reports  of  failure  in,  13  f^  seq. 

—  causes  of  failure  assigned  by  Jenner,233. 

summary  of  facts  relating  to,  242  et  seq. 

Jenner's  final  opinion  of  it,  311. 

■ questions  respecting  it,  372. 

curious  fact  relating  to  it,  403. 

•  medals  struck  in  its  honour,  456. 

Valentin,  Dr.  of  Nancy,  his  scheme  for  honouring  and  recom- 
pensing Jenner,  106. 


Wales,  Princess  of,  140. 

Walker,  John,  389. 

AVampum,  belt  and  string  of,  presented  by  the  Five  Nations,  to 
Jenner,  104. 

Washington,  General,  138,  note. 

Waterhouse,  Professor,  381. 

Watt,  Dr.  his  statement  respecting  the  mortality  of  children, 
248,  392. 

Westbury  Cliff,  a  favourite  haunt  of  Jenner,  201. 

Westcote,  Mr.  108. 

Westfaling,  Thomas  Brereton,  Esq.  412,  413. 

Whitbread,  Mr.  69. 

Wickham,  Dr.  released  by  Napoleon,  38. 

Wilberforce,  Mr.  his  suggestions  respecting  vaccination,  59. 
Letter,  395. 

Willan,  Dr.  his  book,  363,  370,  404. 

Williams,  Mr.  released  by  Napoleon,  38. 

Wilna,  University  of,  elect  Jenner  an  honorary  member,  10. 

Wincanton,  in  Somersetshire,  the  residence  of  French  pri- 
soners, 367. 

Windham,  Mr.  69. 

Windsor,  Mr.  396. 

Wingfield,  Mr.  362. 

Wood,  Dr.  352. 

Mr.  a  friend  of  Jenner,  206,  note. 

Woodville,  373. 

Woolcombe,  Mr.  336. 

Worgan,  John  Dawes,  account  of,  72  et  seq. 

Worthington,  Dr.  a  friend  of  Jenner,  309,  318.    See  Letters. 

Wrottesley,  Lady  Charlotte,  362. 


Yeates,  Dr.  86,  340. 
Yonge,  Mr.  332. 
York,  Duke  of,  95,  383. 


I.  An  INQUIRY  illustrating  the   Nature  of    Tuberculated 

Accretions  of  Serous  Membranes,  and  the  Origin  of 
Tubercles  and  Tumours  in  diflerent  Textures  of  the  Body, 
8vo.  with  Engravings. 

II.  ILLUSTRATIONS  of  the  Inquiry  respecting  Tuber- 
culous Diseases,  8vo.  with  coloured  Plates. 

III.  DELINEATIONS  of  the  Origin  and  Progress  of  va- 
rious Changes  of  Structure  which  occur  in  Man  and  some 
of  the  Inferior  Animals,  being  the  continuation  of  Works 
already  published  on  this  subject,  4to.  with  many  Plates. 

J.    B.    NICHOLS    AND    SON,    25,    PARLIAMENT-STREET. 


Baron,   John 


The  life  of  Edward  Jenner 




^  Medical